HOME

TheInfoList




An audience is a group of people who participate in a show or encounter a
work of art A work of art, artwork, art piece, piece of art or art object is an artistic creation of aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), taste, as well as the phil ...

work of art
,
literature Literature broadly is any collection of Writing, written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, drama, and poetry. In recent centuries, the definition has expan ...

literature
(in which they are called "readers"),
theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actor, actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place, often a stage. The p ...

theatre
,
music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common elements such as (which governs and ), (and its associated concepts , , and ...

music
(in which they are called "listeners"),
video games#REDIRECT Video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, game controller, controller, computer keyboard, keyboard, or motion sensing device ...

video games
(in which they are called "players"), or academics in any medium. Audience members participate in different ways in different kinds of art; some events invite overt audience participation and others allowing only modest clapping and criticism and reception. Media audience studies have become a recognized part of the curriculum.
Audience theory Audience theory offers explanations of how people encounter media, how they use it, and how it affects them. Although the concept of an audience An audience is a group of people who participate in a show or encounter a , (in which they are ca ...
offers scholarly insight into audiences in general. These insights shape our knowledge of just how audiences affect and are affected by different forms of art. The biggest art form is the
mass media Mass media refers to a diverse array of media Media may refer to: Physical means Communication * Media (communication), tools used to deliver information or data ** Advertising media, various media, content, buying and placement fo ...
. Films, video games, radio shows,
software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions that tell a computer how to work. This is in contrast to Computer hardware, hardware, from which the system is built and actually performs the work. At the low level lang ...

software
(and hardware), and other formats are affected by the audience and its reviews and recommendations. In the age of easy
internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

internet
participation and citizen journalism, professional creators share space, and sometimes attention with the public. American journalist Jeff Jarvis said, "Give the people control of media, they will use it. The corollary: Don't give the people control of media, and you will lose. Whenever citizens can exercise control, they will." Tom Curley, President of the Associated Press, similarly said, "The users are deciding what the point of their engagement will be — what application, what device, what time, what place."


Types


Particular (real)

In
rhetoric Rhetoric () is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and ...
, some audiences depend on circumstance and situation and are characterized by the individuals that make up the audience. Sometimes these audiences are subject to persuasion and engage with the ideas of the speaker. Ranging in size and composition, this audience may come together and form a "composite" of multiple groups.


Immediate

An immediate audience is a type of audience that is composed of individuals who are face-to-face subjects with a speaker and a speaker's rhetorical text or speech. This audience directly listens to, engages with, and consumes the rhetorical text in an unmediated fashion. In measuring immediate audience reception and feedback, (audience measurement), one can depend on personal interviews, applause, and verbal comments made during and after a rhetorical speech.


Mediated

In contrast to immediate audiences, mediated audiences are composed of individuals who consume rhetorical texts in a manner that is different from the time or place in which a speaker presents text. Audiences who consume texts or speeches through television, radio and internet are considered mediated audiences because those mediums separate the rhetor and the audience. Such audiences are physically away from the audience and the message is controlled. Understanding the size and composition of mediated audiences can be difficult because mediums such as television, radio, and Internet can displace the audience from the time and circumstance of a rhetorical text or speech. In measuring mediated audience reception and feedback (a practice called
audience measurement Audience measurement measures how many people are in an audience, usually in relation to radio listenership and television viewership, but also in relation to newspaper and magazine readership and, increasingly, web traffic on websites. Sometime ...
), one can depend on opinion polls and ratings, as well as comments and forums that may be featured on a website. This applies to may fields such as movies, songs and much more. There are companies that specialize in audience measurement.


Theoretical (imagined)

Theoretical audiences are imagined for the purpose of helping a speaker compose, practice, or a critic to understand, a rhetorical text or speech.


Self (self-deliberation)

When a rhetor deeply considers, questions, and deliberates over the content of the ideas they are conveying, it can be said that these individuals are addressing the audience of self, or self-deliberating. Scholars
Chaïm Perelman Chaïm Perelman (born Henio (or Henri) Perelman; sometimes referred to mistakenly as Charles Perelman) (20 May 1912, Warsaw Warsaw ( ; pl, Warszawa ; see also Warsaw#Toponymy and names, other names) is the capital and List of cities and tow ...

Chaïm Perelman
and
Lucie Olbrechts-Tyteca Lucie Olbrechts-Tyteca (1899–1987) was a Belgian academic and longtime co-worker of the philosopher Chaïm Perelman. She volunteered in 1948 to support his work and developed several aspects of the '' New Rhetoric'' independently in later years. ...
, in their book
The New Rhetoric: A Treatise on Argumentation
', argue that the rhetor "is in a better position than anyone else to test the value of his own arguments." The audience of self, while not serving as the ends to all rhetorical purpose or circumstance, nevertheless acts as a type of audience that not only operates as a function of self-help, but as instrument used to discover the available means of persuasion.


