Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material. The term ''relief
'' is from the Latin verb ''relevo'', to raise. To create a sculpture in relief is to give the impression that the sculpted material has been raised above the background plane
. What is actually performed when a relief is cut in from a flat surface of stone (relief sculpture) or wood (relief carving
) is a lowering of the field, leaving the unsculpted parts seemingly raised. The technique involves considerable chiselling away of the background, which is a time-consuming exercise. On the other hand, a relief saves forming the rear of a subject, and is less fragile and more securely fixed than a sculpture in the round, especially one of a standing figure where the ankles are a potential weak point, especially in stone. In other materials such as metal, clay, plaster stucco
, ceramics or papier-mâché
the form can be just added to or raised up from the background, and monumental bronze
reliefs are made by casting
There are different degrees of relief depending on the degree of projection of the sculpted form from the field, for which the Italian and French terms are still sometimes used in English. The full range includes high relief (''alto-rilievo'', ''haut-relief''), where more than 50% of the depth is shown and there may be undercut areas, ''mid-relief'' (''mezzo-rilievo''), low relief (''basso-rilievo'', or French: ''bas-relief'' (), and shallow-relief or ''rilievo schiacciato'', where the plane is only very slightly lower than the sculpted elements. There is also sunk relief, which was mainly restricted to Ancient Egypt
(see below). However, the distinction between high relief and low relief is the clearest and most important, and these two are generally the only terms used to discuss most work.
The definition of these terms is somewhat variable, and many works combine areas in more than one of them, sometimes sliding between them in a single figure; accordingly some writers prefer to avoid all distinctions. The opposite of relief sculpture is counter-relief, intaglio
, or ''cavo-rilievo,'' where the form is cut into the field or background rather than rising from it; this is very rare in monumental sculpture
. Hyphens may or may not be used in all these terms, though they are rarely seen in "sunk relief" and are usual in "bas-relief" and "counter-relief". Works in the technique are described as "in relief", and, especially in monumental sculpture
, the work itself is "a relief".
Reliefs are common throughout the world on the walls of buildings and a variety of smaller settings, and a sequence of several panels or sections of relief may represent an extended narrative. Relief is more suitable for depicting complicated subjects with many figures and very active poses, such as battles, than free-standing "sculpture in the round". Most ancient architectural reliefs were originally painted, which helped to define forms in low relief. The subject of reliefs is for convenient reference assumed in this article to be usually figures, but sculpture in relief often depicts decorative geometrical or foliage patterns, as in the arabesques
of Islamic art
, and may be of any subject.
s are those carved into solid rock in the open air (if inside caves, whether natural or man-made, they are more likely to be called "rock-cut"). This type is found in many cultures, in particular those of the Ancient Near East
and Buddhist countries. A stele
is a single standing stone; many of these carry reliefs.
The distinction between high and low relief is somewhat subjective, and the two are very often combined in a single work. In particular, most later "high reliefs" contain sections in low relief, usually in the background. From the Parthenon Frieze
onwards, many single figures in large monumental sculpture
have heads in high relief, but their lower legs are in low relief. The slightly projecting figures created in this way work well in reliefs that are seen from below, and reflect that the heads of figures are usually of more interest to both artist and viewer than the legs or feet. As unfinished examples from various periods show, raised reliefs, whether high or low, were normally "blocked out" by marking the outline of the figure and reducing the background areas to the new background level, work no doubt performed by apprentices (see gallery).
Low relief or bas-relief
A low relief is a projecting image with a shallow overall depth, for example used on coins, on which all images are in low relief. In the lowest reliefs the relative depth of the elements shown is completely distorted, and if seen from the side the image makes no sense, but from the front the small variations in depth register as a three-dimensional image. Other versions distort depth much less. The term comes from the Italian
basso rilievo via the French bas-relief (), both meaning "low relief". The former is now a very old-fashioned term in English, and the latter is becoming so.
