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An artist is a person engaged in an activity related to creating
art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use o ...

art
, practicing the
arts The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression of creativity Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something somehow new and somehow valuable is formed. The created item may be intangible (such as an idea, a scienti ...

arts
, or demonstrating an art. The common usage in both everyday
speech Speech is human vocal communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, ...

speech
and academic
discourse Discourse is a generalization of the notion of a conversation Conversation is interactive communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy) ...

discourse
refers to a practitioner in the
visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to ...
s only. However, the term is also often used in the entertainment business, especially in a
business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit." Having a business name A trad ...

business
context, for
musician A musician is a person who composes, conducts, or performs music. According to the United States Employment Service The United States Employment Service (USES) is an agency of the federal government of the United States The federal gov ...

musician
s and other performers (although less often for actors). "Artiste" (the French for artist) is a variant used in English in this context, but this use has become rare. Use of the term "artist" to describe writers is valid, but less common, and mostly restricted to contexts like that used in criticism.


Dictionary definitions

The ''
Oxford English Dictionary The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal historical dictionary A historical dictionary or dictionary on historical principles is a dictionary which deals not only with the latterday meanings of words but also the historica ...
'' defines the older broad meanings of the term "artist": * A learned person or Master of Arts * One who pursues a practical science, traditionally medicine,
astrology Astrology is a pseudoscience Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that claim to be both scientific and factual but are incompatible with the scientific method. Pseudoscience is often characterized by contrad ...
,
alchemy Depiction of Ouroboros from the alchemical treatise ''Aurora consurgens'' (15th century), Zentralbibliothek Zürich, Switzerland Alchemy (from Arabic: ''al-kīmiyā''; from Ancient Greek: ''khumeía'') is an ancient branch of natural philosop ...
,
chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a with other . ...

chemistry
* A follower of a pursuit in which skill comes by study or practice * A follower of a manual art, such as a mechanic * One who makes their
craft A craft or trade is a pastime or an occupation that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled work. In a historical sense, particularly the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted ap ...
a fine art * One who cultivates one of the
fine arts In European academic traditions, fine art is developed primarily for aesthetics Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about ...
– traditionally the arts presided over by the
muses In and , the Muses ( grc, Μοῦσαι, Moûsai, el, Μούσες, Múses) are the goddesses of , , and . They were considered the source of the knowledge embodied in the , , and s that were related orally for centuries in ancient Greek cultu ...

muses


History of the term

The Greek word "techně", often translated as "art," implies mastery of any sort of craft. The adjectival Latin form of the word, "technicus", became the source of the English words
technique Technique or techniques may refer to: Music * The Techniques, a Jamaican rocksteady vocal group of the 1960s *Technique (band), a British female synth pop band in the 1990s *Technique (album), ''Technique'' (album), by New Order, 1989 *Techniques ( ...
, technology,
technical Technical may refer to: * Technical (vehicle), an improvised fighting vehicle * Technical analysis, a discipline for forecasting the future direction of prices through the study of past market data * Technical drawing, showing how something is con ...
. In Greek culture each of the nine
Muse In ancient Greek religion Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and Greek mythology, mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and Cult (religious practice), cult practi ...

Muse
s oversaw a different field of human creation: *
Calliope In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature of ...

Calliope
(the 'beautiful of speech'): chief of the muses and muse of epic or heroic poetry *
Clio In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of s originally told by the , and a of . These stories concern the and , the lives and activities of , , and , and the origins and significance of the ancient Greeks' own and practices. M ...

Clio
(the 'glorious one'): muse of history *
Erato In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature of ...

Erato
(the 'amorous one'): muse of love or erotic poetry, lyrics, and marriage songs *
Euterpe Euterpe (; el, Εὐτέρπη, lit=rejoicing well' or 'delight , from grc, εὖ, eû, well + el, τέρπειν, térpein, to please) was one of the Muses In ancient Greek religion and Greek mythology, mythology, the Muses ( grc, Μοῦσ ...