Universal

The universal audience is an imagined audience that serves as an ethical and argumentative test for the rhetor. This also requires the speaker to imagine a composite audience that contains individuals from diverse backgrounds and to discern whether or not the content of the rhetorical text or speech would appeal to individuals within that audience. Scholars and Olbrechts-Tyteca ascertain that the content addressed to a universal audience "must convince the reader that the reasons adduced are of a compelling character, that they are self-evident, and possess an absolute and timeless validity". The concept of the universal audience has received criticism for being idealistic because it can be considered as an impediment in achieving persuasive effect with particular audiences. Yet, it still may be useful as an ethical guide for a speaker and a critical tool for a reader or audience.


Ideal

An ideal audience is a rhetor's imagined, intended audience. In creating a rhetorical text, a rhetor imagines is the
target audience A target audience is the intended audience An audience is a group of people who participate in a show or encounter a work of art A work of art, artwork, art piece, piece of art or art object is an artistic creation of aesthe ...
, a group of individuals that will be addressed, persuaded, or affected by the speech or rhetorical text. This type of audience is not necessarily imagined as the most receptive audience, but as the future particular audience that the rhetor will engage with. Imagining such an audience allows a rhetor to formulate appeals that will grant success in engaging with the future particular audience. In considering an ideal audience, a rhetor can imagine future conditions of mediation, size, demographics, and shared beliefs among the audience to be persuaded.


Implied

An implied audience is an imaginary audience determined by an auditor or reader as the text's constructed audience. The implied audience is not the actual audience, but the one that can be inferred by reading or analyzing the text. Communications scholar
Edwin Black Edwin Black (born February 27, 1950) is an American historian and author, as well as a syndicated columnist A columnist is a person who writes for publication in a series, creating an article that usually offers commentary and opinions. Colum ...
, in his essay, The Second Persona, presents the theoretical concept of the implied audience using the idea of two personae. The first persona is the implied rhetoric (the idea of the speaker formed by the audience) and the second persona is the implied audience (the idea of the audience formed by and utilized for persuasion in the speech situation). A critic could also determine what the text wants that audience to become or do after the rhetorical situation.


On the web

Through the Internet, every person is given the opportunity to participate in different ways. The Internet gives people a platform to write and reach the people who are interested in what they are writing about. When writers write online, they are able to form communities with the people they share common interests with. The audiences that people are trying to reach can be general or specific, all depending on what the writer is discussing in their online posts. Audiences have to go and check into what the writers are writing to stay on top of the latest information. Writers have to find their niche and try hard to work their way into an already formed community. The audience the writer is reaching is able to respond to the writers posts and can give feedback. The Internet allows these connections to be formed and fostered. In the ''Here Comes Everybody'' book by
Clay Shirky Clay Shirky (born 1964) is an American writer, consultant and teacher on the social and economic effects of Internet The Internet (Capitalization of Internet, or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that u ...

Clay Shirky
, there are various examples of how audience is not only receiving content but actually creating it. Internet creates a chance of being part of an audience and a creator at the same time.


Audience participation

Audience participation is commonly found in performances which break the
fourth wall 300px, The Auditorium Building, Chicago The Auditorium Building in Chicago is one of the best-known designs of Louis Sullivan Louis Henry Sullivan (September 3, 1856 – April 14, 1924) was an American architect, and has been call ...
. Examples include the traditional British
pantomime Pantomime (; informally panto) is a type of musical theatre, musical comedy stage production designed for family entertainment. It was developed in England and is performed throughout the United Kingdom, Ireland and (to a lesser extent) in other ...

pantomime
s,
stand-up comedy Stand-up comedy is a comedy Comedy (from the el, κωμῳδία, ''kōmōdía'') is a genre of fiction that consists of discourses or works intended to be humor Humour (Commonwealth English The use of the English language ...
, and creative stage shows such as
Blue Man Group Blue Man Group is an American performance art Performance art is an artwork or art exhibition created through actions executed by the artist or other participants. It may be witnessed live or through documentation, spontaneously develope ...

