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Applied science is the use of the
scientific method The scientific method is an empirical Empirical evidence for a proposition is evidence, i.e. what supports or counters this proposition, that is constituted by or accessible to sense experience or experimental procedure. Empirical evidence ...

scientific method
and knowledge to attain practical goals. It includes a broad range of disciplines such as
engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more speciali ...

engineering
and
medicine Medicine is the science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts ( descriptive knowledge), skills (proced ...

medicine
. Applied science is often contrasted with
basic science Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, is a type of scientific research The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science sinc ...
, which is focused on advancing scientific theories and laws that explain and predict events in the natural world. Applied science can also apply
formal science Formal science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonomy (general), organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable ...
, such as
statistics Statistics is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sens ...

statistics
and
probability theory Probability theory is the branch of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are containe ...
, as in
epidemiology Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where), patterns and determinants In mathematics, the determinant is a Scalar (mathematics), scalar value that is a function (mathematics), function of the entries of a ...
.
Genetic epidemiology Genetic epidemiology is the study of the role of genetics, genetic factors in determining health and disease in families and in populations, and the interplay of such genetic factors with environmental factors. Genetic epidemiology seeks to derive a ...
is an applied science applying both biological and statistical methods.


Applied research

Applied research is the practical application of
science Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is a discovery as well as an invention. ...

science
. It accesses and uses accumulated theories, knowledge, methods, and techniques, for a specific, state-,
business-
business-
, or
client-
client-
driven purpose. Applied research is contrasted with
pure research Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, is a type of scientific research The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science sinc ...
(basic research) in discussion about research ideals, methodologies, programs, and projects. Applied research usually has specific commercial objectives related to products, procedures, or services. The comparison of pure research and applied research provides a basic framework and direction for businesses to follow. Applied research deals with solving practical problems and generally employs
empirical Empirical evidence for a proposition is evidence, i.e. what supports or counters this proposition, that is constituted by or accessible to sense experience or experimental procedure. Empirical evidence is of central importance to the sciences and ...
methodologies. Because applied research resides in the messy real world, strict research protocols may need to be relaxed. For example, it may be impossible to use a
random sample In statistics Statistics is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. In applying statistics to a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin w ...
. Thus, transparency in the
methodology Methodology is the study of research methods, or, more formally, "'a contextual framework' for research, a coherent and logical scheme based on views, beliefs, and values, that guides the choices researchers
r other users R, or r, is the eighteenth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet The ISO basic Latin alphabet is a Latin-script alphabet A Latin-script alphabet (Latin alphabet or Roman alphabet) is an alphabet that ...
make". It compris ...
is crucial. Implications for interpretation of results brought about by relaxing an otherwise strict canon of methodology should also be considered. Since applied research has a provisional close-to-the-problem and close-to-the-data orientation, it may also use a more provisional
conceptual framework A conceptual framework is an analytical tool Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter. In practice, separation, identification or quantification may constitute the entire anal ...
such as working hypotheses or pillar questions. The
OECD The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; french: Organisation de Coopération et de Développement Économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 38 member countries, founded in 1961 to st ...

OECD
's Frascati Manual describes applied research as one of the three forms of research, along with
basic research Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, is a type of scientific research The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science sinc ...
& experimental development. Due to its practical focus, applied research information will be found in the literature associated with individual disciplines.


Branches

Engineering fields include
thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy, entropy, and the physical properties of matter and radiation. The behavior of these quantities is governed b ...

thermodynamics
,
heat transfer Heat transfer is a discipline of thermal engineering Thermal engineering is a specialized sub-discipline of mechanical engineering Mechanical engineering is an engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific pri ...

heat transfer
,
fluid mechanics Fluid mechanics is the branch of physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in o ...
,
statics Statics is the branch of mechanics that is concerned with the analysis of (force and torque, torque, or "moment") acting on physical systems that do not experience an acceleration (''a''=0), but rather, are in static equilibrium with their enviro ...

statics
,
dynamics Dynamics (from Greek language, Greek δυναμικός ''dynamikos'' "powerful", from δύναμις ''dynamis'' "power (disambiguation), power") or dynamic may refer to: Physics and engineering * Dynamics (mechanics) ** Aerodynamics, the study o ...
,
mechanics of materials The field of strength of materials, also called mechanics of materials, typically refers to various methods of calculating the stresses and strains in structural members, such as beams, columns, and shafts. The methods employed to predict the res ...
,
kinematics Kinematics is a subfield of physics, developed in classical mechanics, that describes the motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion involves a change in position In physics, motion is the phenomenon in which an object changes it ...

kinematics
,
electromagnetism Electromagnetism is a branch of physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in ...

electromagnetism
,
materials science The interdisciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more academic discipline An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge that is Education, taught and resea ...
,
earth sciences Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of natural science related to the planet Earth. This is a branch of science dealing with the physical and chemical constitution of Earth and its atmosphere. Earth science can be considered to be a b ...
,
engineering physics Engineering physics, or engineering science, refers to the study of the combined disciplines of physics, mathematics, chemistry, biology, and engineering, particularly computer, nuclear, electrical, electronic, aerospace, materials or mechanical en ...
.
Medical sciences Medicine is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is no generally agreed definition of what ...
, for instance
medical microbiology Medical microbiology, the large subset of microbiology Microbiology (from Greek , ''mīkros'', "small"; , ''bios'', "life Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that have biological processes, such as signaling ...
and clinical virology, are applied sciences that apply
biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms, Development ...

biology
toward medical knowledge and inventions, but not necessarily medical technology, whose development is more specifically
biomedicine Biomedicine (also referred to as Western medicine, mainstream medicine or conventional medicine)
or biomedical engineering.


