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An appanage, or apanage (; french: apanage ), is the grant of an estate, title, office or other thing of value to a younger child of a sovereign, who would otherwise have no inheritance under the system of
primogeniture Primogeniture ( ) is the right, by law or custom, of the firstborn legitimate child to inherit Inherit may refer to: * Inheritance, passing on of property after someone's death * Heredity, passing of genetic traits to offspring * Inheritance ( ...
. It was common in much of Europe. The system of appanage greatly influenced the territorial construction of France and the
German states The Federal Republic of Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , d ...

German states
and explains why many of the former
provinces of France The Kingdom of France was organised into provinces until the National Constituent Assembly (France), National Constituent Assembly adopted a more uniform division into Departments of France, departments (''départements'') and Arrondissements of Fr ...

provinces of France
had
coats of arms A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield A shield is a piece of personal armour held in the hand, which may or may not be strapped to the wrist or forearm. Shields are used to intercept specific attacks, ...

coats of arms
which were
modified
modified
versions of the king's arms.


Etymology

Late Latin Late Latin ( la, Latinitas serior) is the scholarly name for the written Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, kn ...
, from or 'to give bread' (), a for food and other necessities, hence for a "subsistence" income, notably in kind, as from assigned land.


Original appanage: in France


History of the French appanage

An appanage was a concession of a fief by the sovereign to his younger sons, while the eldest son became king on the death of his father. Appanages were considered as part of the inheritance transmitted to the (French , "later", + , "born asc.) sons; the word (from the Latin comparative , 'younger asc.; in Brittany's customary law only the youngest brother) was specifically used for the royal princes holding an ''appanage''. These lands could not be sold, neither hypothetically nor as a dowry, and returned to the royal domain on the extinction of the princely line. Daughters were excluded from the system:
Salic law#REDIRECT Salic law The Salic law ( or ; la, Lex salica), or the was the ancient Salian Franks, Salian Frankish Civil law (legal system), civil law code compiled around AD 500 by the first Frankish King, Clovis I, Clovis. The written text is in La ...
then generally prohibited daughters from inheriting land and also from acceding to the throne. The system of appanage has played a particularly important role in France. It developed there with the extension of royal authority from the 13th century, then disappeared from the late Middle Ages with the affirmation of the exclusive authority of the royal state. It strongly influenced the territorial construction, explaining the arms of several provinces. The prerogative of Burgundy is also the origin of the Belgian, Luxembourg and Dutch States, through the action of its dukes favored by their position in the court of the kings of France. Appanages were used to sweeten the pill of the
primogeniture Primogeniture ( ) is the right, by law or custom, of the firstborn legitimate child to inherit Inherit may refer to: * Inheritance, passing on of property after someone's death * Heredity, passing of genetic traits to offspring * Inheritance ( ...
. It has historically been used to deter the revolt of younger sons, who would otherwise have no inheritance, thus avoiding the deterioration of the monarchy by equal division. Indeed, according to Frankish tradition, the inheritance was to be divided among the remaining sons. The kingdom was called family territory, and so many divisions took place under the
Merovingians The Merovingian dynasty () was the ruling family of the Franks from the middle of the 5th century until 751. They first appear as "Kings of the Franks" in the Roman army of northern Gaul. By 509 they had united all the Franks and northern Gaulis ...
, and then under the rule of the
Carolingians The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings, Karolinger or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel Charles Martel (c. 688 – 22 October 741) was a Frankish statesman and ...
. The consequences of equal division led to the adoption of the appanage method, which has the advantage of diverting the right of the younger sons to the throne, which was the inheritance of the eldest.
Hugh Capet Hugh Capet (; french: Hugues Capet ; c. 939 – 14 October 996) was the from 987 to 996. He is the founder and first king from the . The son of the powerful duke and his wife , he was elected as the successor of the last king, . Hugh was des ...
was elected
King of the Franks The Franks—Germanic-speaking peoples that invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century—were first led by individuals called Dux, dukes and Monarch, reguli. The earliest group of Franks that rose to prominence were the Salian Franks ...
on the death of
Louis VLouis V may refer to: * Louis V of France (967–987) * Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor and V of Germany (1282–1347) * Louis V, Duke of Bavaria (1315–1361) * Louis V, Elector Palatine (ruled 1508–1544) * Louis V, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (rul ...

