HOME

TheInfoList




An apricot (, ) is a
fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the ...

fruit
, or the tree that bears the fruit, of several species in the genus ''
Prunus ''Prunus'' is a genus of trees and shrubs, which includes (among many others) the fruits plums, Cherry, cherries, peaches, Peach#Nectarine, nectarines, apricots, and almonds. Native to the northern temperate regions, 430 different species are c ...

Prunus
'' (stone fruits). Usually, an apricot is from the species ''
P. armeniaca
P. armeniaca
'', but the fruits of the other species in ''Prunus'' sect. ''Armeniaca'' are also called apricots.


Etymology

Apricot first appeared in English in the 16th century as ''abrecock'' from the
Middle French Middle French (french: moyen français) is a historical division of the French language French ( or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from ...
, ''aubercot'', or later from
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...

Portuguese
, ''albricoque''. The
specific
specific
name ''armeniaca'' was first used by
Gaspard Bauhin Gaspard Bauhin or Caspar Bauhin ( la, Casparus Bauhinus; 17 January 1560 – 5 December 1624), was a Swiss Swiss may refer to: * the adjectival form of Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , ...

Gaspard Bauhin
in his ''Pinax Theatri Botanici'' (1623), referring to the species as ''Mala armeniaca'', "Armenian apple".
Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus (; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his Nobility#Ennoblement, ennoblement as Carl von Linné#Blunt, Blunt (2004), p. 171. (), was a Swedish botanist, zoologist, taxonomist, and physician who formalised binomi ...

Linnaeus
took up Bauhin's epithet in the first edition of his ''
Species Plantarum ' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with" ...
'' in 1753, ''Prunus armeniaca''.


Species

Apricots are species belonging to ''Prunus'' sect. ''Armeniaca''. The taxonomic position of '' P. brigantina'' is disputed. It is grouped with
plum A plum is a fruit of some species in Prunus subg. Prunus, ''Prunus'' subg. ''Prunus'.'' Mature plum fruits may have a dusty-white waxy coating that gives them a glaucous appearance. This is an epicuticular wax coating and is known as "wax bl ...
species according to chloroplast DNA sequences, but more closely related to
apricot An apricot (, ) is a fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The ...

apricot
species according to nuclear DNA sequences. * ''
Prunus armeniaca ''Prunus armeniaca'' is the most commonly cultivated apricot species. The native range is somewhat uncertain due to its extensive prehistoric cultivation. Genetic studies indicate Central Asia is the center of origin. It is extensively cultivated ...

Prunus armeniaca
'' – common apricot, widely cultivated for its edible fruit and
kernel Kernel may refer to: Computing * Kernel (operating system) In an operating system with a Abstraction layer, layered architecture, the kernel is the lowest level, has complete control of the hardware and is always in memory. In some systems it ...
* ''
Prunus brigantina ''Prunus brigantina'', called Briançon apricot (french: Abricotier de Briançon), Briançon plum (french: Prunier de Briançon), marmot plum (french: Marmottier), and Alpine apricot, is a wild tree species native to France and Italy. Its fruit is ...
'' – Briançon apricot, native to Europe, cultivated for its edible fruit and oil-producing
kernel Kernel may refer to: Computing * Kernel (operating system) In an operating system with a Abstraction layer, layered architecture, the kernel is the lowest level, has complete control of the hardware and is always in memory. In some systems it ...
*''
Prunus cathayana ''Prunus'' is a genus of trees and shrubs, which includes the fruits plums, Cherry, cherries, peaches, Peach#Nectarine, nectarines, apricots, and almonds. Native to the northern temperate regions, 430 different species are classified under ''Prun ...
'' - native to
Hebei Hebei (; alternately Hopeh) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, f ...
* ''Prunus'' × ''dasycarpa'' – purple apricot, cultivated in Central Asia and adjacent areas for its edible fruit * ''
Prunus hongpingensis ''Prunus'' is a genus of trees and shrubs, which includes the fruits plums, Cherry, cherries, peaches, Peach#Nectarine, nectarines, apricots, and almonds. Native to the northern temperate regions, 430 different species are classified under ''Prun ...
'' – Hongping apricot, native to
Shennongjia Shennongjia Forestry District () is a County (People's Republic of China), county-level administrative unit (a "forestry district") in northwestern Hubei province, People's Republic of China, directly subordinated to the provincial government. It oc ...
, cultivated for its edible fruit * ''
Prunus hypotrichodes ''Prunus'' is a genus of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, in ...
'' – native to
Chongqing Chongqing ( ; ; Sichuanese pronunciation: , Standard Mandarin Standard Chinese (), in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a dialect of Mandarin that emerged as the lingu ...