Euterpe
(the 'well-pleasing'): muse of music and
lyric poetry Modern lyric poetry is a formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person. It is not equivalent to song lyrics, though song lyrics are often in the lyric mode, and it is also ''not'' equi ...
*
Melpomene In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature of ...
(the 'chanting one'): muse of
tragedy Tragedy (from the grc-gre, τραγῳδία, ''tragōidia'', ''tragōidia'') is a genre of drama Drama is the specific Mode (literature), mode of fiction Mimesis, represented in performance: a Play (theatre), play, opera, mime, ball ...

tragedy
*
Polyhymnia Polyhymnia (; el, Πολυύμνια, lit=the one of many hymns), alternatively Polymnia (Πολύμνια) was in Greek mythology the Muse of sacred poetry, sacred hymn, dance, and eloquence as well as agriculture and pantomime. Etymology Poly ...
or Polymnia (the ' ingerof many
hymn A hymn is a type of song A song is a musical composition Musical composition can refer to an piece or work of , either or , the of a musical piece or to the process of creating or writing a new piece of music. People who create ...

hymn
s'): muse of
sacred song
sacred song
,
oratory Oratory is a type of public speaking. Oratory may also refer to: * Eloquence, fluent, forcible, elegant, or persuasive speaking * Rhetoric, the art of discourse Places * Oratory (worship), a public or private place of divine worship, akin to a c ...

oratory
,
lyric Lyric may refer to: * Lyric poetry is a form of poetry that expresses a subjective, personal point of view * Lyric, from the Greek language, a song that is played with a lyre * Lyrics, the composition in verse which is sung to a melody to constitut ...
, singing, and
rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of persuasion, which along with grammar and logic (or dialectic – see Martianus Capella), is one of the Trivium, three ancient arts of discourse. Rhetoric aims to study the techniques writers or sp ...
*
Terpsichore In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature o ...

Terpsichore
(the ' ne whodelights in dance'): muse of
choral A choir (; also known as a chorale or chorus) is a musical ensemble A musical ensemble, also known as a music group or musical group, is a group of people who perform Instrumental music, instrumental or vocal music, with the ensemble typi ...
song and dance * Thalia (the 'blossoming one'): muse of comedy and bucolic poetry *
Urania Urania ( ; grc, Οὐρανία, Ouranía; modern short name ''Ránia''; meaning "heavenly" or "of heaven") was, in Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of s originally told by the , and a of . These stories concern the and , th ...

Urania
(the 'celestial one'): muse of
astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and celestial event, phenomena. It uses mathematics, phys ...
No muse was identified with the visual arts of painting and sculpture. In ancient Greece sculptors and painters were held in low regard, somewhere between freemen and slaves, their work regarded as mere manual labour. The word ''art'' derives from the Latin "ars" (stem ''art-''), which, although literally defined means "skill method" or "technique", also conveys a connotation of beauty. During the Middle Ages the word ''artist'' already existed in some countries such as Italy, but the meaning was something resembling ''craftsman'', while the word ''artesan'' was still unknown. An artist was someone able to do a work better than others, so the skilled excellency was underlined, rather than the activity field. In this period some "artisanal" products (such as textiles) were much more precious and expensive than paintings or sculptures. The first division into major and minor arts dates back at least to the works of
Leon Battista Alberti Leon Battista Alberti (; 14 February 1404 – 25 April 1472) was an Italian Renaissance humanist Renaissance humanism was a revival in the study of classical antiquity, at first Italian Renaissance, in Italy and then spreading across Western Eu ...

Leon Battista Alberti
(1404–1472): ''
De re aedificatoria#REDIRECT De re aedificatoria ''De re aedificatoria'' (''On the Art of Building'') is a classic architectural treatise written by Leon Battista Alberti Leon Battista Alberti (; 14 February 1404 – 25 April 1472) was an Italian Renaissance human ...
, De statua,
De pictura ''De pictura'' (English: "On Painting") is a treatise or commentarii written by the Italian humanist and artist Leon Battista Alberti Leon Battista Alberti (; 14 February 1404 – 25 April 1472) was an Italian Renaissance humanist author, arti ...
'', which focused on the importance of the intellectual skills of the artist rather than the manual skills (even if in other forms of art there was a
project A project (or program) is any undertaking, carried out individually or collaboratively and possibly involving research or design, that is carefully plan A plan is typically any diagram or list of steps with details of timing and resources, us ...

project
behind). With the
Academies An academy (Attic Greek Attic Greek is the Greek language, Greek dialect of the regions of ancient Greece, ancient region of Attica, including the ''polis'' of classical Athens, Athens. Often called classical Greek, it was the prestige (sociolin ...

