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Barley (''Hordeum vulgare''), a member of the
grass family Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or affinity (by marriage or other relationship). ...
, is a major
cereal grain A cereal is any grass Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses. It includes the cereal grasses, bamboo Bamboos are a diverse group of evergreen perenn ...
grown in
temperate climate In geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its populati ...
s globally. It was one of the first cultivated grains, particularly in
Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as cont ...

Eurasia
as early as 10,000 years ago. Barley has been used as animal
fodder Fodder (), also called provender (), is any agricultural Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming ...

fodder
, as a source of fermentable material for
beer Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drink An alcoholic drink is a drink A drink (or beverage) is a liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continual ...

beer
and certain
distilled beverage Liquor or spirit (also hard liquor, or distilled alcohol) is an alcoholic drink An alcoholic drink is a drink A drink (or beverage) is a liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that ...
s, and as a component of various
health food A healthy diet is a Diet (nutrition), diet that maintains or improve overall health. A healthy diet provides the body with essential Human nutrition, nutrition: fluid, macronutrients, micronutrients, and adequate food energy. A healthy diet may ...
s. It is used in soups and stews, and in
barley bread Barley bread is a type of bread Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearl ...
of various cultures. Barley grains are commonly made into
malt Malt is germinated cereal grain that has been dried in a process known as "". The grain is made to by soaking in water and is then halted from germinating further by drying with hot air. Malting grain develops the s (α-amylase, β-amylase) ...
in a traditional and ancient method of preparation. In 2017, barley was ranked fourth among grains in quantity produced (149 million
tonne The tonne ( or ; symbol: t) is a metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilogram The kilogram (also kilogramme) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), the current metric system, having the unit symbol kg. I ...
s) behind
maize Maize ( ; ''Zea mays'' subsp. ''mays'', from es, maíz after tnq, mahiz), also known as corn (North American North America is a continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be ...

maize
,
rice Rice is the seed of the Poaceae, grass species ''Oryza sativa'' (Asian rice) or less commonly ''Oryza glaberrima'' (African rice). The name wild rice is usually used for species of the genera ''Zizania (genus), Zizania'' and ''Porteresia'', bo ...

rice
and
wheat Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus ''Triticum''; the most widely grown is common wheat Common wheat (''Triticum aestivum'' ...

wheat
.


Etymology

The
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
word for barley was ', which traces back to
Proto-Indo-European Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the theorized common ancestor of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( ...
and is cognate to the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
word ' "flour". The direct ancestor of modern English ''barley'' in Old English was the derived adjective ''bærlic'', meaning "of barley". The first citation of the form ''bærlic'' in the ''
Oxford English Dictionary The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal historical dictionary A historical dictionary or dictionary on historical principles is a dictionary which deals not only with the latterday meanings of words but also the historica ...
'' dates to around 966 CE, in the compound word ''bærlic-croft''. The underived word ''bære'' survives in the north of Scotland as '' bere'', and refers to a specific strain of six-row barley grown there. The word ''
barn in Lubbock, Texas, U.S., was used as a teaching facility until 1967. , Coggeshall, England, originally part of the Cistercian monastery of Coggeshall. Dendrochronologically dated from 1237–1269, it was restored in the 1980s by the Coggeshall ...

barn
'', which originally meant "barley-house", is also rooted in these words. The Latin word ', used as barley's scientific genus name, is derived from an Indo-European root meaning "bristly" after the long prickly awns of the ear of grain.


Biology

Barley is a member of the
grass family Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or affinity (by marriage or other relationship). ...
. It is a self-pollinating,
diploid Ploidy () is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell (biology), cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for Autosome, autosomal and Pseudoautosomal region, pseudoautosomal genes. Sets of chromosomes refer to the number of mate ...
species with 14
chromosome A chromosome is a long DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (; DNA) is a molecule File:Pentacene on Ni(111) STM.jpg, A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five carbon rings. A mole ...

chromosome
s. The wild ancestor of domesticated barley, ''Hordeum vulgare'' subsp. ''spontaneum'', is abundant in grasslands and woodlands throughout the
Fertile Crescent The Fertile Crescent is a crescent-shaped region in the Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental orga ...

Fertile Crescent
area of Western Asia and northeast Africa, and is abundant in , roadsides, and orchards. Outside this region, the wild barley is less common and is usually found in disturbed habitats. However, in a study of genome-wide diversity markers,
Tibet Tibet (; ; ) is a region in covering much of the spanning about . It is the traditional homeland of the as well as some other ethnic groups such as , , , and s and is now also inhabited by considerable numbers of and . Tibet is the ...

Tibet
was found to be an additional center of domestication of cultivated barley.


Domestication

Wild barley (''H. spontaneum'') is the ancestor of domestic barley (''H. vulgare''). Over the course of domestication, barley grain
morphology Morphology, from the Greek and meaning "study of shape", may refer to: Disciplines * Morphology (archaeology), study of the shapes or forms of artifacts * Morphology (astronomy), study of the shape of astronomical objects such as nebulae, galaxies ...

morphology
changed substantially, moving from an elongated shape to a more rounded spherical one. Additionally, wild barley has distinctive
gene In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mecha ...

gene
s,
allele An allele (, ; ; modern formation from Greek ἄλλος ''állos'', "other") is one of two, or more, forms of a given gene In biology, a gene (from ''genos'' "...Wilhelm Johannsen coined the word gene to describe the Mendelian_inheritance ...
s, and regulators with potential for resistance to or
biotic stressBiotic stress is stress that occurs as a result of damage done to an organism by other living organisms, such as bacteria Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are a type of Cell (biology), biological cell. They constitute a ...
es to cultivated barley and adaptation to climatic changes. Wild barley has a brittle
spike Spike, spikes, or spiking may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Books * The Spike (novel), ''The Spike'' (novel), a novel by Arnaud de Borchgrave * The Spike (book), ''The Spike'' (book), a nonfiction book by Damien Broderick * ''The Spike ...
; upon maturity, the
spikelet A spikelet, in botany, describes the typical arrangement of the flowers of Poaceae, grasses, Cyperaceae, sedges and some other Monocots. Each spikelet has one or more florets. The spikelets are further grouped into Raceme, panicles or spikes. The ...
s separate, facilitating
seed dispersal Seed dispersal is the movement, spread or transport of seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The ban ...
. Domesticated barley has nonshattering spikes, making it much easier to harvest the mature ears. The nonshattering condition is caused by a
mutation In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechan ...
in one of two tightly linked genes known as Bt1 and Bt2; many cultivars possess both mutations. The nonshattering condition is
recessive In genetics Genetics is a branch of biology concerned with the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in organisms.Hartl D, Jones E (2005) Though heredity had been observed for millennia, Gregor Mendel, Moravia, Moravian scientist ...
, so varieties of barley that exhibit this condition are
homozygous Zygosity (the noun, zygote A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός ''zygōtos'' "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν ''zygoun'' "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gamete A gamete ( /ˈ ...
for the mutant
allele An allele (, ; ; modern formation from Greek ἄλλος ''állos'', "other") is one of two, or more, forms of a given gene In biology, a gene (from ''genos'' "...Wilhelm Johannsen coined the word gene to describe the Mendelian_inheritance ...
. Domestication in barley is followed by the change of key at the genetic level. Little is known about the
genetic variation thumb File:Genetic Variation and Inheritance.svg, Parents have similar gene coding in this specific situation where they reproduce and variation in the offspring is seen. Offspring containing the variation also reproduce and passes down traits t ...

genetic variation
among domesticated and wild genes in the regions.