Chongqing
* ''
Prunus limeixing ''Prunus'' is a genus of trees and shrubs, which includes the fruits plums, Cherry, cherries, peaches, Peach#Nectarine, nectarines, apricots, and almonds. Native to the northern temperate regions, 430 different species are classified under ''Prun ...
'' – cultivated in northern China for its edible fruit * ''
Prunus mandshurica ''Prunus mandshurica'', also called Manchurian apricot and scout apricot, is a tree in the genus '' Prunus''. It was first described by Karl Maximovich in 1883 as a variety of the Siberian apricot (Tibetan apricot) '' Prunus armeniaca''. It is ...
'' – Manchurian apricot, native to Northeast Asia, cultivated for its
kernel Kernel may refer to: Computing * Kernel (operating system) In an operating system with a Abstraction layer, layered architecture, the kernel is the lowest level, has complete control of the hardware and is always in memory. In some systems it ...
, the fruits of some cultivars edible * ''
Prunus mume ''Prunus mume'' is an East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia, which is defined in both Geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The modern State (polity), states of East Asia include China, Japan, Mongolia, ...
'' – Japanese apricot, native to southern China, widely cultivated for its beautiful blossom and edible fruit * ''
Prunus sibirica ''Prunus sibirica'', called Siberian apricot (), is a species of shrub or small tree native to northern China, Korea, Mongolia, and eastern Siberia. It is in the genus ''Prunus ''Prunus'' is a genus of trees and shrub A shrub (or bush, but ...
'' – Siberian apricot, native to Siberia, Mongolia, northern China, and Korea, cultivated for its
kernel Kernel may refer to: Computing * Kernel (operating system) In an operating system with a Abstraction layer, layered architecture, the kernel is the lowest level, has complete control of the hardware and is always in memory. In some systems it ...
* ''
Prunus zhengheensis ''Prunus mume'' is an East Asian and Southeast Asian tree species classified in the ''Armeniaca'' section of the genus ''Prunus'' subgenus ''Prunus''. Its common names include Chinese plum, Japanese plum, and Japanese apricot. The flower, long ...
'' – Zhenghe apricot, native to
Fujian Fujian (; alternately romanized as Fukien or Hokkien) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, sub ...

Fujian


Description

The apricot is a small tree, tall, with a trunk up to in diameter and a dense, spreading canopy. The
leaves A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant plant stem, stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. The leaves, stem, flower and fruit together form the shoot system. Leaves are ...

leaves
are
ovate Ovate may refer to: * Ovate or vates, a term for ancient Celtic bards, prophets, and philosophers * Ovates, one of three ranks of membership in the Welsh Gorsedd * Ovate Ovate may refer to: * Ovate or vates, a term for ancient Celtic bards, proph ...

ovate
, long, and wide, with a rounded base, a pointed tip, and a finely serrated margin. The
flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom Image:Cerisier du Japon Prunus serrulata.jpg, Cherry blossoms in Paris in full bloom. In botany, blossoms are the flowers of stone fruit fruit tree, trees (genus ''Prunus'') and of some other plan ...

flower
s are in diameter, with five white to pinkish petals; they are produced singly or in pairs in early spring before the leaves. The
fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the ...

fruit
is a
drupe In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the A ...
similar to a small
peach The peach (''Prunus persica'') is a deciduous In the fields of horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists grow ...

peach
, diameter (larger in some modern
cultivar A cultivar is a type of plant that people have bred for desired traits, which are reproduced in each new generation by a method such as grafting, tissue culture or carefully controlled seed production. Most cultivars arise from purposeful human ...
s), from yellow to orange, often tinged red on the side most exposed to the sun; its surface can be smooth (botanically described as:
glabrous Glabrousness refers to hairless skin. Glabrousness may also refer to: * Glabrousness (botany), smooth parts of plants * Glabrousness (entomology), parts of insects without hair or scales See also