Blue Man Group
. Audience participation can be uncomfortable for certain people, but is growing and evolving as a new tool of brand activation and
brand engagement Brand engagement is the process of forming an emotional or rational attachment between a consumer A consumer is a person or a group who intends to order, orders, or uses purchased goods, products, or Service (economics), services primarily for per ...
. In a bid to create and reinforce a special bond between brands and their consumers, companies are increasingly looking towards events that involve active audience participation. Often, organizations provide branded objects to event attendees that will involve the audience in the show as well as act as souvenirs of the event, creating a lasting link with the brand. For example, during
Super Bowl XLVIII Super Bowl XLVIII was an American football American football, referred to simply as football in the United States and Canada and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular American footb ...
, the audience was incorporated in the Super Bowl XLVIII Halftime Show as part of the lighting effects.
Pepsi Pepsi is a carbonated Carbonation is the chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Classically, chemical A chemical substance is a form of m ...

Pepsi
involved the spectators by giving them "video ski hats" that produced visual effects across the crowd. By appealing more directly to people and emotions, brands can obtain feedback from their consumers. Companies that provide or seek such experiences refer to the term "crowd activation". For example, Tangible Interaction named one of its branches Crowd Activation and PixMob refers to itself as a crowd activation company on its website. One of the most well-known examples of popular audience participation accompanies the motion picture and music ''
The Rocky Horror Picture Show ''The Rocky Horror Picture Show'' is a 1975 musical Musical is the adjective of music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the universal cultural aspe ...
'' and its earlier stage incarnation ''The Rocky Horror Show''. The audience participation elements are often seen as the most important part of the picture, to the extent that the audio options on the DVD version include the option.


Examples

In the audience participation for the
Rocky Horror Picture Show ''The Rocky Horror Picture Show'' is a 1975 musicalMusicAL was a 24-hour Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeast Europe, Southeastern ...
, the audience will make "call backs", and yell at the screen at certain parts of the movie. Also, a number of props are thrown and used by the audience during certain parts of the film. In British pantomime performances, the audience is a crucial aspect of the show and is expected to perform certain tasks such as: * Interacting with an "audience friend", a character often designed to be comedic and sympathetic, such as
Buttons In modern clothing A kanga, worn throughout the African Great Lakes region Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel, and attire) are items worn on the body. Typically, clothing is made of fabrics or textiles, but over time it has inclu ...
from
Cinderella "Cinderella", or "The Little Glass Slipper", is a folk tale with thousands of variants throughout the world.Dundes, Alan. Cinderella, a Casebook. Madison, Wis: University of Wisconsin Press, 1988. The protagonist is a young woman living in forsa ...

Cinderella
. Typical interactions include
call and response Call and response is a form of interaction between a speaker and an audience in which the speaker's statements ("calls") are punctuated by responses from the listeners. This form is also used in music, where it falls under the general category of A ...
(e.g. Buttons: "Hiya gang!" Audience: "Hiya Buttons!") * Back and forth arguments, usually composed of simple, repetitive phrases (e.g. Character: "No there isn't!" Audience: "Yes there is!") * "Ghost gags", where the audience yells loudly to inform the character of imminent danger, usually whilst the character is completely aloof. ''
The Complete Works of William Shakespeare (Abridged) ''The Complete Works of William Shakespeare (Abridged)'' (also known as ''The Compleat Wrks of Wllm Shkspr (Abridged)'') is a play (theatre), play written by Adam Long (American actor), Adam Long, Daniel Singer (actor), Daniel Singer, and Jess Wi ...
'' divides the audience into groups assigned to call out the concerns of three components of a character's psyche. In ''
The Mystery of Edwin Drood ''The Mystery of Edwin Drood'' is the final novel by Charles Dickens Charles John Huffam Dickens (; 7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's best-known fictional chara ...
'', a
Broadway theatre Broadway theatre,Although ''theater'' is the generally preferred spelling in the United States (see American and British English spelling differences Despite the various English dialects spoken from country to country and within differ ...
musical Musical is the adjective of music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common elements such as (which governs and ), ...
based on
Charles Dickens Charles John Huffam Dickens (; 7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's best-known fictional characters and is regarded by many as the greatest novelist of the Victorian e ...