Two-row and six-row barley

Spikelets are arranged in triplets which alternate along the
rachis feather In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological me ...

rachis
. In wild barley (and other
Old World The Old World consists of Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous , after in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of 's total su ...
species of ''Hordeum''), only the central spikelet is fertile, while the other two are reduced. This condition is retained in certain cultivars known as two-row barleys. A pair of mutations (one dominant, the other recessive) result in fertile lateral spikelets to produce six-row barleys. Recent genetic studies have revealed that a mutation in one gene, ''vrs1'', is responsible for the transition from two-row to six-row barley. Two-row barley has a lower protein content than six-row barley, thus a more fermentable sugar content. High-
protein Proteins are large biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a No ...

protein
barley is best suited for animal feed. Malting barley is usually lower protein ("low grain nitrogen", usually produced without a late fertilizer application) which shows more uniform germination, needs shorter steeping, and has less protein in the extract that can make beer cloudy. Two-row barley is traditionally used in English
ale Ale is a type Type may refer to: Science and technology Computing * Typing, producing text via a keyboard, typewriter, etc. * Data type, collection of values used for computations. * File type * TYPE (DOS command), a command to display contents ...

ale
-style beers, with two-row malted summer barley being preferred for traditional
German beer Beer is a major part of German culture. German beer is brewed according to the '' Reinheitsgebot'', which permits only water, hops Hops are the flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproduction, reprodu ...
s. Amylase-rich six-row barley is common in some American
lager Lager is which has been brewed and at low temperature. Lagers can be , , or . Pale lager is the most widely consumed and commercially available style of beer. The term "lager" comes from the German for "storage", as the beer was stored before ...

lager
-style beers, especially when
adjuncts In brewing, adjuncts are unmalted grains (such as corn, rice, rye, oats, barley, and wheat) or grain products used in brewing beer which supplement the main mash ingredient (such as malt Malt is germinated cereal grain that has been dried ...
such as corn and rice are used.


Hulless barley

Hulless or "naked" barley (''Hordeum vulgare ''L. var.'' nudum'' Hook. f.) is a form of domesticated barley with an easier-to-remove
hull Hull may refer to: Structures * Chassis, of an armored fighting vehicle * Fuselage, of an aircraft * Hull (botany), the outer covering of seeds * Hull (watercraft), the body or frame of a ship * Submarine hull Mathematics * Affine hull, in affin ...
. Naked barley is an ancient food crop, but a new industry has developed around uses of selected hulless barley to increase the digestible energy of the grain, especially for swine and poultry. Hulless barley has been investigated for several potential new applications as whole grain, and for its value-added products. These include bran and flour for multiple food applications. File:Barley grains 4.jpg, Non-hulless barley grains File:Barley grains 3.jpg, Hulless barley grains


Classification

In traditional classifications of barley, these morphological differences have led to different forms of barley being classified as different species. Under these classifications, two-row barley with shattering spikes (wild barley) is classified as ''Hordeum spontaneum'' K. Koch. Two-row barley with nonshattering spikes is classified as ''H. distichum'' , six-row barley with nonshattering spikes as ''H. vulgare'' L. (or ''H. hexastichum'' L.), and six-row with shattering spikes as ''H. agriocrithon'' Åberg. Because these differences were driven by single-gene mutations, coupled with cytological and
molecular A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five carbon rings. A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In ...
evidence, most recent classifications treat these forms as a single species, ''H. vulgare'' L.


Cultivars

; Vocabulary * DON: Acronym for deoxynivalenol, a toxic byproduct of ''Fusarium'' head blight, also known as
vomitoxin Vomitoxin, also known as deoxynivalenol (DON), is a type B trichothecene, an epoxy- sesquiterpenoid. This mycotoxin A mycotoxin (from the Greek μύκης , "fungus" and τοξίνη , "toxin") is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by organis ...

vomitoxin
* Heading date: A parameter in barley cultivation * Lodging: The bending over of the stems near ground level * ''Nutans'': A designation for a variety with a lax ear, as opposed to 'erectum' (with an erect ear) * QCC: A pathotype of
stem rust The stem, black, and cereal rusts are caused by the fungus A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of Eukaryote, eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and Mold (fungus), molds, as well as th ...
(''Puccinia graminis'' f. sp. ''tritici'') * Rachilla: The part of a spikelet that bears the florets, the length of the rachilla hairs is a characteristic of barley varieties ; Cultivars * 'Azure', a six-row, blue-
aleuroneAleurone (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million a ...
malting barley released in 1982, it was high-yielding with strong
straw Straw is an agricultural consisting of the dry s of plants after the and have been removed. It makes up about half of the yield of cereal crops such as , s, , and . It has a number of different uses, including , and , and . Straw i ...

straw
, but was susceptible to loose smut. * 'Beacon', a six-row malting barley with rough awns, short rachilla hairs and colorless aleurone, it was released in 1973, and was the first
North Dakota State University North Dakota State University of Agriculture and Applied Sciences, more commonly known as North Dakota State University (NDSU), is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the pu ...
(NDSU) barley that had resistance to loose smut. * Bere, a six-row barley, is currently cultivated mainly on 5-15 hectares of land in Orkney, Scotland. Two additional parcels on the island of Islay, Scotland, were planted in 2006 for Bruichladdich Distillery. * 'Betzes', an old German two-row barley, was introduced into North America from , by the
United States Department of Agriculture The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, rural economic development, ...
(USDA). The Montana and Idaho agricultural experiment stations released Betzes in 1957. It is a midshort, medium strength-strawed, midseason-maturing barley. It has a midsize-to-large kernels with yellow aleurones. Betzes is susceptible to loose and
covered smutCommon bunt, also known as stinking smut and covered smut, is a disease of both spring and winter wheats. It is caused by two very closely related fungi, ''Tilletia tritici'' (syn. ''Tilletia caries'') and ''Tilletia laevis, T. laevis'' (syn. ''T. f ...
s,
rust Rust is an iron oxide Iron oxides are chemical compounds composed of iron and oxygen Oxygen is the chemical element with the chemical symbol, symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen Group (periodic table), ...
s, and scald. * 'Bowman', a two-rowed, smooth-awned variety, was jointly released by NDSU and USDA in 1984 as a feed barley, spring variety developed in North Dakota. It has good test weight and straw strength. It is resistant to wheat stem rust, but is susceptible to loose smut and barley yellow dwarf virus. * 'Celebration', a variety developed by the barley breeding program at Busch Agricultural Resources, was released in 2008. Through a collaborative agreement between the NDSU Foundation Seedstocks (NDFSS) project and Busch Agricultural Resources, all foundation seed of 'Celebration' barley will be produced and distributed by the NDFSS. 'Celebration' has excellent agronomic performance and malt quality. It is a Midwestern variety, well-adapted for Minnesota, North Dakota, Idaho, and Montana, with medium-early maturity, medium-early heading, medium-short height, mid-lax head type, rough awns, short rachilla hairs, and colorless aleurone, moderately resistant to '' Septoria'' and net blotch. It has improved reaction to ''Fusarium'' head blight and consistently lower DON content. * 'Centennial', a Canadian variety, was developed from the cross of 'Lenta' x 'Sanalta' by the
University of Alberta The University of Alberta, also known as U of A or UAlberta, is a Public university, public research university located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It was founded in 1908 by Alexander Cameron Rutherford,"A Gentleman of Strathcona – Alexander ...

