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Autonomous prefectures () are one type of
autonomous administrative divisions of China Autonomous administrative divisions of China are specific areas associated with one or more ethnic minorities A minority group, by its original definition, refers to a group of people whose practices, race, religion, ethnicity, or other charact ...
, existing at the prefectural level, with either
ethnic minorities A minority group, by its original definition, refers to a group of people whose practices, race, religion, ethnicity, or other characteristics are lesser in numbers than the main groups of those classifications. However, in present-day sociology, ...
forming over 50% of the population or being the historic home of significant minorities. All autonomous prefectures are mostly dominated, in population, by the
Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four ...
. The official name of an autonomous prefecture includes the most
dominant minority In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisi ...
in that region, sometimes two, rarely three. For example, a
Kazakh
Kazakh
(''Kazak'' in official naming system) prefecture may be called ''Kazak Zizhizhou''. Like all other prefectural level divisions, autonomous prefectures are divided into county level divisions. There is one exception: Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture contains two prefectures of its own. Under the
Constitution of the People's Republic of China The Constitution of the People's Republic of China is nominally the constitution, supreme law of the People's Republic of China. It was adopted by the 5th National People's Congress on December 4, 1982, with Constitution of the People's Repu ...
, autonomous prefectures cannot be abolished.


List of autonomous prefectures

} (''Niepsha Nuosu Zytjiejux dde Zho'') , Xichang (Op Rro) city , - ,
Xinjiang Xinjiang (),, SASM/GNC: ''Xinjang''; zh, c=, p=Xīnjiāng; alternately romanized as Sinkiang officially the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) and formerly romanized as Sinkiang, is a landlocked autonomous region An autonomous ...

Xinjiang
,
Kizilsu Kizilsu (also as Kezilesu; ; KyrgyzKyrgyz, Kirghiz or Kyrgyzstani may refer to: *Things related to Kyrgyzstan *Kyrgyz people *Kyrgyz language *Kyrgyz culture *Kyrgyz cuisine *Yenisei Kirghiz *The Fuyu Kyrgyz language, Fuyü Gïrgïs language in N ...

Kizilsu
,
,
KyrgyzKyrgyz, Kirghiz or Kyrgyzstani may refer to: *Things related to Kyrgyzstan *Kyrgyz people *Kyrgyz language *Kyrgyz culture *Kyrgyz cuisine *Yenisei Kirghiz *The Fuyu Kyrgyz language, Fuyü Gïrgïs language in Northeastern China {{Disambig Languag ...

Kyrgyz
,
KyrgyzKyrgyz, Kirghiz or Kyrgyzstani may refer to: *Things related to Kyrgyzstan *Kyrgyz people *Kyrgyz language *Kyrgyz culture *Kyrgyz cuisine *Yenisei Kirghiz *The Fuyu Kyrgyz language, Fuyü Gïrgïs language in Northeastern China {{Disambig Languag ...
: (''Kızılsuu Kırgız avtonom oblastı'') ,
Artux Artux, Artush ( ug, ئاتۇش شەھىرى; Kyrgyz: ; also as ''Atushi''; zh, s=, p=Ātúshí Shì),The official spelling according to is a county-level city A county-level municipality (), county-level city or county city, formerly kno ...

Artux
city , - ,
Xinjiang Xinjiang (),, SASM/GNC: ''Xinjang''; zh, c=, p=Xīnjiāng; alternately romanized as Sinkiang officially the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) and formerly romanized as Sinkiang, is a landlocked autonomous region An autonomous ...

Xinjiang
, Bortala ,
,
Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an East Asian East Asia is the eastern region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") ...
,
Mongolian Mongolian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Mongolia, a country in Asia * Mongolian people, or Mongols * Mongolia (1911–24), the government of Mongolia, 1911–1919 and 1921–1924 * Mongolian language * Mongolian alphabet * Mongo ...