Charles Dickens
's last, unfinished work, the audience must vote for whom they think the murderer is, as well as the real identity of the detective and the couple who end up together. The 1984 Summer Olympics included
card stunt Card stunts are a planned, coordinated sequence of actions performed by an audience, whose members raise cards that, in the aggregate, create a recognizable image. The images they create can range widely and, through careful planning, the same c ...
s at the Olympic Stadium.
Tony and Tina's Wedding ''Tony n’ Tina’s Wedding'' is an "site-specific theatre, environmental/interactive theatre, immersive theatre" event based on a traditional Italian-American wedding and Wedding reception, reception, with warm and intrusive stereotypes exaggerate ...
engages the entire audience at once, staging a narrative set during a wedding in which the audience performs the role of "guests". The British
panel game A panel show or panel game is a radio Radio is the technology of signaling and communicating Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy), entitie ...
'''' often allows the audience to try to answer questions. Currently, the audience have won one show, and have come last in another. Magic shows often rely on some audience participation. Psychological illusionist
Derren Brown Derren Brown (born 27 February 1971) is an English mentalist, illusionist, painter, and author. He began performing in 1992, making his television debut with ''Derren Brown: Mind Control'' in 2000, and has since produced several more shows f ...
relies heavily on audience participation in his live shows. During performances of the
Radetzky March "Radetzky March", Op. 228, is a march March is the third month of the year and named after Mars in both the Julian and Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the calendar used in most of the world. It was introduced in Octob ...
, it is traditional for the audience to clap along with the beat of the second (louder) repetitions of the chorus. This is particularly notable at the
Neujahrskonzert The Vienna New Year's Concert () is an annual concert A concert is a live music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the ...
.
Blog A blog (a truncation In mathematics and computer science, truncation is limiting the number of numerical digit, digits right of the decimal point. Truncation and floor function Truncation of positive real numbers can be done using the f ...
gers often allow their readers moderated or unmoderated comments sections. Some musical groups often heavily incorporate audience participation into their live shows. The
superhero A superhero or superheroine is a stock character that possesses Superpower (ability), ''superpowers'', abilities beyond those of ordinary people, and fits the role of the hero, typically using his or her powers to help the World peace, world b ...

superhero
-themed comedy rock band
The Aquabats The Aquabats are an American rock music, rock band formed in Huntington Beach, California in 1994. Throughout many fluctuations in the group's line-up, singer Christian Jacobs, The MC Bat Commander and bassist Chad Larson, Crash McLarson have r ...
typically do so within their theatrical stage shows through such antics as "pool floatie races", where members of the band race across the venue on inflatable rafts via
crowd surfing crowd surfing at the Alimas Carnival, Maldives. May 2007. Crowd surfing is the process in which a person is passed overhead from person to person (often during a concert), transferring the person from one part of the venue to another. The "crowd ...
, or providing the audience with projectiles (such as plastic balls or
beach ball A beach ball is an inflatable s are the most common type of inflatable. An inflatable is an object that can be inflated with a gas, usually with air File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volume, excluding ...

beach ball
s) to throw at costumed "bad guys" who come out on stage.
Koo Koo Kanga Roo Koo Koo Kanga Roo is an American kids' comedy disco duo from Minneapolis, Minnesota, consisting of vocalists Bryan (Bryan Atchison) and Neil (Neil Olstad). Billed as an "interactive dance party duo" and described as "the Beastie Boys meet ''Sesam ...
, a comedy dance-pop duo, write their music solely for audience participation, utilizing
call and response Call and response is a form of interaction between a speaker and an audience in which the speaker's statements ("calls") are punctuated by responses from the listeners. This form is also used in music, where it falls under the general category of A ...
style
sing-along Sing-along, also called community singing or group singing, is an event of singing Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice. A person who sings is called a singer or vocalist (in jazz and popular music). Singers per ...
songs which are usually accompanied by a simple
dance move Dance moves or dance steps (more complex dance moves are called dance patterns, dance figures, dance movements, or dance variations) are usually isolated, defined, and organized so that beginning dancers can learn and use them independently of each ...
that the band encourage the audience to follow along with.


Faux participation

The television series ''
Mystery Science Theater 3000 ''Mystery Science Theater 3000'' (abbreviated as ''MST3K'') is an American television comedy series created by Joel Hodgson Joel Hodgson (born February 20, 1960) is an American writer, comedian and television actor. He is best known for crea ...
'' featured a man and his robots who were held as imprisoned audience members and tortured by being forced to view "bad" movies; to retain their sanity, they talked throughout and each one. In a similar vein, the online site
Television Without Pity Television Without Pity (often abbreviated TWoP) was a website that provided detailed recaps of select television dramas, situation comedies and reality TV shows along with discussion forums. These recaps were written with sarcastic criticism and ...
has a stable of reviewers and recappers who speak the
lingo Lingo, a contraction of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system composed of gly ...
of audience members rather than of scholars, and who sometimes act as though they, too, are being tortured.


References


Further reading

*Steinmetz, John. ''How to Enjoy a Live Concert''. 'S.l''. Naxos, 99-? 51 p., with ill. {{Authority control Media studies Theatre Observation