* {{disambiguation ...
) or velvety with very short hairs (botanically:
pubescent Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child Biologically, a child (plural children) is a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opp ...
). The flesh is usually firm and not very juicy. Its taste can range from sweet to tart. The single
seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was released to generally positi ...

seed
is enclosed in a hard, stony shell, often called a "stone" or "
kernel Kernel may refer to: Computing * Kernel (operating system), the central component of most operating systems * Kernel (image processing), a matrix used for image convolution * Compute kernel, in GPGPU programming * Kernel method, in machine learnin ...
", with a grainy, smooth texture except for three ridges running down one side.Flora of China
''Armeniaca vulgaris''
/ref>Rushforth, K. (1999). ''Trees of Britain and Europe''. Collins .


Cultivation and uses


Origin and domestication


''Prunus armeniaca''

The most commonly cultivated apricot ''P. armeniaca'' was known in
Armenia Armenia (; hy, Հայաստան, translit=Hayastan, ), officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is ...

Armenia
during ancient times, and has been cultivated there for so long that it was previously thought to have originated there, hence the epithet of its scientific name. However, this is not supported by genetic studies, which instead confirm the hypothesis proposed by Nikolai Vavilov that domestication of ''P. armeniaca'' occurred in
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north, including the former Soviet Union, Soviet republics of the Sov ...

Central Asia
and
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

China
. The domesticated apricot then diffused south to
South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia cov ...

South Asia
, west to
West Asia Western Asia, also West Asia, is the westernmost subregion of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hem ...
(including Armenia),
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
and
North Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in th ...

North Africa
, and east to
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
.


''Prunus mume''

Japanese apricot '' P. mume'' is another widely cultivated apricot species, usually for ornamental uses. Despite the common name, its
center of origin A center of origin (or center of diversity) is a geographical area where a group of organisms, either domesticated or wild, first developed its distinctive properties. They are also considered centers of diversity. Centers of origin were first ...
is China, and it was introduced to other parts of East Asia in ancient times.


Cultivation practices

Apricots have a chilling requirement of 300 to 900 chilling units. A dry climate is good for fruit maturation. The tree is slightly more cold-hardy than the
peach The peach (''Prunus persica'') is a deciduous In the fields of horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists grow ...

peach
, tolerating winter temperatures as cold as or lower if healthy. They are hardy in USDA zones 5 through 8. A limiting factor in apricot culture is spring
frost Frost is a thin layer of ice Ice is water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a ). It is ...

frost
s: They tend to flower very early (in early March in western Europe), meaning spring frost can kill the flowers. Furthermore, the trees are sensitive to temperature changes during the winter season. In China, winters can be very cold, but temperatures tend to be more stable than in
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
and especially
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
, where large temperature swings can occur in winter. Hybridization with the closely related ''
Prunus sibirica ''Prunus sibirica'', called Siberian apricot (), is a species of shrub or small tree native to northern China, Korea, Mongolia, and eastern Siberia. It is in the genus ''Prunus ''Prunus'' is a genus of trees and shrub A shrub (or bush, but ...
'' (Siberian apricot; hardy to but with less palatable fruit) offers options for breeding more cold-tolerant plants. They prefer well-drained soils with a pH of 6.0 to 7.0. Apricot cultivars are usually
grafted Grafting or graftage is a horticulture, horticultural technique whereby tissue (biology), tissues of plants are joined so as to continue their growth together. The upper part of the combined plant is called the scion () while the lower part is c ...
onto plum or peach rootstocks. The cultivar
scion Scion may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Fictional entities *Scion, a playable class in the game ''Path of Exile'' (2013) *Atlantean Scion, a device in the ''Tomb Raider'' video game series *Scions, an alien race in the video game ''Bat ...
provides the fruit characteristics, such as flavour and size, but the
rootstock A rootstock is part of a plant, often an underground part, from which new above-ground growth can be produced. It could also be described as a stem with a well developed root system, to which a bud from another plant is grafted. It can refer to a ...
provides the growth characteristics of the plant. Some of the more popular US apricot cultivars are 'Blenheim', 'Wenatchee Moorpark', 'Tilton', and 'Perfection'. Some apricot cultivars are self-compatible, so do not require pollinizer trees; others are not: 'Moongold' and 'Sungold', for example, must be planted in pairs so they can pollinate each other. Hybridisors have created what is known as a "black apricot" or "purple apricot", ('' Prunus dasycarpa''), a hybrid of an apricot and the cherry plum (''
Prunus cerasifera __NOTOC__ ''Prunus cerasifera'' is a species of plum A plum is a fruit of some species in Prunus subg. Prunus, ''Prunus'' subg. ''Prunus'.'' Mature plum fruits may have a dusty-white waxy coating that gives them a glaucous appearance. This ...