University of Alberta
. It is a two-row, relatively short, stiff-strawed, late-maturing variety. The kernel is midlong with yellow aleurone. It was released as a feed barley. *'Compana', an American variety, was developed from a composite cross by the Idaho and Montana Agricultural Experiment Stations in cooperation with the USDA's Plant Science Research Division. It was released by Montana in 1941. 'Compana' is a two-row variety with moderately weak straw, midshort with midseason maturity. The kernels are long and wide with yellow aleurone. This variety is resistant to loose smut and moderately resistant to covered smut. * 'Conlon', a two-row barley, was released by NDSU in 1996. Test weight and yield are better than 'Bowman'. Yield is equal to 'Stark'. 'Conlon' heads earlier than 'Bowman' and shows good heat tolerance by kernel plumpness. It is resistant to
powdery mildew Powdery mildew is a fungal A fungus (plural The plural (sometimes list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical number, grammatical category of number. The plural of a noun typic ...
and net blotch, but is moderately susceptible to spot blotch. It is prone to lodging under high-yield growing conditions. It appears best adapted to western North Dakota and adjacent western states. * 'Diamant', a Czech high-yield, is a short-height, mutant variety created with X-rays. * 'Dickson', a six-row, rough-awned variety, was released by NDSU in 1965. It had good straw strength and was resistant to stem rust, but susceptible to loose smut. 'Dickson' had more resistance to prevalent leaf spot diseases than 'Trophy', 'Larker', and 'Traill'. It was similar to 'Trophy' in heading date, plant height, and straw strength. It had less plumpness than 'Trophy' and 'Larker', but more than 'Traill' and 'Kindred'. * 'Drummond', a six-row malting variety, was released by NDSU in 2000. It has white aleurone, long rachilla hairs and semismooth awns. 'Drummond' has better straw strength than current six-row varieties. Heading date is similar to Robust and plant height is similar to Stander. It is resistant to spot blotch and moderately susceptible to net blotch. However, its net blotch resistance is better than any current variety. ''Fusarium'' head blight reaction is similar to that of 'Robust'. It is resistant to prevalent races of wheat stem rust, but is susceptible to pathotype Pgt-QCC. 'Drummond' is on the American Malting Barley Association's list of recommended varieties. In two years of plant-scale evaluation, 'Drummond' was found satisfactory by Anheuser-Busch, Inc. and Miller Brewing. * 'Excel', a six-row, white-aleurone malting barley, was released by Minnesota in 1990. Shorter in height than other six-row barleys grown at that time, it is high-yielding with medium-early maturity, moderately strong straw, smooth awns, and long rachilla hairs. It has high resistance to stem rust and moderate resistance to spot blotch, but is susceptible to loose smut. Malting traits are equal or greater than 'Morex' with plum kernel percentage lower than 'Robust'. * 'Foster', a six-row, white-aleurone malting barley, was released by NDSU in 1995. About one day earlier and slightly shorter than 'Robust', it is higher-yielding than 'Morex', 'Robust', and 'Hazen'. Straw strength is similar to 'Excel' and 'Stander', but better than 'Robust'. It is moderately susceptible to net blotch, but resistant to spot blotch. Protein is 1.5% lower than 'Robust' and 'Morex'. * 'Glenn', a six-row, white-aleurone variety, was released by NDSU in 1978. 'Glenn' was resistant to prevalent races of loose and covered smut with better resistance to leaf spot diseases than 'Larker'. It matured about two days earlier than 'Larker' and yielded about 10% more than 'Larker' and 'Beacon'. * 'Golden Promise', an English semidwarf, is a salt-tolerant, mutant variety (created with gamma rays) used to make beer and whisky. * 'Hazen', a six-row, smooth-awn, white-aleurone feed barley, was released by NDSU in 1984. 'Hazen' heads two days later than 'Glenn'. It is susceptible to loose smut. *
Highland barley Highland barley, Tibetan barley or Himalayan barley (Standard Tibetan, Tibetan: ནས་; Wylie transliteration, Wylie: nas; Chinese language, Chinese: ; qīngkē, or 藏青稞; zàng qīngkē) is the principal cereal cultivated on the Tibetan Pl ...
is a crop cultivated on the
Tibetan Plateau The Tibetan Plateau (, also known as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qing–Zang Plateau () or as the Himalayan Plateau in India, is a vast elevated plateau In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λ ...
. * 'Kindred' was released in 1941 and developed from a selection made by S.T. Lykken, a
Kindred, North Dakota Kindred is a city in Cass County, North Dakota, Cass County, North Dakota, United States. The population was 692 at the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census. Kindred primarily serves as a bedroom community for Fargo, North Dakota, Fargo located ...
farmer. It was a six-row, rough-awned, medium-early Manchurian-type malting variety that gave good yields. 'Kindred' had stem rust resistance, but was moderately susceptible to spot blotch and '' Septoria''. It was less susceptible to blight and
root rot thumb , alt=Chickpea with root rot , Chickpea plant ('' Cicer arietinum'') with root rot. The pale leaves show symptomatic discolouration, distinct from the healthy green leaves Root rot is a disease in plants, in which the roots of a plant rot ...
than 'Wisconsin 38'. It was medium-height with weak straw. * 'Kindred L' is a reselection made to eliminate blue Manchurian types. * 'Larker', a six-rowed, semi-smooth-awn malting barley, was first released in 1961. It was medium-maturity with moderate straw strength and medium height. 'Larker' was rust-resistant, but susceptible to leaf diseases and loose smut. It was superior to all other malt varieties for kernel plumpness at the time of release. * 'Logan', released by NDSU in 1995, is classed as a nonmalting barley. It is a white-aleurone, two-row barley similar to 'Bowman' in heading date and plant height and similar to 'Morex' for foliar diseases. It has better yield, test weight, and lodging score, and lower protein, than 'Bowman' and 'Morex'. * 'Lux' is a Danish variety. * 'Manchurian', a blue-aleurone malting variety, was released by NDSU in 1922. It had weak to moderate-stiff straw and was susceptible to stem rust. It was developed from false stripe virus-free stock. * 'Manscheuri', also designated 'Accession No. 871', is a six-row barley that may have been first released by NDSU before 1904. It outyielded most of the common types being grown in North Dakota at the time. It had stiffer straw than varieties at the time and a longer head filled with large, plump kernels. * 'Mansury', also designated 'Accession No. 172', is a two-row barley first released by NDSU about 1905. * ' Maris Otter' is an English two-row winter variety commonly used in the production of malt for traditional British beers or as a 'maltier' two-row substitute in any style. It remains popular for
craft beer A craft brewery or microbrewery is a brewery brewery A brewery or brewing company is a business that makes and sells beer. The place at which beer is commercially made is either called a brewery or a beerhouse, where distinct sets of brewing eq ...
and among homebrewers. * 'Morex', a six-row, white-aleurone, smooth-awn malting variety, was released by Minnesota in 1978. 'Morex', which stands for "more extract", is highly resistant to stem rust, moderate to spot blotch, and susceptible to loose smut. * 'Nordal', a spring ''nutans'' variety from Carlsberg Sweden, was released in 1971. * 'Nordic', a six-row, colorless-aleurone feed barley, was released in 1971. It had rough awns and short rachilla hairs. Yield was similar to 'Dickson', but greater than 'Larker'. Kernel plumpness and test weight was superior to 'Dickson', but less than 'Larker'. Lodging, spot, and net blotch resistance was similar to 'Dickson', but it had higher resistance to ''Septoria'' leaf blotch. It showed less leaf rust symptoms compared to other varieties at the time. * 'Optic' * 'Pallas' * 'Park', a six-row, white-aleurone, malting barley, was released in 1978. 'Park' had better resistance to leaf spot diseases, spot blotch, net blotch, and ''Septoria'' leaf blotch than 'Larker'. * 'Plumage Archer' is an English malt variety. * 'Pearl' * 'Pinnacle', a variety released by the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station in 2006, has high yield, low protein, long rachilla hairs, smooth awns, white aleurone, medium-late maturity, medium height, and strong straw strength. * 'Proctor' is a parent cultivar of 'Maris Otter'. * 'Pioneer' is a parent cultivar of 'Maris Otter'. * 'Rawson', a variety developed by the NDSU Barley Breeding Program, was released by the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station in 2005. 'Rawson's' general characteristics were very large kernels, loose hull, long rachilla hairs, rough awns, white aleurone, medium maturity, medium height, and medium straw strength. * 'Robust', a six-row, white-aleurone malting variety, was released by Minnesota in 1983. Maturity is two days later than 'Morex'. * 'Sioux', a selection from Tregal released by NDSU, was a six-row, medium-early variety with white aleurone, rough awns, and long rachilla hairs. It was high-yielding with plump kernels. Its disease reaction was similar to 'Tregal'. * 'Stark', a two-row nonmalting barley released by NDSU in 1991, has stiff straw and large kernels, and appears best adapted to western North Dakota and adjacent western states. 'Stark' is about one day later and two inches shorter than 'Bowman', with equal or better test weight. 'Stark' yields about 10% better than 'Bowman'. It is moderately resistant to net and spot blotch, but is susceptible to loose smut, leaf rust and the QCC race of wheat stem rust. * 'Steptoe', a white-kerneled, rough-awned feed variety, was released by Washington State University in 1973. 'Steptoe' is widely adapted and has been one of the highest yielding and most popular six-rowed feed varieties in the inland Pacific northwest for many years. * 'Tradition', a variety with excellent agronomic performance and malt quality, is well-adapted to Minnesota, North Dakota, Idaho, and Montana. 'Tradition' has medium relative maturity, medium-short height, and very strong straw. It has a nodding head type, semismooth awns, long rachilla hairs. and white aleurone. * 'Traill', a medium-early, rough-awn, white-aleurone malting variety, was released by NDSU in 1956. It was resistant to stem rust and had the same reaction to spot blotch and ''Septoria'' as 'Kindred'. 'Traill' had greater yield and straw strength than 'Kindred', but had smaller kernel size. * 'Tregal', a high-yield, smooth-awn, six-row feed barley, was released by NDSU in 1943. It was medium-early with short, stiff straw, erect head, and high resistance to loose smut. 'Tregal' was similar to 'Kindred' for reaction to spot blotch with similar tolerance to ''Septoria''. * 'Trophy', a six-row, rough-awn malting variety with colorless aleurone, was released by NDSU in 1964. Similar to 'Traill' and 'Kindred' in plant height, heading date, and test weight, it had a higher percentage of plump kernels. Its yield in North Dakota was greater than 'Kindred' and similar to 'Traill'. Similar to 'Kindred' and 'Traill', it was resistant to stem rust, but susceptible to loose smut and ''Septoria'' leaf blotch. It had some field resistance to net blotch. It had greater straw strength than 'Kindred'. 'Trophy' had greater enzymatic activity and quality than 'Traill'. * 'Windich' is a Western Australian grain cultivar named after (''circa'' 1840–1876). * 'Yagan' is a Western Australian grain cultivar named after
Yagan Yagan (;  – 11 July 1833) was an Aboriginal Australian warrior from the Noongar people. He played a key part in Indigenous Australian resistance, early resistance to History of Australia (1788–1850), British colonial settlement and ru ...