Academies
in Europe (second half of 16th century) the gap between fine and applied arts was definitely set. Many contemporary definitions of "artist" and "art" are highly contingent on culture, resisting aesthetic prescription, in much the same way that the features constituting beauty and the beautiful cannot be standardized easily without corruption into
kitsch Kitsch ( ; loanword A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragma ...
.


The present day concept of an 'artist'

''Artist'' is a descriptive term applied to a person who engages in an activity deemed to be an art. An artist also may be defined unofficially as "a person who expresses him- or herself through a medium". The word is also used in a qualitative sense of, a person
creative
creative
in,
innovative 190px, 1,093_U.S._patents_in_his_name..html" ;"title="phonograph">Thomas Edison with phonograph. Edison was one of the most prolific inventors in history, holding List of Edison patents">1,093 U.S. patents in his name.">phonograph">Thomas Edison ...

innovative
in, or adept at, an artistic practice. Most often, the term describes those who create within a context of the fine arts or '
high culture High culture encompasses the culture, cultural objects of aesthetic value, which a society collectively esteem as exemplary art, and the Intellectualism, intellectual works of philosophy, history, art and literature that a society consider represen ...
', activities such as drawing, painting,
sculpture Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions. It is one of the plastic arts. Durable sculptural processes originally used carving (the removal of material) and modelling (the addition of material, as clay), ...

sculpture
, acting, dancing, writing, filmmaking,
new media New media are forms of media that are computational and rely on computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can p ...
, photography, and music—people who use imagination, talent, or skill to create works that may be judged to have an
aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of m ...

aesthetic
value.
Art historians The history of art focuses on objects made by humans for any number of spiritual, narrative, philosophical, symbolic, conceptual, documentary, decorative, and even functional and other purposes, but with a primary emphasis on its aesthetics, ae ...

Art historians
and
critics A critic is a professional who communicates an assessment and an opinion of various forms of creative works such as art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical profic ...
define artists as those who produce art within a recognized or recognizable discipline. Contrasting terms for highly skilled workers in media in the
applied arts The applied arts are all the arts that apply design A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specification in the ...
or
decorative arts ] The decorative arts are arts or crafts whose object is the design A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specificati ...

decorative arts
include
artisan Wood carver in Bali An artisan (from french: artisan, it, artigiano) is a skilled craft worker who makes or creates material objects partly or entirely by hand. These objects may be functional or strictly decorative, for example fur ...

artisan
, craftsman, and specialized terms such as
potter A potter is someone who makes pottery. Potter may also refer to: Places United States *Potter, originally a section on the Alaska Railroad, currently a neighborhood of Anchorage, Alaska, US *Potter, Arkansas *Potter, Nebraska *Potters, New Jersey ...

potter
,
goldsmith A goldsmith is a Metalworking, metalworker who specializes in working with gold and other precious metals. Nowadays they mainly specialize in jewelry-making but historically, goldsmiths have also made cutlery, silverware, platter (dishware), pl ...

goldsmith
or
glassblower Glassblowing is a glassforming technique that involves inflating molten glass Glass is a non- crystalline, often transparency and translucency, transparent amorphous solid, that has widespread practical, technological, and decorative use in, f ...

glassblower
. Fine arts artists such as painters succeeded in the
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

Renaissance
in raising their status, formerly similar to these workers, to a decisively higher level. The term may also be used loosely or metaphorically to denote highly skilled people in any non-"art" activities, as well— law, medicine, mechanics, or mathematics, for example. Often, discussions on the subject focus on the differences among "artist" and "
technician A technician is a worker in a field of technology who is proficient in the relevant skill and technique, with a relatively practical understanding of the theoretical principles. Specialisation The term technician covers many different specialisa ...

technician
", "entertainer" and "
artisan Wood carver in Bali An artisan (from french: artisan, it, artigiano) is a skilled craft worker who makes or creates material objects partly or entirely by hand. These objects may be functional or strictly decorative, for example fur ...

artisan
", "
fine art In European academic traditions, fine art is developed primarily for aesthetics Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about M ...
" and "
applied art The applied arts are all the arts that apply design and decoration to everyday and essentially practical objects in order to make them aesthetically pleasing."Applied art" in ''The Oxford Dictionary of Art''. Online edition. Oxford Unive ...
", or what constitutes art and what does not. The French word ''artiste'' (which in French, simply means "artist") has been imported into the English language where it means a performer (frequently in
Music Hall Music hall is a type of British theatrical entertainment Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest In finance Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they opera ...