Prunus cerasifera
''). Other apricot–plum hybrids are variously called .


Pests and diseases

Apricots are susceptible to various diseases whose relative importance is different in the major production regions as a consequence of their climatic differences. For example, hot weather as experienced in California's Central Valley often causes pit burn, a condition of soft and brown fruit around the pit. Bacterial diseases include bacterial spot and crown gall. Fungal diseases include brown rot caused by ''
Monilinia fructicola ''Monilinia fructicola'' is a species of fungus A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of Eukaryote, eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and Mold (fungus), molds, as well as the more fami ...

Monilinia fructicola
'': infection of the blossom by rainfall leads to "blossom wilt" whereby the blossoms and young shoots turn brown and die; the twigs die back in a severe attack; brown rot of the fruit is due to ''Monilinia'' infection later in the season. Dieback of branches in the summer is attributed to the fungus '' Eutypa lata'', where examination of the base of the dead branch reveals a canker surrounding a pruning wound. Other fungal diseases are black knot, ''Alternaria'' spot and fruit rot, and
powdery mildew Powdery mildew is a fungus, fungal disease that affects a wide range of plants. Powdery mildew diseases are caused by many different species of fungi in the order Erysiphales. Powdery mildew is one of the easier plant diseases to identify, as it ...

powdery mildew
. Unlike peaches, apricots are not affected by leaf curl, and bacterial canker (causing sunken patches in the bark, which then spread and kill the affected branch or tree) and silver leaf are not serious threats, which means that pruning in late winter is considered safe.


Production

In 2019, world production of apricots was 4.1 million
tonne The tonne ( or ; symbol: t) is a metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilogram The kilogram (also kilogramme) is the base unit of mass Mass is the physical quantity, quantity of ''matter'' in a physical body. It is also a meas ...
s, led by
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
with 21% of the world total (table). Other major producers (in descending order) were
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, italic=yes, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikasi, italic=yes), is a doubly landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, ter ...

Uzbekistan
,
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
,
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
, and
Algeria ) , image_map = Algeria (centered orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Algiers , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , religion = , official_languages = , languages_type = Oth ...

Algeria
.


Nutrition

In a 100-gram amount, raw apricots supply 48
Calories The calorie is a unit of energy Unit may refer to: Arts and entertainment * UNIT Unit may refer to: Arts and entertainment * UNIT, a fictional military organization in the science fiction television series ''Doctor Who'' * Unit of action, a ...
and are composed of 11%
carbohydrates A carbohydrate () is a biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a ...
, 1%
protein Proteins are large biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a No ...

protein
, less than 1%
fat In nutrition Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. A sub-discipline of both chemistry and biology, biochemistry may be divided ...

fat
, and 86% water (table). Raw apricots are a moderate source of
vitamin A Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol, retinal, (also known as retinaldehyde), retinoic acid and several provitamin A carotenoids (most notably Beta-Carotene, beta-carotene). Vitamin A has mul ...

vitamin A
and
vitamin C Vitamin C (also known as ascorbic acid and ascorbate) is a vitamin A vitamin is an organic molecule , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain ca ...

vitamin C
(12% of the
Daily Value The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) used in nutrition labeling on food and dietary supplement products in the U.S. and Canada is the daily intake level of a nutrient A nutrient is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in ...
each).