In education

In Canada, the Netherlands and other places the
Bachelor of Applied ScienceThe Bachelor of Applied Science, often abbreviated as B.AS., BAS, BSAS, BASc, B.A.Sc., or BAppSc, is an undergraduate degree. There is also a ''Bachelor of Arts and Science'' undergraduate degree, also abbreviated to ''BASc''. Usage In Canada, the ...
(BASc) is sometimes equivalent to the
Bachelor of Engineering A Bachelor of Engineering (abbreviated as B.E., B.Eng. or B.A.I. in Latin form) is a first professional undergraduate Undergraduate education is education conducted after secondary education and prior to postgraduate education. It typically in ...
, and is classified as a professional degree. This is based on the age of the school where applied science used to include boiler making, surveying and engineering. There are also Bachelor of Applied Science degrees in Child Studies. The BASc tends to focus more on the application of the engineering sciences. In Australia and New Zealand, this degree is awarded in various fields of study and is considered a highly specialized professional degree. In the United Kingdom's educational system, Applied Science refers to a suite of "vocational" science qualifications that run alongside "traditional"
General Certificate of Secondary Education The General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) is an academic qualification in a particular subject, taken in England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies north ...
or
A-Level#REDIRECT A-Level The A Level (Advanced Level) is a subject-based qualification conferred as part of the General Certificate of Education, as well as a school leaving qualification offered by the educational bodies in the United Kingdom and the ...
Sciences. Applied Science courses generally contain more coursework (also known as portfolio or internally assessed work) compared to their traditional counterparts. These are an evolution of the GNVQ qualifications that were offered up to 2005. These courses regularly come under scrutiny and are due for review following the Wolf Report 2011; however, their merits are argued elsewhere. In the United States,
The College of William & Mary The College of William & Mary (also known as William & Mary, W&M, and officially The College of William and Mary in Virginia) is a public university, public research university in Williamsburg, Virginia. Founded in 1693 by letters patent issued ...
offers an undergraduate minor as well as
Master of Science A Master of Science ( la, Magisterii Scientiae; abbreviated MS, M.S., MSc, M.Sc., SM, S.M., ScM or Sc.M.) is a master's degree A master's degree (from Latin ) is an academic degree awarded by University, universities or colleges upon completio ...
and
Doctor of Philosophy A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Throug ...
degrees in "applied science." Courses and research cover varied fields including
neuroscience Neuroscience is the of the . It is a science that combines , , , , , and to understand the fundamental and emergent properties of s, and s. The understanding of the biological basis of , , , , and has been described by as the "epic chal ...

neuroscience
,
optics Optics is the branch of physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other wo ...

optics
,
materials science and engineering ''Materials Science and Engineering'' may refer to several journals in the field of materials science and engineering: * '' Materials Science and Engineering A'' * '' Materials Science and Engineering B'' * ''Materials Science and Engineering ...
,
nondestructive testing Nondestructive testing (NDT) is any of a wide group of analysis techniques used in science and technology industry to evaluate the properties of a material, component or system without causing damage. The terms nondestructive examination (NDE), no ...
, and
nuclear magnetic resonance Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon A phenomenon (; plural phenomena) is an observable In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ...
.
University of Nebraska–Lincoln A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior". Institutions can refer to mechanisms which govern the behavior Behavio ...
offers a Bachelor of Science in applied science, an online completion Bachelor of Science in applied science and a Master of Applied Science. Course work is centered on science, agriculture and natural resources with a wide range of options including ecology, food genetics, entrepreneurship, economics, policy, animal science and plant science. In New York City, the Bloomberg administration awarded the consortium of Cornell-Technion $100 million in City capital to construct the universities' proposed Applied Sciences campus on Roosevelt Island.


See also

*
Exact sciences The exact sciences, sometimes called the exact mathematical sciences are those sciences "which admit of absolute precision in their results"; especially the mathematical sciences The mathematical sciences are a group of areas of study that includ ...
*
Basic research Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, is a type of scientific research The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science sinc ...
*
Hard and soft science Hard science and soft science are colloquial Colloquialism or colloquial language is the style (sociolinguistics), linguistic style used for casual communication. It is the most common functional style of speech, the idiom normally employed in con ...
*
Invention An invention is a unique or novel A novel is a relatively long work of narrative fiction, typically written in prose and published as a book. The present English word for a long work of prose fiction derives from the for "new", "news", or ...

Invention
*
Secondary research Secondary research involves the summary, collation and/or synthesis of existing research. Secondary research is contrasted with primary research in that primary research involves the generation of data, whereas secondary research uses primary res ...


References


External links

* {{DEFAULTSORT:Applied Science
science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of ...
Branches of science