Music Hall
or
Vaudeville Vaudeville (; ) is a of born in France at the end of the 19th century. A vaudeville was originally a comedy without psychological or moral intentions, based on a comical situation: a dramatic composition or light poetry, mixed with songs or b ...
). Use of the word "artiste" can also be a
pejorative A pejorative or slur is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), meaning ...
term. The English word 'artiste' has thus a narrower range of meaning than the word 'artiste' in French. In ''Living with Art'', Mark Getlein proposes six activities, services or functions of contemporary artists: #Create places for some human purpose. #Create extraordinary versions of ordinary objects. #Record and commemorate. #Give tangible form to the unknown. #Give tangible form to feelings. #Refresh our vision and help see the world in new ways. After looking at years of data on arts school graduates as well as policies & program outcomes regarding artists, arts, & culture, Elizabeth Lingo and Steven Tepper propose the divide between "arts for art's sake" artists and commercially successful artists is not as wide as may be perceived, and that "this bifurcation between the commercial and the noncommercial, the excellent and the base, the elite and the popular, is increasingly breaking down" (Eikhof & Haunschild, 2007). Lingo and Tepper point out: #arts ''consumers'' don't restrict themselves to either "high" or "common" arts; instead, they demonstrate "omnivorous tastes, liking both reggae and Rachmaninoff" (Peterson & Kern, 1996; Walker & Scott-Melnyk, 2002) #data indicates "artists are willing to move across sectors and no longer see working outside the commercial sector as a badge of distinction or authenticity" (Bridgstock, 2013; Ellmeier, 2003) #academic, policy, and government leaders are adapting—widening—programs & opportunities in recognition of "the role of artists as drivers of economic growth and innovation" (Bohm & Land, 2009; DCMS, 2006, 2008; Florida, 2012; Hesmondhalgh & Baker, 2010; Lloyd, 2010; Iyengar, 2013). #arts graduates name "business and management skills" as the "number one area
hey Hey or Hey! may refer to: Music * Hey (band), a Polish rock band Albums * Hey (Andreas Bourani album), ''Hey'' (Andreas Bourani album) or the title song (see below), 2014 * Hey! (Julio Iglesias album), ''Hey!'' (Julio Iglesias album) or the ti ...

hey
wish they had been more exposed to in college" (Strategic National Arts Alumni Project NAAP 2011; Tepper & Kuh, 2010).


Training and employment

The
US Bureau of Labor Statistics US or Us most often refers to: * United States of America The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consi ...
classifies many visual artists as either ''craft artists'' or ''fine artists''. A craft artist makes handmade functional works of art, such as pottery or clothing. A fine artist makes paintings, illustrations (such as
book illustration The illustration of manuscript A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand – or, once practical typewriter A typewriter is a or machine for characters. Typi ...
s or
medical illustration A medical illustration is a form of biological illustration in 1754.Biological illustration is the use of technical illustration to visually communicate the structure and specific details of biological subjects of study. This can be used to demon ...
s), sculptures, or similar artistic works primarily for their aesthetic value. The main source of skill for both craft artists and fine artists is long-term repetition and practice. Many fine artists have studied their art form at university and some have a master's degree in fine arts. Artists may also study on their own or receive on-the-job training from an experienced artist. The number of available jobs as an artist is increasing more slowly than other fields. About half of US artists are self-employed. Others work in a variety of industries. For example, a pottery manufacturer will employ craft artists, and book publishers will hire illustrators. In the US, fine artists have a median income of approximately US$50,000 per year, and craft artists have a median income of approximately US$33,000 per year. This compares to US$61,000 for all art-related fields, including related jobs such as
graphic designer A graphic designer is a professional within the graphic design and graphic arts industry who assembles together images, typography, or motion graphics to create a piece of design. A graphic designer creates the graphics primarily for published me ...

graphic designer
s,
multimedia artist Multimedia is a form of communication that combines different content format, content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, or video into a single presentation, in contrast to traditional mass media, such as printed material or audio re ...
s,
animator An animator is an artist An artist is a person engaged in an activity related to creating art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of prima ...

animator
s, and
fashion designers Fashion design is the Art (skill), art of applying design, aesthetics, clothing construction and natural beauty to clothing and its Fashion accessory, accessories. It is influenced by cultural and social attitudes, and has varied over time and plac ...
. Many artists work part-time as artists and hold a second job.