Yagan
(''circa'' 1795-1833).


Chemistry

''H. vulgare'' contains the phenolics and
p-coumaric acid#redirect p-Coumaric acid ''p''-Coumaric acid is a hydroxycinnamic acid, an organic compound that is a hydroxy derivative of cinnamic acid. There are three isomer In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical ...
, the
ferulic acid Ferulic acid is a hydroxycinnamic acid, an organic compound. It is an abundant phenolic phytochemical found in plant cell walls, covalently bonded as side chains to molecules such as arabinoxylans. As a component of lignin, ferulic acid is a pre ...
8,5'-diferulic acid, the
flavonoid Flavonoids (or bioflavonoids; from the Latin word ''flavus'', meaning yellow, their color in nature) are a class of polyphenol Polyphenols () are a large family of naturally occurring organic compounds characterized by multiples of phenol un ...
s , saponarin,
catechin Catechin is a flavan-3-ol, a type of natural phenol and antioxidant. It is a plant secondary metabolite. It belongs to the group of flavan-3-ols (or simply flavanols), part of the chemical family of flavonoids. The name of the catechin chemical ...

catechin
, ,
procyanidin C2 Procyanidin C2 is a B type proanthocyanidin trimer (chemistry), trimer, a type of condensed tannin. Natural occurrences Procyanidin C2 is found in grape seeds (''Vitis vinifera'') and wine, in barley (''Hordeum vulgare''), malt and beer, in ''Bet ...

procyanidin C2
, and prodelphinidin B3, and the
alkaloid Alkaloids are a class of base (chemistry), basic, natural product, naturally occurring organic compounds that contain at least one nitrogen atom. This group also includes some related compounds with neutral and even weakly acidic properties. Som ...
hordenine Hordenine (''N'',''N''-dimethyltyramine) is an alkaloid of the phenethylamine class that occurs naturally in a variety of plants, taking its name from one of the most common, barley (''Hordeum'' species). Chemically, hordenine is the ''N''-methyl d ...

hordenine
.


History


Origin

Barley was one of the first domesticated grains in the
Fertile Crescent The Fertile Crescent is a crescent-shaped region in the Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental orga ...

Fertile Crescent
, an area of relatively abundant water in Western Asia, and near the
Nile The Nile, , Bohairic , lg, Kiira , Nobiin Nobiin, or Mahas, is a Northern Nubian languages, Nubian language of the Nilo-Saharan languages, Nilo-Saharan language family. "Nobiin" is the genitive case, genitive form of ''Nòòbíí'' ("Nub ...

Nile
river of northeast Africa. The grain appeared in the same time as
einkorn Einkorn wheat (from German ''Einkorn'', literally "single grain") can refer either to the wild species of wheat Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat tog ...

einkorn
and
emmer wheat Emmer wheat or hulled wheat is a type of awned wheat Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus ''Triticum''; the most widely grown ...
. Wild barley (''H. vulgare'' ssp. ''spontaneum'') ranges from
North Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in th ...

North Africa
and
Crete Crete ( el, Κρήτη, translit=, Modern Modern may refer to: History *Modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology ...

Crete
in the west, to
Tibet Tibet (; ; ) is a region in covering much of the spanning about . It is the traditional homeland of the as well as some other ethnic groups such as , , , and s and is now also inhabited by considerable numbers of and . Tibet is the ...

Tibet
in the east. According to some scholars, the earliest evidence of wild barley in an
archaeological Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis Analysis is the process of breaking a complexity, complex topic or Substance theory, substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better underst ...
context comes from the
Epipaleolithic In archaeology, the Epipalaeolithic or Epipaleolithic (sometimes Epi-paleolithic etc.) is a term for a period occurring between the Upper Paleolithic The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) also called the Late Stone Age The Later Stone ...
at
Ohalo II Ohalo II is an archaeological site in Israel, in the vicinity of the Sea of Galilee. It is one of the best preserved hunter-gatherer archaeological sites of the Last Glacial Maximum, radiocarbon dated to around 23,000 BP (calibrated). It is at the ...
at the southern end of the
Sea of Galilee The Sea of Galilee ( he, יָם כִּנֶּרֶת, Judeo-Aramaic: יַמּא דטבריא, גִּנֵּיסַר, ar, بحيرة طبريا), also called Lake Tiberias, Kinneret or Kinnereth, is a freshwater Fresh water (or freshwater) is ...

Sea of Galilee
. The remains were dated to about 8500 BCE. Other scholars have written that the earliest evidence comes from Mesopotamia, specifically the
Jarmo Jarmo (Qal'at Jarmo) ( ku, Çermo) is a prehistoric archeological site An archaeological site is a place (or group of physical sites) in which evidence of past activity is preserved (either prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-lite ...
region of modern day Iraq.


Spread of cultivated barley: genetic analysis

One of the world's most important crops, barley, was domesticated in the Near East around 11,000 years ago (circa 9,000 BCE). Barley is a highly resilient crop, able to be grown in varied and marginal environments, such as in regions of high altitude and latitude. Archaeobotanical evidence shows that barley had spread throughout Eurasia by 2,000 BCE. To further elucidate the routes by which barley cultivation was spread through Eurasia, genetic analysis was used to determine genetic diversity and population structure in extant barley taxa. Genetic analysis shows that cultivated barley spread through Eurasia via several different routes, which were most likely separated in both time and space. Material was copied from this source, which is available under
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License


Dispersal

Some scholars believe domesticated barley (''hordeum vulgare'') originally spread from
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia covers an area ...

Central Asia
to
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

India
,
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tu ...

Persia
,
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in the ...

Mesopotamia
,
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...

Syria
and
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a spanning the and the of . It is bordered by the to , the () and to , the to the east, to , and to . In the northeast, the , which is the northern arm of the R ...

Egypt
. Some of the earliest domesticated barley occurs at aceramic ("pre-pottery")
Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is t ...
sites, in the Near East such as the
Pre-Pottery Neolithic B Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) is part of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic The Pre-Pottery Neolithic (PPN) represents the early Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age, with a wide-ranging set of developments that a ...
layers of Tell Abu Hureyra, in
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...

Syria
. By 4200 BCE domesticated barley occurs as far as in Eastern Finland and had reached
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2021; Athens is its largest and capital city, followed ...