It is a technique which requires less work, and is therefore cheaper to produce, as less of the background needs to be removed in a carving, or less modelling is required. In the art of Ancient Egypt
, Assyrian palace relief
s, and other ancient Near East
ern and Asian cultures, a consistent very low relief was commonly used for the whole composition. These images would usually be painted after carving, which helped define the forms; today the paint has worn off in the great majority of surviving examples, but minute, invisible remains of paint can usually be discovered through chemical means.
The Ishtar Gate
, now in Berlin, has low reliefs of large animals formed from moulded bricks, glazed in colour. Plaster, which made the technique far easier, was widely used in Egypt and the Near East
from antiquity into Islamic times (latterly for architectural decoration, as at the Alhambra
), Rome, and Europe from at least the Renaissance, as well as probably elsewhere. However, it needs very good conditions to survive long in unmaintained buildings – Roman decorative plasterwork is mainly known from Pompeii
and other sites buried by ash from Mount Vesuvius
. Low relief was relatively rare in Western medieval art
, but may be found, for example in wooden figures or scenes on the insides of the folding wings of multi-panel altarpiece
The revival of low relief, which was seen as a classical style, begins early in the Renaissance; the Tempio Malatestiano
, a pioneering classicist building, designed by Leon Battista Alberti
around 1450, uses low reliefs by Agostino di Duccio
inside and on the external walls. Since the Renaissance plaster has been very widely used for indoor ornamental
work such as cornice
s and ceilings, but in the 16th century it was used for large figures (many also using high relief) at the Chateau of Fontainebleau
, which were imitated more crudely elsewhere, for example in the Elizabethan Hardwick Hall
Shallow-relief, in Italian ''rilievo stiacciato'' or ''rilievo schicciato'' ("squashed relief"), is a very shallow relief, which merges into engraving in places, and can be hard to read in photographs. It is often used for the background areas of compositions with the main elements in low-relief, but its use over a whole (usually rather small) piece was perfected by the Italian Renaissance sculptor Donatello
In later Western art, until a 20th-century revival, low relief was used mostly for smaller works or combined with higher relief to convey a sense of distance, or to give depth to the composition, especially for scenes with many figures and a landscape or architectural background, in the same way that lighter colours are used for the same purpose in painting. Thus figures in the foreground are sculpted in high-relief, those in the background in low-relief. Low relief may use any medium or technique of sculpture, stone carving
and metal casting
being most common. Large architectural compositions all in low relief saw a revival in the 20th century, being popular on buildings in Art Deco
and related styles, which borrowed from the ancient low reliefs now available in museums. Some sculptors, including Eric Gill
, have adopted the "squashed" depth of low relief in works that are actually free-standing.
File:UnfinishedStele-NefertitiPouringWineIntoAkhenatensCup.png|"Blocked-out" unfinished low relief of Ahkenaten and Nefertiti; unfinished Greek and Persian high-reliefs show the same method of beginning a work.
File:Nowruz Zoroastrian.jpg|Persian low or bas-relief in Persepolis – a symbol of Zoroastrian Nowruz – at the spring equinox the power of the bull (personifying Earth) and lion (personifying the Sun) are equal.
File:Sculpted reliefs depicting Ashurbanipal, the last great Assyrian king, hunting lions, gypsum hall relief from the North Palace of Nineveh (Irak), c. 645-635 BC, British Museum (16722131531).jpg|Assyrian low relief, ''Lion Hunt of Ashurbanipal'', North Palace, Nineveh
File:Atropos.jpg|Atropos cutting the thread of life. Ancient Greek low relief
File:Donatello, madonna col bambino a un parapetto, davanti a un arco rotto, 1435 circa - National Gallery of Art, Washington - DSC08597.JPG|Donatello, Madonna and Child in ''rilievo stiacciato'' or shallow relief
File:Henri Lebrand 2.jpg|French 20th-century low relief
Mid-relief, "half-relief" or ''mezzo-rilievo'' is somewhat imprecisely defined, and the term is not often used in English, the works usually being described as low relief instead. The typical traditional definition is that only up to half of the subject projects, and no elements are undercut or fully disengaged from the background field. The depth of the elements shown is normally somewhat distorted.