Examples of art and artists

*
Abstract Art Abstract art uses visual language of shape, form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world. Western art had been, from the Renaissance up to the middle of the 19th c ...
:
Wassily Kandinsky Wassily Wassilyevich Kandinsky (; rus, Василий Васильевич Кандинский, Vasiliy Vasilyevich Kandinskiy, vɐˈsʲilʲɪj vɐˈsʲilʲjɪvʲɪtɕ kɐnʲˈdʲinskʲɪj;  – 13 December 1944) was a Russian painter an ...
*
Abstract expressionism Abstract expressionism is a post–World War II art movement in American painting, developed in New York City in the 1940s. It was the first specifically American movement to achieve international influence and put New York at the center of the ...
:
Jackson Pollock Paul Jackson Pollock (January 28, 1912 – August 11, 1956) was an American painter and a major figure in the abstract expressionist Abstract expressionism is a post–World War II art movement in American painting, developed in New Y ...

Jackson Pollock
*
Action painting Action painting, sometimes called "gestural abstraction", is a style of painting in which paint is spontaneously dribbled, splashed or smeared onto the canvas, rather than being carefully applied. The resulting work often emphasizes the physical act ...

Action painting
:
Willem de Kooning Willem de Kooning (; ; April 24, 1904 – March 19, 1997) was a Dutch-American Dutch Americans ( Dutch: ''Nederlandse Amerikanen''), not to be confused with the Pennsylvania Dutch The Pennsylvania Dutch (''Pennsilfaanisch-Deitsch''), also ...
* Actor:
Marlon Brando Marlon Brando Jr. (April 3, 1924 – July 1, 2004) was an American actor with a career spanning 60 years, during which he won List of awards and nominations received by Marlon Brando, many accolades, including two Academy Award for Best Actor, A ...
* Actress:
Greta Garbo Greta Garbo (born Greta Lovisa Gustafsson; 18 September 1905 – 15 April 1990) was a Swedish-American actress. She was known for her melancholic, somber persona due to her many film portrayals of tragedy, tragic characters and for her subtle an ...

Greta Garbo
*
Animation Animation is a method in which figures Figure may refer to: General *A shape, drawing, depiction, or geometric configuration *Figure (wood), wood appearance *Figure (music), distinguished from musical motif *Noise figure, in telecommunication ...

Animation
:
Chuck Jones Charles Martin Jones (September 21, 1912 – February 22, 2002) was an American animator, voice actor, and painter, best known for his work with Warner Bros. Cartoons Warner Bros. Cartoons, Inc. (also known as Warner Bros. Classic Animation an ...

Chuck Jones
*
Appropriation art Appropriation in art is the use of pre-existing objects or images with little or no transformation applied to them. The use of appropriation has played a significant role in the history of the arts (literature, literary, visual arts, visual, music ...
:
Marcel Duchamp Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp (; ; 28 July 1887 – 2 October 1968) was a French Americans, French-American painter, sculptor, chess player, and writer whose work is associated with Cubism, Dada, and conceptual art. Duchamp is commonly regarded, a ...

Marcel Duchamp
*
Architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that h ...

Architect
:
I.M. Pei Ieoh Ming Pei, FAIA Fellow of the American Institute of Architects (FAIA) is a postnominal Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles or designatory letters, are letters placed after a person's name to indica ...

I.M. Pei
*
Art Deco Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Gr ...