Greece
and
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Alps and List of islands of Italy, several islands surrounding it, whose ...

Italy
around the 4th c. BCE. Barley has been grown in the Korean Peninsula since the Early
Mumun Pottery Period#REDIRECT Mumun pottery period The Mumun pottery period is an archaeological Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cu ...
(''circa'' 1500–850 BCE) along with other crops such as millet, wheat, and legumes. Barley (known as in both
Vedic FIle:Atharva-Veda samhita page 471 illustration.png, upright=1.2, The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (, , ) are a large body of religious texts originating in ancient India. Com ...
and
Classical Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominally , , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, s ...
) is mentioned many times in
Rigveda The ''Rigveda'' or ''Rig Veda'' ( ', from ' "praise" and ' "knowledge") is an of s (''suktas''). It is one of the four sacred canonical (') known as the . The ''Rigveda'' is the oldest known text. Its early layers are one of the oldes ...
and other Indian scriptures as one of the principal grains in ancient India. Traces of Barley cultivation have also been found in 5700–3300 years before present. In the
Pulitzer Prize#REDIRECT Pulitzer Prize The Pulitzer Prize () is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature and musical composition within the United States. It was established in 1917 by provisions in the will of Joseph ...
-winning book ''
Guns, Germs, and Steel ''Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies'' (previously titled ''Guns, Germs and Steel: A Short History of Everybody for the Last 13,000 Years'') is a 1997 Transdisciplinarity, transdisciplinary non-fiction book by Jared Diamond. In ...
'',
Jared Diamond Jared Mason Diamond (born September 10, 1937) is an American geographer A geographer is a physical scientist, social scientist or humanist whose area of study is geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth de ...

Jared Diamond
proposed that the availability of barley, along with other domesticable crops and animals, in southwestern
Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as cont ...

Eurasia
significantly contributed to the broad historical patterns that human history has followed over approximately the last 13,000 years; ''i.e.'', why Eurasian civilizations, as a whole, have survived and conquered others. Jared Diamond's proposition was criticized, however, for underemphasizing individual and cultural choice and autonomy. The anthropologist Jason Antrosio wrote, that "Diamond's account makes all the factors of European domination a product of a distant and accidental history" and "has almost no role for human agency–the ability people have to make decisions and influence outcomes. Europeans become inadvertent, accidental conquerors. Natives succumb passively to their fate." He added, "Jared Diamond has done a huge disservice to the telling of human history. He has tremendously distorted the role of domestication and agriculture in that history. Unfortunately his story-telling abilities are so compelling that he has seduced a generation of college-educated readers." Barley beer was probably one of the first alcoholic drinks developed by Neolithic humans. Barley later on was used as currency. The word for barley was ''akiti''. In ancient
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in the ...

Mesopotamia
, a stalk of barley was the primary symbol of the goddess
Shala Shala (Šala) was an ancient Mesopotamian goddess of grain and the wife of the weather god Adad (Ishkur). She was most likely of northern origin, and it's been proposed that her name is derived from the Hurrian language, Hurrian word ''šāla'' ...
. Alongside emmer wheat, barley was a staple cereal of
ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization  A civilization (or civilisation) is a that is characterized by , , a form of government, and systems of communication (such as ). Civilizations are intimately associated with additional char ...

ancient Egypt
, where it was used to make
bread Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking. Throughout recorded history, it has been a prominent food in large parts of the world. It is one of the oldest man-made foods, having been of significant impor ...

bread
and
beer Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drink An alcoholic drink is a drink A drink (or beverage) is a liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continual ...

beer
. The general name for barley is ''jt'' (hypothetically pronounced "eat"); ''šma'' (hypothetically pronounced "SHE-ma") refers to
Upper Egypt Upper Egypt ( ar, صعيد مصر ', shortened to , , locally: ; ) is the southern portion of Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a spanning the and the of . It is bordered by the to , the ...
ian barley and is a symbol of Upper Egypt. According to
Deuteronomy The Book of Deuteronomy (literally "second law" from Greek ''deuteros'' + ''nomos'') is the fifth book of the Jewish , where it is called ''Devarim'' ( he, דְּבָרִים), "the words f Moses F, or f, is the sixth Letter (alphabet), let ...
8:8, barley is one of the "
Seven Species The Seven Species ( he, שבעת המינים, ''Shiv'at HaMinim'') are seven agricultural products - two grains and five fruits - which are listed in the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonic ...
" of crops that characterize the fertility of the
Promised Land The Promised Land ( he, הארץ המובטחת, translit. Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping Letter (alphabet), letters (thus ''wikt:trans-#Prefix, trans-'' + ''wikt:litter ...
of
Canaan A 1692 map of Canaan, by Philip Lea Canaan (; Northwest Semitic Northwest Semitic, known as Syro-Palestinian in dialect geography, is a division of the Semitic languages comprising the indigenous languages of the Levant. It would have ...

Canaan
, and it has a prominent role in the
Israelite The Israelites (; he, בני ישראל ''Bnei Yisra'el'') were a confederation of Iron Age ancient Semitic-speaking peoples, Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the history of ancient Israe ...
sacrifices Sacrifice is the offering of food, objects or the lives of animals or humans to a higher purpose, in particular divine beings, as an act of propitiation or worship. Evidence of ritual animal sacrifice has been seen at least ancient Hebrew and ...

sacrifices
described in the
Pentateuch The Torah (; he, תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") includes the first five books of the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew language, Hebre ...
(see e.g.
Numbers A number is a mathematical object A mathematical object is an abstract concept arising in mathematics. In the usual language of mathematics, an ''object'' is anything that has been (or could be) formally defined, and with which one may do deduc ...
5:15). A religious importance extended into the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
in Europe, and saw barley's use in
justice Justice, in its broadest sense, is the principle that people receive that which they deserve, with the interpretation of what then constitutes "deserving" being impacted upon by numerous fields, with many differing viewpoints and perspectives, ...

justice
, via
alphitomancyAlphitomancy (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 milli ...
and the corsned. Rations of barley for workers appear in
Linear B Linear B is a syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, the earliest attested form of Greek. The script predates the Greek alphabet The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late ninth or ...
tablets in Mycenaean contexts at
Knossos Knossos (also Cnossos, both pronounced ; grc, Κνωσός, Knōsós, ; Linear B Linear B is a syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, the earliest attested form of Greek. The script predates the Greek alphabet ...

Knossos
and at Mycenaean Pylos. In mainland Greece, the ''ritual'' significance of barley possibly dates back to the earliest stages of the
Eleusinian Mysteries The Eleusinian Mysteries ( el, Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια, Eleusínia Mystḗria) were initiations held every year for the Cult (religious practice), cult of Demeter and Persephone based at the Panhellenic Sanctuary of Eleusis in ancient ...
. The preparatory ''
kykeon Kykeon (, ; from , "to stir, to mix") was an Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek drink of various descriptions. Some were made mainly of water, barley and naturally occurring substances. Others were made with wine and grated cheese. It is widely believed ...
'' or mixed drink of the initiates, prepared from barley and
herb In general use, herbs are a widely distributed and widespread group of plants, excluding vegetables Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still commonly used and is appl ...

herb
s, referred in the
Homeric hymn The ''Homeric Hymns'' () are a collection of thirty-three anonymous ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is ...
to
Demeter In ancient Greek religion Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and mythology originating in ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of Histo ...

Demeter
, whose name some scholars believe meant "Barley-mother". The practice was to dry the barley
groats Groats (or in some cases, "berries") are the hulled Husk (or hull) in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterpri ...
and roast them before preparing the porridge, according to
Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder#REDIRECT Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, including animals, fungus, fungi, ...

Pliny the Elder
's ''
Natural History Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, including animals, fungus, fungi, and plants, in their natural environment, leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study. A person who studies natural history ...
'' (xviii.72). This produces
malt Malt is germinated cereal grain that has been dried in a process known as "". The grain is made to by soaking in water and is then halted from germinating further by drying with hot air. Malting grain develops the s (α-amylase, β-amylase) ...
that soon ferments and becomes slightly alcoholic. Pliny also noted barley was a special food of gladiators known as ''hordearii'', "barley-eaters". However, by Roman times, he added that wheat had replaced barley as a staple. Tibetan barley has been a
staple food 215px, Unprocessed seeds of spelt, a historically important staple food A staple food, food staple, or simply a staple, is a food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of pla ...

staple food
in
Tibetan cuisine Tibetan cuisine includes the culinary traditions and practices and its peoples. The cuisine reflects the Tibetan landscape of mountains and plateaus and includes influences from neighbors (including India and Nepal where many Tibetans abide). ...