Mongolian
: (''Borotala mongγol ebereen zasaqu ǰuu'') , Bole (Bortala) city , - ,
Xinjiang Xinjiang (),, SASM/GNC: ''Xinjang''; zh, c=, p=Xīnjiāng; alternately romanized as Sinkiang officially the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) and formerly romanized as Sinkiang, is a landlocked autonomous region An autonomous ...

Xinjiang
, Changji ,
,
Hui The Hui people ( zh, c=, p=Huízú, w=Hui2-tsu2, Xiao'erjing Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "children's script" or "minor script" (cf. "original script" referring to the origina ...
, (''The Hui speak
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...
'')
Xiao'erjing Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "children's script" or "minor script" (cf. "original script" referring to the original Persian alphabet, Perso-Arabic script; zh, s=本经, t=本經, ...
: ,
Changji
Changji
city , - ,
Xinjiang Xinjiang (),, SASM/GNC: ''Xinjang''; zh, c=, p=Xīnjiāng; alternately romanized as Sinkiang officially the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) and formerly romanized as Sinkiang, is a landlocked autonomous region An autonomous ...

Xinjiang
,
Bayingolin Bayingolin (; often abbreviated to Bayingol; also as Bayinguoleng) is an autonomous prefecture for Mongols in China, Mongol people in the southeast of Xinjiang, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, Western China. It borders Gansu to the east, Qin ...
,
,
Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an East Asian East Asia is the eastern region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") ...
,
Mongolian Mongolian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Mongolia, a country in Asia * Mongolian people, or Mongols * Mongolia (1911–24), the government of Mongolia, 1911–1919 and 1921–1924 * Mongolian language * Mongolian alphabet * Mongo ...

Mongolian
: (''Bayangol mongγol ebereen zasaqu ǰuu'') ,
Korla Korla,The official spelling according to also known as Kurla, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency or from Mandarin Chinese as Ku'erle or Kuerle, is the second largest city in Xinjiang Xinjiang, SASM/GNC: ''Xinjang''; zh, ...
city , - ,
Xinjiang Xinjiang (),, SASM/GNC: ''Xinjang''; zh, c=, p=Xīnjiāng; alternately romanized as Sinkiang officially the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) and formerly romanized as Sinkiang, is a landlocked autonomous region An autonomous ...

Xinjiang
,
Ili Ili, ILI, Illi may refer to: Abbreviations * Irish Life International, part of Irish Life and Permanent * Intuitive Logical Introvert, a personality type in socionics * Influenza-like illness * Iran Language Institute, a state-owned, non-profit o ...

( Altay)
(
Tacheng TachengThe official spelling according to (), as the official romanized name, also transliterated from Mongolian as Qoqak, is a county-level city A county-level municipality (), county-level city or county city, formerly known as prefectu ...
) ,

()
()
()
() ,
Kazakh
Kazakh
, Kazakh: (''İle Qazaq awtonomïyalıq oblısı'')
( Kazakh: ) (''Altay aymağı'')
( Kazakh: ) (''Tarbağatay aymağı'') , Yining (Ghulja) city
( Altay city)
(
Tacheng TachengThe official spelling according to (), as the official romanized name, also transliterated from Mongolian as Qoqak, is a county-level city A county-level municipality (), county-level city or county city, formerly known as prefectu ...

Tacheng
city) , - ,
Yunnan Yunnan () is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in Southwest China, the southwest of the People's Republic of China. The province spans approximately and has a population of 48.3 million (as of 2018). The capital of the province is Ku ...

Yunnan
,
Dehong The Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture is located in western Yunnan Yunnan () is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in Southwest China, the southwest of the People's Republic of China. The province spans approximately and has ...
,
, Dai & Jingpo , Tai Nüa - (''Sakhkung Sam Jinghpo Amyu Madu Uphkang Mungdo'')
Zaiwa: ,
Mangshi Mangshi (; tdd, ᥝᥥᥒᥰ ᥛᥫᥒᥰ ᥑᥩᥢᥴ; Jingpho language, Jingpho: Mangshi Myu), former name Luxi (), is a county-level city and the seat of Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture, western Yunnan province, China. Mangshi has ...