Art Deco
: Erté *
Art Nouveau Art Nouveau (; ) is an international style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating som ...
:
Louis Comfort Tiffany Louis Comfort Tiffany (February 18, 1848 – January 17, 1933) was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass File:Oostende Sint-Petrus-en-Pauluskerk Rosette.jpg, 300px, Ou ...
* Assemblage:
Joseph Cornell Joseph Cornell (December 24, 1903 – December 29, 1972) was an American artist and film maker, one of the pioneers and most celebrated exponents of assemblage. Influenced by the Surrealists, he was also an avant-garde experimental filmmaker. ...
*
Ballet Ballet () is a type of performance dance that originated during the Italian Renaissance in the fifteenth century and later developed into a concert dance form in France and Russia. It has since become a widespread and highly technical form of ...

Ballet
:
Margot Fonteyn Dame Margaret Evelyn de Arias DBE (''née'' Hookham; 18 May 191921 February 1991), known by the stage name Margot Fonteyn, was an English ballerina. She spent her entire career as a dancer with the Royal Ballet The Royal Ballet is an in ...
*
Baroque Art The Baroque (, ; ) is a style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historic ...
:
Caravaggio Michelangelo Merisi (Michele Angelo Merigi or Amerighi) da Caravaggio (, , ; 29 September 1571 – 18 July 1610) was an Italian painter Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an et ...
*
BioArt BioArt is an art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence ...
: Hunter Cole * Book artist:
Carol Barton Carol Barton (born 3 June 1954) is a book artist, paper engineer, curator, and educator. She is the proprietor of Popular Kinetics Press and has published several editions of artist books. She may be best known for her series of interactive workbo ...
*
Calligraphy Calligraphy (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...

Calligraphy
:
Rudolf Koch Rudolf Koch (20 November 1876 – 9 April 1934) was a German type designer, professor, and a master of lettering, calligraphy, typography and illustration. Commonly known for his typefaces created for the Klingspor Type Foundry, his most widely ...
*
Cartoons A cartoon is a type of illustration An illustration is a decoration, interpretation or visual explanation of a text, concept or process, designed for integration in print and digital published media, such as poster A poster is a tempor ...
:
Carl Barks Carl Barks (March 27, 1901 – August 25, 2000) was an American cartoonist, author, and painter. He is best known for his work in Disney comics, Disney comic books, as the writer and artist of the first Donald Duck stories and as the creato ...

Carl Barks
*
Caricature A caricature is a rendered image showing the features of its subject in a simplified or exaggerated way through sketching, pencil strokes, or through other artistic drawings (compare to: cartoon A cartoon is a type of illustration that is ty ...

Caricature
:
Honoré Daumier Honoré-Victorin Daumier (; February 26, 1808February 10, 1879) was a French painter, sculptor, and printmaker, whose many works offer commentary on the social and political life in France, from the Revolution of 1830 to the fall of the second Napo ...
*
Ceramic art Ceramic art is art made from ceramic materials, including clay. It may take forms including artistic pottery, including tableware, tiles, figurines and other sculpture. As one of the plastic arts, ceramic art is one of the visual arts. Whil ...
:
Peter Voulkos Peter Voulkos (born Panagiotis Harry Voulkos; 29 January 1924 – 16 February 2002) was an American artist of Greek descent. He is known for his abstract expressionist Abstract expressionism is a post–World War II art movement in Americ ...
*
Choreography Choreography is the art or practice of designing sequence In mathematics, a sequence is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed and order theory, order matters. Like a Set (mathematics), set, it contains Element (m ...

Choreography
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Martha Graham Martha Graham (May 11, 1894 – April 1, 1991) was an American modern dance Modern dance is a broad genre of western concert dance, concert or theatrical dance which included dance styles such as ballet, folk, ethnic, religious, and soci ...
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Collage Collage (, from the french: coller, "to glue" or "to stick together";) is a technique of art creation, primarily used in the visual arts, but in music too, by which art results from an Assemblage (art), assemblage of different forms, thus creat ...

Collage
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Romare Bearden Romare Bearden (September 2, 1911 – March 12, 1988) was an African-American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the Black people ...

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Color Field , ''Beginning'', 1958, magna on canvas painting, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. Working in Washington, D.C., Noland was a pioneer of the color field movement in the late 1950s. Color field painting is a style of abstract painting that e ...
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Mark Rothko Mark Rothko (), born Markus Yakovlevich Rothkowitz (russian: Ма́ркус Я́ковлевич Ротко́вич, link=no, lv, Markuss Rotkovičs, link=no; name not Anglicized Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally angli ...