Tibetan cuisine
since the fifth century CE. This grain, along with a cool climate that permitted storage, produced a civilization that was able to raise great armies. It is made into a flour product called ''
tsampa Tsampa or Tsamba (; ne, साम्पा; ) is a Tibetan and Himalayas, Himalayan staple foodstuff, particularly prominent in the central part of the region. It is glutinous meal made from roasting, roasted flour, usually barley flour and som ...
'' that is still a staple in Tibet. The flour is roasted and mixed with butter and butter tea to form a stiff dough that is eaten in small balls. In medieval Europe, bread made from barley and rye was peasant food, while wheat products were consumed by the upper classes.
Potatoes The potato is a starch Starch or amylum is a polymeric A polymer (; Greek '' poly-'', "many" + '' -mer'', "part") is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attr ...

Potatoes
largely replaced barley in Eastern Europe in the 19th century.


Genetics

The genome of barley was sequenced in 2012, due to the efforts of the International Barley Genome Sequencing Consortium and the UK Barley Sequencing Consortium. The genome is composed of seven pairs of nuclear chromosomes (recommended designations: 1H, 2H, 3H, 4H, 5H, 6H and 7H), and one
mitochondrial A mitochondrion (, plural mitochondria) is a double membrane-bound organelle In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit, usually within a cell (biology), cell, that has a specific function. The name ''organelle'' comes from the ide ...

mitochondrial
and one chloroplast chromosome, with a total of 5000 Mbp. Abundant biological information is already freely available in several barley databases. The wild barley (''H. vulgare'' ssp.'' spontaneum'') found currently in the
Fertile Crescent The Fertile Crescent is a crescent-shaped region in the Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental orga ...

Fertile Crescent
might not be the progenitor of the barley cultivated in
Eritrea Eritrea ( ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa region of East Africa, Eastern Africa, with its capital (and largest city) at Asmara. It is bordered by Ethiopia in the south, Sudan in the west, and Djibouti ...

Eritrea
and
Ethiopia Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country in the Horn of Africa. It shares borders with Eritrea and Djibouti to the north, Somaliland to the northeast, Somalia to the east, Kenya to the sout ...

Ethiopia
, indicating that separate domestication may have occurred in eastern Africa.


Hybridization

Barley has been crossed with wheat with mixed results that have yet to prove commercially viable. The resulting hybrids have further been crossed with
rye Rye (''Secale cereale'') is a grass Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses. It includes the cereal grasses, bamboo Bamboos are a diverse group of ev ...

rye
, but with even more limited results.


Production

In 2017, world production of barley was 149 million tonnes, led by
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
producing 14% of the world total.
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
,
Germany Germany (german: Deutschland, ), officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in . It is the in Europe after , and the most populous . Germany is situated between the and seas to the north, and the to the south; it covers an area of ...

Germany
,
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental country spanning Western Europe and Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Ame ...

France
, and
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares borders with to the north; , , and to the west; and to the south; and has a coastli ...

Ukraine
were major producers.


Cultivation

Barley is a widely adaptable crop. It is currently popular in temperate areas where it is grown as a summer crop and tropical areas where it is sown as a winter crop. Its
germination seedlings, three days after germination Germination is the process by which an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell t ...

germination
time is one to three days. Barley grows under cool conditions, but is not particularly
winter hardy Hardiness of plants describes their ability to survive adverse growing conditions. It is usually limited to discussions of climatic adversity. Thus a plant's ability to tolerate cold, heat, drought, flooding, or wind are typically considered measure ...
. Barley is more tolerant of
soil salinity 249x249px, Saline incrustation in a PVC irrigation pipe from Brazil Soil salinity is the salt content in the soil; the process of increasing the salt content is known as salinization. Salts occur naturally within soils and water. Salination can ...
than wheat, which might explain the increase of barley cultivation in
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in the ...

Mesopotamia
from the second millennium BCE onwards. Barley is not as cold tolerant as the winter wheats (''Triticum aestivum''), fall
rye Rye (''Secale cereale'') is a grass Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses. It includes the cereal grasses, bamboo Bamboos are a diverse group of ev ...

rye
(''Secale cereale'') or winter
triticale Triticale (; × ''Triticosecale'') is a hybrid of wheat Wheat is a grass widely Agriculture, cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The Taxonomy of wheat, many species of wheat together make up the genus ''Tr ...

triticale
(× ''Triticosecale'' Wittm. ex A. Camus.), but may be sown as a winter crop in warmer areas of
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
and
Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , it is the largest of the British Isles, the List of European islands by area, largest European island, and the List of i ...

Great Britain
. Barley has a short growing season and is also relatively drought tolerant.


Plant diseases

Barley is known or likely to be susceptible to barley mild mosaic bymovirus, as well as bacterial blight. Barley yellow dwarf virus, vectored by the rice root aphid, can also cause serious crop injury. It can be susceptible to many diseases, but plant breeders have been working hard to incorporate resistance. The devastation caused by any one disease will depend upon the susceptibility of the variety being grown and the environmental conditions during disease development. Serious diseases of barley include powdery mildew caused by '''' f.sp. ''hordei'', leaf scald caused by '' Rhynchosporium secalis'', barley rust caused by ''Puccinia hordei'', crown rust caused by '' Puccinia coronata'', and various diseases caused by ''
Cochliobolus sativus The fungus ''Cochliobolus sativus'' is the teleomorph (sexual stage) of ''Bipolaris sorokiniana'' (anamorph) which is the causal agent of a wide variety of cereal diseases. The Plant pathology, pathogen can infect and cause disease on roots (where ...
''. Barley is also susceptible to head blight.


Food


Nutrition

In a 100 gram serving, cooked barley provides 123
kilocalories The calorie is a unit of energy defined as the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a quantity of water by one degree. For historical reasons, two main definitions of calorie are in wide use. The small calorie or gram calorie (usua ...
and is a good source (10% or more of the
Daily Value The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) used in nutrition labeling on food and dietary supplement products in the U.S. and Canada is the daily intake level of a nutrient A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce. The ...
, DV) of
essential nutrients A nutrient is a Chemical substance, substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce. The requirement for dietary nutrient intake applies to animals, plants, fungus, fungi, and protists. Nutrients can be incorporated into cells for met ...
, including,
dietary fiber Dietary fiber (British spelling fibre) or roughage is the portion of plant-derived food that cannot be completely broken down by human digestive enzyme Digestive may refer to: Biology *Digestion Digestion is the breakdown of large insolubl ...
, the
B vitamin B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamin A vitamin is an organic molecule (or a set of molecules closely related chemically, i.e. vitamers) that is an Nutrient#Essential nutrients, essential micronutrient which an organism needs in smal ...
,
niacin Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, vitamin B3, an essential nutrient, essential human nutrient. It can be manufactured by plants and animals from the amino acid tryptophan. Niacin is obtaine ...

niacin
(14% DV), and
dietary minerals In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life. However, the four major structural elements in the human body by weight (oxygen, hydrogen, carbon ...
including
iron Iron () is a with Fe (from la, ) and 26. It is a that belongs to the and of the . It is, on , right in front of (32.1% and 30.1%, respectively), forming much of Earth's and . It is the fourth most common . In its metallic state, iron ...

iron
(10% DV) and
manganese Manganese is a chemical element upright=1.0, 500px, The chemical elements ordered by link=Periodic table In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science ...

manganese
(12% DV) (table).