Mid-relief is probably the most common type of relief found in the Hindu
and Buddhist art
and Southeast Asia
. The low to mid-reliefs of 2nd-century BCE to 6th-century CE Ajanta Caves
and 5th to 10th-century Ellora Caves
in India are rock reliefs. Most of these reliefs are used to narrate sacred scriptures, such as the 1,460 panels of the 9th-century Borobudur
temple in Central Java
, narrating the Jataka tales
or lives of the Buddha
. Other examples are low reliefs narrating the Ramayana
Hindu epic in Prambanan
temple, also in Java, in Cambodia
, the temples of Angkor
, with scenes including the Samudra manthan
or "Churning the Ocean of Milk" at the 12th-century Angkor Wat
, and reliefs of apsaras
. At Bayon
temple in Angkor Thom
there are scenes of daily life in the Khmer Empire
High relief (or ''altorilievo'', from Italian
) is where in general more than half the mass of the sculpted figure projects from the background. Indeed, the most prominent elements of the composition, especially heads and limbs, are often completely undercut, detaching them from the field. The parts of the subject that are seen are normally depicted at their full depth, unlike low relief where the elements seen are "squashed" flatter. High relief thus uses essentially the same style and techniques as free-standing sculpture, and in the case of a single figure gives largely the same view as a person standing directly in front of a free-standing statue would have. All cultures and periods in which large sculptures were created used this technique in monumental sculpture
Most of the many grand figure reliefs in Ancient Greek sculpture
used a very "high" version of high relief, with elements often fully free of the background, and parts of figures crossing over each other to indicate depth. The metopes of the Parthenon
have largely lost their fully rounded elements, except for heads, showing the advantages of relief in terms of durability. High relief has remained the dominant form for reliefs with figures in Western sculpture, also being common in Indian temple sculpture. Smaller Greek sculptures such as private tombs, and smaller decorative areas such as friezes on large buildings, more often used low relief.
and Roman sarcophagus
reliefs were cut with a drill rather than chisel
s, enabling and encouraging compositions extremely crowded with figures, like the Ludovisi Battle sarcophagus
(250–260 CE). These are also seen in the enormous strips of reliefs that wound around Roman triumphal column
s. The sarcophagi
in particular exerted a huge influence on later Western sculpture. The European Middle Ages tended to use high relief for all purposes in stone, though like Ancient Roman sculpture
, their reliefs were typically not as high as in Ancient Greece. Very high relief re-emerged in the Renaissance, and was especially used in wall-mounted funerary art
and later on Neoclassical pediment
s and public monuments.
In the Buddhist and Hindu art of India and Southeast Asia, high relief can also be found, although it is not as common as low to mid-reliefs. Famous examples of Indian high reliefs can be found at the Khajuraho
temples, with voluptuous, twisting figures that often illustrate the erotic Kamasutra
positions. In the 9th-century Prambanan
temple, Central Java
, high reliefs of Lokapala devata
s, the guardians of deities of the directions, are found.
Sunk or sunken relief is largely restricted to the art of Ancient Egypt
where it is very common, becoming after the Amarna period
the dominant type used, as opposed to low relief. It had been used earlier, but mainly for large reliefs on external walls, and for hieroglyph
s and cartouche
s. The image is made by cutting the relief sculpture itself into a flat surface. In a simpler form the images are usually mostly linear in nature, like hieroglyphs, but in most cases the figure itself is in low relief, but set within a sunken area shaped round the image, so that the relief never rises beyond the original flat surface. In some cases the figures and other elements are in a very low relief that does not rise to the original surface, but others are modeled more fully, with some areas rising to the original surface. This method minimizes the work removing the background, while allowing normal relief modelling.
The technique is most successful with strong sunlight to emphasise the outlines and forms by shadow, as no attempt was made to soften the edge of the sunk area, leaving a face at a right-angle to the surface all around it. Some reliefs, especially funerary monuments with heads or busts from ancient Rome and later Western art, leave a "frame" at the original level around the edge of the relief, or place a head in a hemispherical recess in the block (see Roman example in gallery). Though essentially very similar to Egyptian sunk relief, but with a background space at the lower level around the figure, the term would not normally be used of such works.