Mark Rothko
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Colorist In comics a Media (communication), medium used to express ideas with images, often combined with text or other visual information. It typically the form of a sequence of Panel (comics), panels of images. Textual devices such as speech ball ...
: Josef Albers * Comedy: Charlie Chaplin * Comics: Will Eisner * Musical composition, Composing: Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi, Giuseppe Verdi * Conceptual art: Sol LeWitt * Cubism: Pablo Picasso * Dada: Man Ray * Dance: Isadora Duncan * Decollage: Mimmo Rotella * Design: Arne Jacobsen * Digital art: David Em * Doll, Doll Maker: Greer Lankton * Etching: Csaba Markus * Expressionism: Edvard Munch * Fashion design: Yves Saint Laurent (designer), Yves Saint Laurent * Fashion illustration: Joel Resnicoff * Fauvism, Fauvist: Henri Matisse * Fiction, Fiction writing: Virginia Woolf * Film director: Jean-Luc Godard * Fluxus: George Maciunas * Fumage: Burhan Dogancay * Video game design: Peter Molyneux * Geometric abstraction: Piet Mondrian * Genius: Leonardo da Vinci * Graphic design: Milton Glaser * Happening: Allan Kaprow * Hard-edge painting: Theo van Doesburg * Horticulture: André le Nôtre * Illustrations: Quentin Blake * Ikebana: sogetsu * Impressionism, Impressionist: Claude Monet * Industrial design: Frank Lloyd Wright * Installation art: Christo and Jeanne-Claude * Instrumentalist, Instrumental performance: André Rieu * Internet art: Aaron Koblin * Jewelry: Fabergé * Landscape architecture: Frederick Law Olmsted * Landscape art: John Constable * Light art: Dan Flavin * Mail art: Ray Johnson * Minimalism, Minimalist art: Donald Judd * Mosaics: Elaine M Goodwin * Murals: Diego Rivera * Composer, Musical Composer: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart * Musical instrument, Musical instrument assemblage: Antonio Stradivari * Musical Theatre: Stephen Sondheim * Musician: Miles Davis * Neo-impressionism: Paul Signac * Neo-figurative: Verónica Ruiz de Velasco * New Media art: Ken Feingold * Non Fiction, Non Fiction writing: Maya Angelou * Op Art: Bridget Riley * Oration: Cicero * Ornithology: John James Audubon * Outsider art: Howard Finster * Painting: Rembrandt van Rijn * Performance Art: Carolee Schneemann * Performer: Al Jolson * Photography: Ansel Adams * Playwriting: Edward Albee * Poetry: Emily Dickinson * Pointillism: Georges Seurat * Pop Art: Andy Warhol * Posters: Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec * Post-Impressionism: Vincent van Gogh * Pottery: Bernard Leach * Printmaking: Albrecht Dürer * Puppetry: Jim Henson * Realism (arts), Realism: Ilya Repin * Renaissance art: Michelangelo Buonarroti * Rococo: Antoine Watteau * Sculpture: Auguste Rodin * Singing: Odetta * Songwriting: Joni Mitchell * Stand Up Comedy, Stand Up Comedian: Richard Pryor * Street Art: Banksy * Suprematism: Kazimir Malevich * Surrealism: Salvador Dalí * Textile art: Sheila Hicks * Theatre: William Shakespeare * Theatre Arts: Robert Edmond Jones * Theatre Director: Peter Brook * Tragedy: Sophocles * Typography: Eric Gill * Ukiyo-e: Hokusai * Vedette (cabaret), Vedette: Susana Gimenez * Video Art: Bill Viola * Visual effects, Visual effects artist * Woodwork: Sam Maloof


See also

* Art * Art history * Arts by region * Artist in Residence * Fine art * Humanities * List of painters by name * List of painters * List of composers * List of sculptors * List of sketches of notable people by Marguerite Martyn * Mathematics and art * Social science


Notes


References

* P.Galloni, Il sacro artefice. Mitologie degli artigiani medievali, Laterza, Bari, 1998 * C. T. Onions (1991). ''The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary''. Clarendon Press Oxford.


External links

* {{Authority control Aesthetics Artists, Art occupations Arts-related lists Humanities occupations Artisans