Preparation

Hulled barley (or covered barley) is eaten after removing the inedible, fibrous, outer hull. Once removed, it is called dehulled barley (or pot barley or scotch barley).Simon, André (1963). ''Guide to Good Food and Wines: A Concise Encyclopedia of Gastronomy Complete and Unabridged''. p. 150 Collins, London Considered a
whole grain Image:Wheat-kernel nutrition.svg, 300px, thumb A whole grain is a grain of any cereal and pseudocereal that contains the endosperm, cereal germ, germ, and bran, in contrast to refined grains, which retain only the endosperm. As part of a general h ...

whole grain
, dehulled barley still has its
bran 300px, Wheat kernel compartments and macronutrients Bran, also known as miller's bran, is the hard outer layers of cereal grain A cereal is any Poaceae, grass cultivated (grown) for the edible components of its grain (botanically, a type ...

bran
and germ, making it a commonly consumed food.
Pearl barley#REDIRECT Pearl barley 200px, Uncooked pearl barley with U.S. one cent coin for size comparison Pearl barley, or pearled barley, is whole grain barley Barley (''Hordeum vulgare''), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown ...
(or pearled barley) is dehulled barley which has been steam-processed further to remove the bran. It may be polished, a process known as "pearling". Dehulled or pearl barley may be processed into various barley products, including
flour Kinako Flour is a powder A powder is a dry, bulk solid Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas and plasma). The molecules in a solid are closely packed together and contain the least ...

flour
, flakes similar to
oatmeal Oatmeal refers to a Rolled oats, preparation of oats that have been dehusked, Steaming, steamed and flattened, or else a coarse flour made of hulled oat grains (Groat (grain), groats) that have either been mill (grinding), milled (ground) or steel ...

oatmeal
, and
grits Grits is a porridge Porridge (historically also spelled porage, porrige, or parritch) is a food Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ...
. Barley meal, a wholemeal
barley flour Barley flour is a flour Kinako Flour is a Powder (substance), powder made by Mill (grinding), grinding raw grains, List of root vegetables, roots, beans, Nut (fruit), nuts, or seeds. Flours are used to make many different foods. Cereal flou ...
lighter than wheat meal but darker in colour, is used in
gruel Gruel is a food consisting of some type of cereal A cereal is any grass cultivated (grown) for the edible components of its grain A grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an attached husk, hull or fruit layer, harvested for huma ...
, in contrast to
porridge Porridge is a food commonly eaten as a breakfast cereal dish, made by heating or boiling ground, crushed or chopped starchy plants, typically grain, in milk. It is often cooked or served with added flavourings such as sugar, honey, (dried) fruit ...

porridge
which is made from oats. Barley meal gruel is known as ''sawiq'' in the
Arab world The Arab world ( ar, العالم العربي '), formally the Arab homeland ( '), also known as the Arab nation ( '), the Arabsphere, or the Arab states, consists of the 22 Arab countries The Arab world ( ar, العالم العربي '), ...

Arab world
. With a long history of cultivation in the
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...

Middle East
, barley is used in a wide range of traditional
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...
, Assyrian,
Israelite The Israelites (; he, בני ישראל ''Bnei Yisra'el'') were a confederation of Iron Age ancient Semitic-speaking peoples, Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the history of ancient Israe ...
, Kurdish, and
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
foodstuffs including kashkak,
kashk Kashk ( fa, کَشک ''Kašk'', ku, keşk) or qurut ( Tuvan and ky, курут, kk, құрт, tk, gurt, uz, qurt, az, qurut, ps, قروت, hy, չորթան-''chortan,'' Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( ...
and murri. Barley soup is traditionally eaten during
Ramadan * fa, رمضان, Ramazān * hi, रमज़ान, Ramzān * ku, ڕەمەزان, Remezan * ps, روژه, Rozha * so, Rabadaan or Rabmadaan * tr, Ramazan * ur, رمضان, Ramzān * diq, Remezan * sq, Ramazani , type = islam , longty ...

Ramadan
in
Saudi Arabia (''Shahada The ''Shahada'' ( ar, ٱلشَّهَادَةُ ' , "the testimony"), also spelled Shahadah, is an Islamic oath, one of the Five Pillars of Islam and part of the Adhan. It reads: "I bear witness that none deserves worship e ...

Saudi Arabia
. (in Hebrew) is a traditional
Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), suc ...

Jewish
stew often eaten on
Sabbath In Abrahamic religions The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic people, Semitic-originated religions that claim descent from the Judaism of the ancient Isra ...

Sabbath
, in numerous recipes by both Mizrachi and
Ashkenazi Ashkenazi Jews ( are a Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in ...
Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is ...

Jews
. In Eastern and Central
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered ...

Europe
, barley is also used in soups and stews such as ričet. In
Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of i ...

Africa
, where it is a traditional food plant, it has the potential to improve nutrition, boost food security, foster rural development, and support sustainable landcare. The six-row variety '' bere'' is cultivated in
Orkney Orkney (; sco, Orkney; on, Orkneyjar; nrn, Orknøjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island A ...

Orkney
,
Shetland Shetland ( on, Hjaltland; sco, Shetland; nrn, Hjetland), also called the Shetland Islands and formerly Zetland, is a subarctic archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or co ...

Shetland
,
Caithness Caithness ( gd, Gallaibh , sco, Caitnes; non, Katanes) is a Shires of Scotland, historic county, registration county and Lieutenancy areas of Scotland, lieutenancy area of Scotland. Caithness has a land boundary with the historic county of Su ...

Caithness
and the
Western Isles The Outer Hebrides () or Western Isles ( gd, Na h-Eileanan Siar or ; sco, Waster Isles), sometimes known as ("islands of the strangers") or the Long Isle/Long Island ( gd, An t-Eilean Fada, links=no), is an island chain off the west coast ...

Western Isles
in the Scottish Highlands and islands. When milled into ''beremeal'', it is used locally in
bread Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking. Throughout recorded history, it has been a prominent food in large parts of the world. It is one of the oldest man-made foods, having been of significant impor ...

bread
,
biscuit A biscuit is a flour-based baked food product. In most countries, particularly in the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ...

biscuit
s, and the traditional beremeal
bannock Bannock may mean: * Bannock (food) Bannock is a variety of flat quick bread or any large, round article baked or cooked from grain. A bannock is usually cut into sections before serving. English/Scottish The word "bannock" comes from Northern a ...
.


Health implications

According to
Health Canada Health Canada (HC; french: Santé Canada, SC)Health Canada is the applied title under the Federal Identity Program on the Remote Manipulator System, Canadarm The Federal Identity Program (FIP) is the Government of Canada's corporate identity pro ...
and the US
Food and Drug Administration The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a of the . The FDA is responsible for protecting and promoting through the control and supervision of , products, s, and s (medications), s, s, s, s, emitting devices (ERED), cosmetics ...
, consuming at least 3 grams per day of barley
beta-glucan is an example of a (1→4)-β-D-glucan composed of glucose Glucose is a simple sugar Sugar is the generic name for Sweetness, sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. Table sugar, granulated sugar, or regular su ...
or 0.75 grams per serving of
soluble fiber Dietary fiber (British spelling fibre) or roughage is the portion of plant-derived food that cannot be completely broken down by human digestive enzymes. Dietary fibers are diverse in chemical composition, and can be grouped generally by their ...
can lower levels of
blood cholesterol Blood is a body fluid Body fluids, bodily fluids, or biofluids are liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually Deformation (mechanics), deforms (flows) under an applied shear s ...
, a risk factor for
cardiovascular diseases Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart The heart is a muscle, muscular Organ (anatomy), organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system. The pumped blood car ...
. Eating whole-grain barley, as well as other high-fiber grains, improves regulation of
blood sugar The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the concentration of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals. Glucose is a simple sugar, and approximately 4 g of glucose are present in the blood of a 70 ...
(i.e., reduces blood glucose response to a meal). Consuming
breakfast cereal Cereal, often called breakfast cereal (and further categorized as cold cereal or warm cereal), is a traditional breakfast Breakfast is the first meal of the day eaten after waking up, usually in the morning. The word in English refers to breaki ...

breakfast cereal
s containing barley over weeks to months also improved cholesterol levels and glucose regulation. Like
wheat Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus ''Triticum''; the most widely grown is common wheat Common wheat (''Triticum aestivum'' ...