It is also used for carving letters (typically ''om mani padme hum
'') in the mani stone
s of Tibetan Buddhism
Sunk relief technique is not to be confused with "counter-relief" or intaglio as seen on engraved gem seals
—where an image is fully modeled in a "negative" manner. The image goes into the surface, so that when impressed on wax it gives an impression in normal relief. However many engraved gems were carved in cameo
or normal relief.
A few very late Hellenistic
monumental carvings in Egypt use full "negative" modelling as though on a gem seal, perhaps as sculptors trained in the Greek tradition attempted to use traditional Egyptian conventions.
[Barasch, Moshe, ''Visual Syncretism: A Case Study'', pp. 39–43 in Budick, Stanford & Iser, Wolfgang, eds., ''The Translatability of cultures: figurations of the space between'', Stanford University Press, 1996, ().]
Small-scale reliefs have been carved in various materials, notably ivory
, wood, and wax. Reliefs are often found in decorative arts
such as ceramics
; these are less often described as "reliefs" than as "in relief". Small bronze reliefs are often in the form of "plaques" or plaquette
s, which may be set in furniture or framed, or just kept as they are, a popular form for European collectors, especially in the Renaissance.
Various modelling techniques are used, such repoussé
("pushed-back") in metalwork, where a thin metal plate is shaped from behind using various metal or wood punches, producing a relief image. Casting
has also been widely used in bronze
and other metals. Casting and repoussé are often used in concert in to speed up production and add greater detail to the final relief. In stone, as well as engraved gems, larger hardstone carving
s in semi-precious stones have been highly prestigious since ancient times in many Eurasian cultures. Reliefs in wax
were produced at least from the Renaissance
reliefs have been used since ancient times, and because the material, though expensive, cannot usually be reused, they have a relatively high survival rate, and for example consular diptych
s represent a large proportion of the survivals of portable secular art from Late Antiquity
. In the Gothic period
the carving of ivory reliefs became a considerable luxury
industry in Paris
and other centres. As well as small diptych
s and triptych
s with densely packed religious scenes, usually from the New Testament
, secular objects, usually in a lower relief, were also produced.
These were often round mirror-cases, combs, handles, and other small items, but included a few larger caskets like the Casket with Scenes of Romances (Walters 71264)
, in the United States. Originally they were very often painted in bright colours. Reliefs can be impressed by stamps onto clay, or the clay pressed into a mould bearing the design, as was usual with the mass-produced of Ancient Roman pottery
. Decorative reliefs in plaster
may be much larger; this form of architectural decoration is found in many styles of interiors in the post-Renaissance West, and in Islamic architecture
File:Göbekli Tepe reliefs of animals.jpg|Low relief from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic archaeological site of Göbekli Tepe, believed to represent a bull, a fox, and a crane, c. 9,000 BC
File:Warka_vase_(background_retouched).jpg|The Warka Vase of Sumer, a very early survival works of narrative relief, c. 3200–3000 BC. Alabaster. National Museum of Iraq.
File:Luxor temple 15.jpg|Sunk relief as low relief within a sunk outline, from the Luxor Temple in Egypt, carved in very hard granite
File:Luxor Temple 9544.JPG|low relief within a sunk outline, linear sunk relief in the hieroglyphs, and high relief (right), from Luxor
File:Borobudur Relief Panel I.b119, 0972.jpg|Low to mid-relief, 9th century, Borobudur. The temple has 1,460 panels of reliefs narrating Buddhist scriptures.
File:Qajari relief.jpg|A Persian mid-relief (''mezzo-rilievo'') from the Qajar era, at Tangeh Savashi in Iran, which might also be described as two stages of low relief This is a rock relief carved into a cliff.