Mangshi
city , - ,
Yunnan Yunnan () is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in Southwest China, the southwest of the People's Republic of China. The province spans approximately and has a population of 48.3 million (as of 2018). The capital of the province is Ku ...

Yunnan
,
Nujiang
Nujiang
,
,
Lisu
Lisu
, Lisu: ꓠꓳ-ꓟꓵ ꓡꓲ-ꓢꓴ ꓫꓵꓽ ꓚꓲꓸ ꓛꓬꓽ ꓗꓪꓼ ꓫꓵꓽ ꓝꓳꓴ (''Nolmut lisu shit jilqait guatshit zhou'') ,
Lushui Lushui () is a county-level city A county-level municipality (), county-level city or county city, formerly known as prefecture-controlled city (1949–1970: ; 1970–1983: ), is a county-level administrative division of the People ...
city , - ,
Yunnan Yunnan () is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in Southwest China, the southwest of the People's Republic of China. The province spans approximately and has a population of 48.3 million (as of 2018). The capital of the province is Ku ...

Yunnan
, Diqing (Dêqên) ,
,
Tibetan Tibetan may mean: * of, from, or related to Tibet * Tibetan people, an ethnic group * Tibetan language: ** Classical Tibetan, the classical language used also as a contemporary written standard ** Standard Tibetan, the most widely used spoken dialec ...
,
Tibetan Tibetan may mean: * of, from, or related to Tibet * Tibetan people, an ethnic group * Tibetan language: ** Classical Tibetan, the classical language used also as a contemporary written standard ** Standard Tibetan, the most widely used spoken dialec ...
: (''Bde-chen Bod-rigs rang-skyong khul'') , Shangri-La city , - ,
Yunnan Yunnan () is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in Southwest China, the southwest of the People's Republic of China. The province spans approximately and has a population of 48.3 million (as of 2018). The capital of the province is Ku ...

Yunnan
, Dali ,
, Bai , Bai: Darl•lit Baif•cuf zirl•zirl•zox ,
Dali
Dali
city , - ,
Yunnan Yunnan () is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in Southwest China, the southwest of the People's Republic of China. The province spans approximately and has a population of 48.3 million (as of 2018). The capital of the province is Ku ...

Yunnan
, Chuxiong ,
, Yi , ii, ꀒꇐꆈꌠꊨꏦꏱꅉꍏ (''Olu Nuosu Zytjiejux dde Zho'') , Chuxiong city , - ,
Yunnan Yunnan () is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in Southwest China, the southwest of the People's Republic of China. The province spans approximately and has a population of 48.3 million (as of 2018). The capital of the province is Ku ...

Yunnan
, Honghe ,
,
Hani Hani may refer to: People * Hani (name) * Hani (producer), a record producer and remixer from New York City * Hani (singer), a South Korean singer and member of EXID * Hani people, an ethnic group of China and Vietnam Places * Hani, an island in I ...
& Yi ,
Hani Hani may refer to: People * Hani (name) * Hani (producer), a record producer and remixer from New York City * Hani (singer), a South Korean singer and member of EXID * Hani people, an ethnic group of China and Vietnam Places * Hani, an island in I ...
: Haoqhoq Haqniqssaq Haqhholssaq Ziiqziifzel
ii, ꉼꉻꆈꌠꊨꏦꏱꅉꍏ (''Hopho Nuosu Zytjiejux dde Zho'') , Mengzi city , - ,
Yunnan Yunnan () is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in Southwest China, the southwest of the People's Republic of China. The province spans approximately and has a population of 48.3 million (as of 2018). The capital of the province is Ku ...