wheat
,
rye Rye (''Secale cereale'') is a grass Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses. It includes the cereal grasses, bamboo Bamboos are a diverse group of ev ...

rye
, and their hybrids and derivatives, barley contains
gluten Gluten is a protein naturally found in some grains including wheat, barley, and rye. Although, strictly speaking, "gluten" pertains only to wheat proteins, in the medical literature it refers to the combination of prolamin and glutelin proteins ...

gluten
, which makes it an unsuitable grain for consumption by people with
gluten-related disorders Gluten-related disorders is the term for the diseases triggered by gluten, including celiac disease (CD), non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), gluten ataxia, dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) and wheat allergy. The umbrella category has also been re ...

gluten-related disorders
, such as
celiac disease Coeliac disease or celiac disease is a long-term autoimmune disorder, primarily affecting the small intestine, where individuals develop intolerance to gluten, present in foods such as wheat, rye and barley. Classic symptoms include gastrointe ...
,
non-celiac gluten sensitivity Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or gluten sensitivity is "a clinical entity induced by the ingestion of gluten Gluten is a group of seed storage protein Proteins are large biomolecules or macromolecules that are comprised of one or more ...
and
wheat allergy Wheat allergy is an allergy to wheat Wheat is a grass widely Agriculture, cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The Taxonomy of wheat, many species of wheat together make up the genus ''Triticum''; the most w ...
sufferers, among others. Nevertheless, some wheat allergy patients can tolerate barley or rye.


Beverages


Alcoholic beverages

Barley is a key ingredient in
beer Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drink An alcoholic drink is a drink A drink (or beverage) is a liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continual ...

beer
and
whisky Whisky or whiskey is a type of made from . Various grains (which may be ) are used for different varieties, including , , , and . Whisky is typically in wooden s, which are often old casks or may also be made of charred . Whisky is a str ...

whisky
production. Two-row barley is traditionally used in
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...
and
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...
beers. Six-row barley was traditionally used in US beers, but both varieties are in common usage now. Distilled from green beer, whisky has been made primarily from barley in Ireland and Scotland, while other countries have used more diverse sources of alcohol, such as the more common corn, rye and wheat in the USA. In the US, a grain type may be identified on a whisky label if that type of grain constitutes 51% or more of the ingredients and certain other conditions are satisfied. About 25% of the United States' production of barley is used for
malt Malt is germinated cereal grain that has been dried in a process known as "". The grain is made to by soaking in water and is then halted from germinating further by drying with hot air. Malting grain develops the s (α-amylase, β-amylase) ...
ing, for which barley is the best-suited grain.
Barley wine Barley wine is a strong ale Strong ale is a type of ale, usually above 5% Alcohol by volume, abv and often higher, between 7% to 11% abv, which spans a number of beer styles, including old ale, barley wine and Burton ale. Strong ales are brewed thr ...
is a style of strong beer from the English brewing tradition. Another alcoholic drink known by the same name, enjoyed in the 18th century, was prepared by boiling barley in water, then mixing the barley water with white wine and other ingredients, such as
borage Borage ( or ; ''Borago officinalis''), also known as a starflower, is an annual herb In general use, herbs are plants with savory or aromatic properties that are used for flavoring and garnishing food, for medicinal purposes, or for fragrance ...

borage
, lemon and sugar. In the 19th century, a different barley wine was made prepared from recipes of ancient Greek origin.


Nonalcoholic beverages

Nonalcoholic drinks such as
barley water Barley water is a traditional drink consumed in various parts of the world. It is made by boiling barley Barley (''Hordeum vulgare''), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally. It was one of ...
and roasted barley tea have been made by boiling barley in water. In
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Alps and List of islands of Italy, several islands surrounding it, whose ...

Italy
, barley is also sometimes used as coffee substitute, ''
caffè d'orzo ''Caffè d'orzo'' (, Italian language, Italian for "coffee of barley", often shortened to simply orzo) or barley coffee is a type of hot drink, originating in Italy. Orzo is a caffeine-free roasted grain beverage made from ground barley (''orzo'' ...
'' (coffee of barley).


Other uses


Animal feed

Half of the United States' barley production is used as livestock feed. Barley is an important feed grain in many areas of the world not typically suited for maize production, especially in northern climates—for example, northern and eastern Europe. Barley is the principal feed grain in
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, Pacific and northward into the Arctic Oce ...

Canada
, Europe, and in the
northern United States The Northern United States, commonly referred to as the American North, the Northern States, or simply the North, is a geographical or historical region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") ...
. A finishing diet of barley is one of the defining characteristics of western Canadian beef used in marketing campaigns. As of 2014, an enzymatic process can be used to make a high-protein fish feed from barley, which is suitable for carnivorous fish such as
trout Trout are species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera ''Oncorhynchus'', ''Salmo'' and ''Salvelinus'', all of the subfamily (biology), subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae. The word ''trout'' is also used as part of the name o ...

trout
and
salmon Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish Actinopterygii ( New Latin ('having rays') + Greek ( 'wing, fins')), members of which are known as ray-finned fishes, is a clade A clade (; from grc, , ''klados'', " ...

salmon
.


Algistatic

Barley straw, in
England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is separated from by the to the east and the to the south. The country cover ...

England
, is placed in mesh bags and floated in fish ponds or water gardens to help prevent algal growth without harming pond plants and animals. Barley straw has not been approved by the EPA for use as a pesticide and its effectiveness as an algae regulator in ponds has produced mixed results, with either more efficacy against phytoplankton algae versus mat-forming algae, or no significant change, during university testing in the US and the UK.


Measurement

Barley grains were used for measurement in England, there being three or four barleycorns to the inch and four or five
poppy seed Poppy seed is an oilseed Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are oil An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that ...

poppy seed
s to the barleycorn. The statute definition of an inch was three barleycorns, although by the 19th century, this had been superseded by standard inch measures. This unit still persists in the
shoe size A shoe size is an indication of the fitting size of a shoe A shoe is an item of footwear Footwear refers to garments worn on the feet, which originally serves to purpose of protective clothing, protection against adversities of the enviro ...
s used in Britain and the USA. As modern studies show, the actual length of a kernel of barley varies from as short as to as long as depending on the cultivar. Older sources claimed the average length of a grain of barley being . The barleycorn was known as ''arpa'' in Turkish, and the feudal system in
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
employed the term ''arpalik'', or "barley-money", to refer to a second allowance made to officials to offset the costs of fodder for their horses.


Ornamental

A new stabilized
variegated '' 'Panascè', a bicolor (yellow-green) common fig cultivar. This Italian cultivar is a '' chimera''. Variegation is the appearance of differently coloured zones in the leaves, and sometimes the Plant stem, stems, of plants. Variegated leaves ...
variety of ''H. vulgare'', billed as ''H. vulgare'' variegate, has been introduced for cultivation as an ornamental and pot plant for pet cats to nibble.


Cultural

In English folklore, the figure of
John Barleycorn "John Barleycorn" is an United Kingdom, English folk song (Roud Folk Song Index, Roud 164). The character of John Barleycorn in the song is a personification of the important cereal crop barley and of the alcoholic beverages made from it, beer ...
in the
folksong Folk music includes traditional folk music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th-century folk revival A roots revival (folk revival) is a trend which includes young performers popularizing the traditional musical styles of thei ...

folksong
of the same name is a personification of barley, and of the alcoholic beverages made from it: beer and whisky. In the song, John Barleycorn is represented as suffering attacks, death, and indignities that correspond to the various stages of barley cultivation, such as reaping and malting.


See also

*
Barley wine Barley wine is a strong ale Strong ale is a type of ale, usually above 5% Alcohol by volume, abv and often higher, between 7% to 11% abv, which spans a number of beer styles, including old ale, barley wine and Burton ale. Strong ales are brewed thr ...
*
Pearl barley#REDIRECT Pearl barley 200px, Uncooked pearl barley with U.S. one cent coin for size comparison Pearl barley, or pearled barley, is whole grain barley Barley (''Hordeum vulgare''), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown ...


References


Notes


Bibliography

*


External links

*
Barley Information for Growers, eXtension
{{Authority control Forages vulgare Phytoremediation plants