File:Rilievo funerario dei vibii, fine del I secolo ac..JPG|Roman funerary relief with frame at original level, but not sunk relief
File:Warren Cup BM GR 1999.4-26.1 n2.jpg|The Roman Warren Cup, silver repoussé work
File:Yaxchilan Lintel 24.jpg|Yaxchilan Lintel 24, a Mayan carving depicting a blood sacrifice
File:Naghsh-e rostam, Irán, 2016-09-24, DD 12.jpg|Rock relief at Naqsh-e Rustam; the Persian Sassanian emperor Shapur I (on horseback) with Roman emperors submitting to him
File:Abadia de Saint-Pierre de Moissac - Portalada Sud de Moissac.JPG|The 12th century Romanesque portal of ''Christ in Majesty'' at Moissac Abbey moves between low and high relief in a single figure.
File:Triptych Harbaville Louvre OA3247 recto.jpg|Harbaville Triptych, Byzantine ivory
File:Relief-side view.jpg|Side view of mid-relief: ''Madonna and Child'', marble of /1510 by an unknown north Italian sculptor
File:Fontainebleau escalier roi5.jpg|The elaborate stucco (plaster) reliefs decorating the Chateau de Fontainebleau were hugely influential. Low-relief decorative frieze above
File:Adorazione dei pastori - Francesco Grassia.jpg|Baroque marble high-relief by Francesco Grassia, 1670, Rome
File:St GaudensShaw Mem.jpg|Robert Gould Shaw Memorial, 1897, Boston, combining free-standing elements with high and low relief
File:Relief on building in Bishopsgate, London 2.JPG|A relatively modern high relief (depicting shipbuilding) in Bishopsgate, London. Note that some elements jut out of the frame of the image.
File:Bas relief at Ryerson University.jpg|Elizabeth Wyn Wood's Bas-relief at Ryerson University in Toronto
File:Unakoti group of bas-relief sculptures, Tripura, India.jpg|Colossal Hindu rock reliefs at Unakoti, Tripura, India
Notable examples of monumental reliefs include:
* Ancient Egypt: Most Egyptian temple
s, e.g. the Temple of Karnak
* Assyria: A famous collection is in the British Museum
, Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III
* Ancient Persia
, and rock-face reliefs at Naqsh-e Rustam
and Naqsh-e Rajab
* Ancient Greece: The Parthenon Marbles
, Bassae Frieze
, Great Altar of Pergamon
, Ludovisi Throne
: Ishtar Gate
* Ancient Rome: Ara Pacis
, Trajan's Column
, Column of Marcus Aurelius
, triumphal arch
es, Portonaccio sarcophagus
* Medieval Europe: Many cathedrals and other churches, such as Chartres Cathedral
and Bourges Cathedral
* India: Sanchi
, base of the Lion Capital of Asoka
, the rock-cut Elephanta Caves
and Ellora Caves
, Khajuraho temples
with the ''Descent of the Ganges
'', and many South Indian temples, Unakoti group of sculptures (bas-relief) at Kailashahar, Unakoti District, Tripura, India
* South-East Asia: Borobodur
, Angkor Wat
* Glyphs, Mayan stelae
and other reliefs of the Maya
* United States: Stone Mountain
, Robert Gould Shaw
Memorial, Boston, Mount Rushmore National Memorial
* UK: Base panels of Nelson's Column
, Frieze of Parnassus
* Ivory: Nimrud ivories
from much of the Near East, Late Antique Consular diptych
s, the Byzantine Harbaville Triptych
and Veroli Casket
, the Anglo-Saxon Franks Casket
, Cloisters Cross
* Silver: Warren Cup
, Gundestrup cauldron
, Mildenhall Treasure
, Berthouville Treasure
, Missorium of Theodosius I
, Lomellini Ewer and Basin
* Gold: Berlin Gold Hat
, Bimaran casket
, Panagyurishte Treasure
* Glass: Portland Vase
, Lycurgus Cup
* Rock relief
* Multidimensional art
– English exterior plaster reliefs
* Relief printing
– a different concept
* Repoussé and chasing
– a metalworking technique
* Avery, Charles, in Grove Art Online
, "Relief sculpture". Retrieved April 7, 2011.
* Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History"American Relief Sculpture"
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City
Category:Types of sculpture