Yunnan
, Wenshan ,
,
ZhuangZhuang may refer to: *Zhuang people (or Bouxcuengh people), ethnic group in China *Zhuang languages *Zhuang logogram *Zhuang Zhou, ancient Chinese philosopher *Zhuang (surname) (庄/莊), a Chinese surname {{disambiguation Language and nationality ...
&
MiaoMiao may refer to: * Miao people, linguistically and culturally related group of people, recognized as such by the government of the People's Republic of China * Miao script or Pollard script, writing system used for Miao languages * Miao (Unicode b ...
, za, Munzsanh Bouxcuengh Myauzcuz Swcicouh
Hmong Hmong may refer to: * Hmong people #REDIRECT Hmong people#REDIRECT Hmong people The Hmong people ( RPA: ''Hmoob'', Nyiakeng Puachue: "𞄀𞄩𞄰", Pahawh Hmong: "𖬌𖬣𖬵" ) are an ethnic group living mainly in southern China, Vietna ...
: Veej Sa Tsuaam Txhwj Mioj Txhwj Txim Tsim Tsawb , Wenshan city , - ,
Yunnan Yunnan () is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in Southwest China, the southwest of the People's Republic of China. The province spans approximately and has a population of 48.3 million (as of 2018). The capital of the province is Ku ...

Yunnan
,
Xishuangbanna (Sibsongbanna)
Xishuangbanna (Sibsongbanna)
,
, Dai , khb, ᦈᦹᧈ ᦈᦹᧈ ᦵᦋᦲᧁᧈ ᦘᦱ ᦉᦱ ᦺᦑ ᧑᧒ ᦗᧃ ᦓᦱ ,
Jinghong Jinghong (; khb, ᨩ᩠ᨿᨦᩁᩩ᩵ᨦ; th, เชียงรุ่ง, , ; lo, ຊຽງຮຸ່ງ; also formerly romanised as ''Chiang Hung'', ''Chengrung'', ''Cheng Hung'', Jeng Hung, ''Jinghung'', ''Keng Hung'', ''Kiang Hung'' and ' ...

Jinghong
city


Ethnic composition of autonomous prefectures

:Note: * - denotes as the second titular ethnic group


Former autonomous prefectures of China

* Hainan Li and Miao Autonomous Prefecture (1952–1988) in
Guangdong Guangdong (, ), alternately romanized as Canton Province or Kwangtung, is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, admin ...

Guangdong
, abolished because of the establishment of Hainan Province. * Hedong Hui Autonomous Prefecture (1954–1955) in
Gansu Gansu (, ; alternately romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnatio ...

Gansu
, later changed name as Wuzhong Hui Autonomous Prefecture (1955–1958), abolished because of the establishment of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. *
Xihaigu Hui Autonomous Prefecture
Xihaigu Hui Autonomous Prefecture
(1953–1955) in
Gansu Gansu (, ; alternately romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnatio ...

Gansu
, later changed name as
Guyuan Hui Autonomous Prefecture
Guyuan Hui Autonomous Prefecture
(1955–1958), abolished because of the establishment of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. * Guixi Zhuang Autonomous Prefecture (sub-provincial level, 1953–1955) in Guangxi Province, abolished because of the establishment of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. * Bayinhot Mongol Autonomous Prefecture (1954–1956) in
Gansu Gansu (, ; alternately romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnatio ...

Gansu
, included today's Dengkou County and
Alxa League Alxa League or Ālāshàn League (; mn, , Mongolian Cyrillic. Алшаа аймаг) is one of 12 prefecture level divisions and 3 extant leagues of Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a l ...
. The autonomy abolished after it merged into
Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked Autonomous regions of China, autonomous region of the China, People's Republic of China. Its border includes most of the length of China's China–Mongolia border, ...
.