Dried apricots

Dried apricots are a type of traditional dried fruit. The world's largest producer of dried apricots is Turkey. When treated with
sulfur dioxide Sulfur dioxide (IUPAC The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC ) is an international federation of National Adhering OrganizationsNational Adhering Organizations in chemistry are the organizations that work as the autho ...
(E220), the color is vivid
orange Orange most often refers to: *Orange (colour), occurs between red and yellow in the visible spectrum *Orange (fruit), the fruit of the tree species '' Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' ** Orange blossom, its fragrant flower *Some other citrus or citrus-li ...

orange
.
Organic Organic may refer to: * Organic, of or relating to an organism, a living entity * Organic, of or relating to an anatomical organ (anatomy), organ Chemistry * Organic matter, matter that has come from a once-living organism, is capable of decay or ...
fruit not treated with sulfur dioxide is darker in color and has a coarser texture. When apricots are dried, the relative concentration of nutrients is increased, with vitamin A,
vitamin E Vitamin E is a group of eight fat solubleLipophilicity (from Greek language, Greek λίπος "fat" and :wikt:φίλος, φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solven ...

vitamin E
,
potassium Potassium is a chemical element In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, b ...

potassium
, and
iron Iron () is a chemical element In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behav ...

iron
having Daily Values above 25% (table).


Phytochemicals

Apricots contain various
phytochemical Phytochemicals are chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element held together by che ...
s, such as provitamin A and
polyphenol Polyphenols () are a large family of naturally occurring organic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their com ...

polyphenol
s, including
catechins Flavan-3-ols (sometimes referred to as flavanols) are derivatives of flavan The flavans are benzopyran derivatives that use the 2-phenyl-3,4-dihydro-2''H''-chromene skeleton. They may be found in plants. These compounds include the flavan-3-ol ...
and
chlorogenic acid Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is the ester An ester is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical el ...

chlorogenic acid
. Taste and aroma compounds include
sucrose Sucrose is a type of sugar Sugar is the generic name for , soluble s, many of which are used in food. Simple sugars, also called s, include , , and . Compound sugars, also called s or double sugars, are molecules made of two monosacchari ...

sucrose
,
glucose Glucose is a simple with the . Glucose is the most abundant , a subcategory of s. Glucose is mainly made by and most during from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight, where it is used to make in s, the most abundant carbohydr ...

glucose
,
organic acids An organic acid is an organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-hydrogen chemical bond, bonds. Due to carbon's ability to Catenation, ...
,
terpene Terpenes () are a class of natural product A natural product is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than ...
s,
aldehyde Chemically, an aldehyde is a compound containing a functional group In organic chemistry, a functional group is a substituent or moiety (chemistry), moiety in a molecule that causes the molecule's characteristic chemical reactions. The same ...

aldehyde
s and
lactone Lactones are cyclic carboxylic ester An ester is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical eleme ...

lactone
s.
Apricot kernel An apricot kernel is the seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it ...
s (seeds) contain
amygdalin Amygdalin (from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ) ...

amygdalin
, a poisonous compound. On average, bitter apricot kernels contain about 5% amygdalin and sweet kernels about 0.9% amygdalin. These values correspond to 0.3% and 0.05% of
cyanide A cyanide is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element held together by che ...

cyanide
. Since a typical apricot kernel weighs 600 mg, bitter and sweet varieties contain, respectively, 1.8 and 0.3 mg of cyanide.


In culture

The apricot is the
national fruit This list of national fruits is arranged alphabetically by country. Some national fruits are officially designated, some are unofficial. National fruits References

{{National symbols Edible fruits, National, List Lists of foods, Fruit Li ...
of
Armenia Armenia (; hy, Հայաստան, translit=Hayastan, ), officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is ...

Armenia
, mostly growing in the
Ararat plain The Ararat Plain ( hy, Արարատյան դաշտ ''Araratyan dasht''), alternatively known as the Iğdır Plain ( tr, Iğdır Ovası), is one of the largest plain In geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece An ...
. It is often depicted on souvenirs. The Chinese associate the apricot with education and medicine. For instance, the classical word (literally: "apricot
altar An altar is a structure upon which offerings such as sacrifice Sacrifice is the offering of material possessions or the lives of animals or humans to a deity A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phe ...

altar
") (xìng tán 杏坛) which means "educational circle", is still widely used in written language. Chuang Tzu, a Chinese philosopher in the fourth century BC, told a story that
Confucius } Confucius ( ; zh, s=, p=Kǒng Fūzǐ, "Master Kǒng"; or commonly zh, s=, p=Kǒngzǐ, labels=no; ) was a Chinese philosopher Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period () and Warring States period (), ...