Administrative prefecture level units with a population of 30% or more of ethnic minorities

:Excluding prefecture level units of autonomous regions in 2000. * Hebei:
Chengde Chengde, formerly known as Jehol and Rehe, is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still from the Huangshi main urban area ...

Chengde
(Han - 55.32%, Manchu - 39.87%) * Liaoning:
Benxi Benxi () is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still from the Huangshi main urban area. A prefectural-level municipali ...

Benxi
(Han - 66.84%, Manchu - 30.22%),
Dandong Dandong (), formerly known as Andong, is a coastal prefecture-level city in southeastern Liaoning province, in the Northeast China, northeastern region of People's Republic of China. It is the largest Chinese border city, facing Sinuiju, North ...

Dandong
(Han - 64.11%, Manchu - 32.99%) * Hunan:
Zhangjiajie Zhangjiajie (), also known in Tujia language The Tujia language (Northern Tujia: Bifzivsar, ; Southern Tujia: Mongrzzirhof, ; ) is a language spoken natively by the Tujia people in Hunan, Hunan Province, China. It is unclassified within the Sino ...

Zhangjiajie
(Tujia - 68.40%, Han - 22.81%),
Huaihua Huaihua () is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still from the Huangshi main urban area. A prefectural-level municipali ...

Huaihua
(Han - 61.33%, Dong - 17.42%, Miao - 15.63%) * Guizhou:
Anshun Anshun () is a prefecture-level city A prefectural-level municipality (), prefectural-level city or prefectural city is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of Ch ...

Anshun
(Han - 61.6%, Buyei - 16.92%, Miao - 14.27%),
Tongren Tongren () is a prefecture-level city in eastern Guizhou province, People's Republic of China, located within a tobacco planting and crop agricultural area. Tongren was known as Tongren Prefecture () until November 2011, when it was converted into ...
(Tujia - 37.81%, Han - 31.76%, Miao - 14.87%, Dong - 11.41%) * Yunnan:
Yuxi Yuxi () is a prefecture-level city in the central part of Yunnan province of the People's Republic of China. The administrative center of Yuxi is Hongta District. Yuxi is approximately south of Kunming. Geography Yuxi is located in the center ...

Yuxi
(Han - 68,18%, Yi - 19,32%), Pu'er (Han - 40,92%, Hani - 16,98%, Yi - 16.58%, Lahu - 11.47%),
Lijiang Lijiang (), also known as Likiang, is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still from the Huangshi main urban area. A ...

Lijiang
(Han - 42.71%, Nakhi 20.51%, Yi - 18.68%, Lisu - 9.62%),
Lincang Lincang () is a prefecture-level city A prefectural-level municipality (), prefectural-level city or prefectural city is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of Chin ...

Lincang
(Han - 61.22%, Dai - 15.77%, Lahu and Va - 9.76%) * Qinghai:
Haidong Haidong (; Wylie transliteration, Wylie: Haitung) is a prefecture-level city of Qinghai province in Western China. Its name literally means "east of the Qinghai Lake, (Qinghai) Lake." On 8 February 2013 Haidong was upgraded from a prefecture () i ...

Haidong
(Han - 56.33%, Hui - 20.38%, Tibetan - 9.2%, Tu - 8.06%)


See also

*
List of prefecture-level divisions of China All provincial-level divisions of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, th ...
*
Tusi ''Tusi'' (; mnc, ᠠᡳᠮᠠᠨ ᡳ ᡥᠠᡶᠠᠨ; vi, Thổ ty), often translated as "headmen" or "chieftains", were hereditary tribal leaders recognized as imperial officials by the Yuan, Ming The Ming dynasty (), officially the ...

Tusi
Native Chieftain System *
Autonomous regions of China An autonomous region (AR; ) is a first-level administrative division of China Due to China's large Demographics of China, population and geographical area, the administrative divisions of China have consisted of several levels since Histo ...


External links


Regional Autonomy for Ethnic Minorities in China
{{Terms for types of country subdivisions
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...