Confucius
taught his students in a forum surrounded by the wood of apricot trees. The association with medicine in turn comes from the common use of apricot kernels as a component in
traditional Chinese medicine#REDIRECT Traditional Chinese medicine {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
, and from the story of Dong Feng (董奉), a physician during the
Three Kingdoms period The Three Kingdoms () from 220 to 280 AD was the tripartite division of China among the states of Wei, Shu Shu may refer to: China * Sichuan, China, officially abbreviated as Shu (蜀) * Shu (state) (conquered by Qin in 316 BC), an ancie ...
, who required no payment from his patients except that they plant apricot trees in his orchard upon recovering from their illnesses, resulting in a large grove of apricot trees and a steady supply of medicinal ingredients. The term "expert of the apricot grove" (杏林高手) is still used as a poetic reference to physicians. The fact that apricot season is short has given rise to the common
Egyptian Arabic Egyptian Arabic, locally known as Colloquial Egyptian ( ar, العامية المصرية, ), or simply ''Masri'' (), is the spoken vernacular A vernacular or vernacular language refers to the language or dialect that is spoken by people tha ...
and
Palestinian Arabic Palestinian Arabic is a dialect continuum of mutually intelligible varieties of Levantine Arabic spoken by most Palestinians in State of Palestine, Palestine, Israel and in the Palestinian diaspora populations. Together with Jordanian Arabic, it ...
expression '' filmishmish'' ("in apricot [season]") or ''bukra filmishmish'' ("tomorrow in apricot [season]"), generally uttered as a riposte to an unlikely prediction, or as a rash promise to fulfill a request. In Middle Eastern cuisine, Middle Eastern and North African cuisines, apricots are used to make Qamar al-Din ( "Moon of the Religion"), a thick apricot drink that is a popular fixture at Iftar during Ramadan. Qamar al-Din is believed to originate in Damascus, Syria, where the variety of apricots most suitable for the drink was first grown. In Jewish culture, apricots are commonly eaten as part of the Tu BiShvat seder, Tu Bishvat seder. The Turkish idiom ''bundan iyisi Şam'da kayısı'' (literally, "the only thing better than this is an apricot in Damascus") means "it doesn't get any better than this". In the US Marines it is considered exceptionally bad luck to eat or possess apricots, especially near tanks. This superstition has been documented since at least the Vietnam War and is often cited as originating in World War II. Even naming them is considered unlucky, so they are instead called "cots", "Forbidden fruit" or "A-fruit".


Gallery

File:Dried date, peach, apricot, and stones. From Lahun, Fayum, Egypt. Late Middle Kingdom. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London.jpg, Dried date, peach, apricot, and stones. From Lahun, Fayum, Egypt. Middle Kingdom of Egypt, Late Middle Kingdom. Petrie Museum, The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London File:Marillenblüten.jpg, Blooms of an apricot File:Apricot kernel (endocarp + seed).jpg, Apricot kernel (endocarp and seed) File:Dried apricot 01 Pengo.jpg, Dried apricot, with dark colour due to absence of
sulfur dioxide Sulfur dioxide (IUPAC The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC ) is an international federation of National Adhering OrganizationsNational Adhering Organizations in chemistry are the organizations that work as the autho ...
treatment File:Сибирский абрикос.jpg,
Prunus sibirica ''Prunus sibirica'', called Siberian apricot (), is a species of shrub or small tree native to northern China, Korea, Mongolia, and eastern Siberia. It is in the genus ''Prunus ''Prunus'' is a genus of trees and shrub A shrub (or bush, but ...
(Siberian apricot; hardy to but with less palatable fruit) File:Turkey.Pasa Baglari005.jpg, Apricot tree,
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
File:Apricots Drying In Cappadocia.JPG, Apricots drying on the ground in Cappadocia File:Syrian apricot paste 01.jpg, Syrian apricot paste File:Packaging apricot fruits in Surkhandarya (Uzbekistan).jpg, Packaging apricot fruits in
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, italic=yes, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikasi, italic=yes), is a doubly landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, ter ...

Uzbekistan
File:Dried process of apricot fruits.jpg, Drying apricot fruits


See also

* Barack (brandy) * Apricot plum, ''Prunus simonii''


References


External links

* {{Taxonbar, from1=Q21378744, from2=Q15949803 Prunus subg. Prunus, Armeniaca Apricot, Crops originating from China Edible fruits Fruits originating in Asia Garden plants of Asia Prunus Drupes