Louis V
in 987. The Capetian dynasty broke away from the Frankish custom of dividing the kingdom among all the sons. The eldest son alone became King and received the royal domain except for the appanages. Unlike their predecessors, their hold on the crown was initially tenuous. They could not afford to divide the kingdom among all their sons, and the royal domain (the territory directly controlled by the king) was very small, initially consisting solely of the
Île-de-France The Île-de-France (, ; literally "Isle of France") is the most populous of the eighteen regions of France France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in ...

Île-de-France
. Most of the Capetians endeavored to add to the
royal domain Crown land (sometimes spelled crownland), also known as royal domain, is a territorial area belonging to the monarch, who personifies the Crown The Crown is the state (polity), state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonw ...
by the incorporation of additional fiefs, large or small, and thus gradually obtained the direct lordship over almost all of France. The first king to create an appanage is
Henry I of France Henry I (4 May 1008 – 4 August 1060) was King of the Franks from 1031 to 1060. The royal demesne of France reached its smallest size during his reign, and for this reason he is often seen as emblematic of the weakness of the early Capetians. T ...

Henry I of France
in 1032, when he gave the Duchy of Burgundy to his brother Robert, Robert I of Burgundy, whose descendants retained the duchy until 1361 with the extinction of the first Capetian
House of Burgundy The House of Burgundy () was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty, descending from Robert I, Duke of Burgundy, a younger son of Robert II of France. The House ruled the Duchy of Burgundy from 1032–1361. The last member of the House was Philip ...
by the death of Philip de Rouvres. Louis VIII and Louis IX also created appanages. The king who created the most powerful appanages for his sons was
John II of France John II (french: Jean II; 26 April 1319 – 8 April 1364), called John the Good (French: ''Jean le Bon''), was King of France from 1350 until his death in 1364. When he came to power, France faced several disasters: the Black Death, which killed ne ...

John II of France
. His youngest son,
Philip the Bold Philip II the Bold (; ; 17 January 1342 – 27 April 1404) was Duke of Burgundy Duke of Burgundy (french: duc de Bourgogne) was a title used by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy The Duchy of Burgundy (; la, Ducatus Burgundiae; french: ...

Philip the Bold
, founded the second Capetian House of Burgundy in 1363. By marrying the heiress of Flanders, Philip also became ruler of the Low Countries. King
Charles VCharles V may refer to: * Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, german: Karl V, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and offici ...
tried to remove the appanage system, but in vain. Provinces conceded in appanage tended to become ''de facto'' independent and the authority of the king was recognized there reluctantly. In particular the line of Valois
Dukes of Burgundy Duke of Burgundy (french: duc de Bourgogne) was a title used by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy, from its establishment in 843 to its annexation by France in 1477, and later by Habsburg Netherlands, Habsburg sovereigns of the Low Countries (1 ...
caused considerable trouble to the French crown, with which they were often at war, often in open alliance with the English. Theoretically appanages could be reincorporated into the royal domain but only if the last lord had no male heirs. Kings tried as much as possible to rid themselves of the most powerful appanages.
Louis XI Louis XI (3 July 1423 – 30 August 1483), called "Louis the Prudent" (french: le Prudent), was King of France from 1461 to 1483. He succeeded his father, Charles VII of France, Charles VII. Louis entered into open rebellion against his father ...

Louis XI
retook the Duchy of Burgundy at the death of its last duke,
Charles the Bold 260px, Double Briquet, struck under Charles the Bold in Bruges, 1475 Charles I (Charles Martin; german: Karl Martin; nl, Karel Maarten; 10 November 1433 – 5 January 1477), nicknamed the Bold (german: der Kühne; nl, de Stoute; frenc ...

Charles the Bold
.
Francis IFrancis I or Francis the First may refer to: * Francesco I Gonzaga (1366–1407) * Francis I, Duke of Brittany (1414–1450), reigned 1442–1450 * Francis I of France (1494–1547), reigned 1515–1547 * Francis I, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg (1510–15 ...
confiscated the
Bourbonnais Bourbonnais () was a historic province in the centre of France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and Ov ...
, after the treason in 1523 of his commander in chief,
Charles III, Duke of Bourbon Charles III (17 February 1490 – 6 May 1527) was a French military leader, the count of Montpensier The French lordship of Montpensier (named after the village of Montpensier, Puy-de-Dôme, Montpensier, département in France, départemen ...

Charles III, Duke of Bourbon
, the 'constable of Bourbon' (died 1527 in the service of
Emperor Charles V Charles V, german: Karl V, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator Romanoru ...

Emperor Charles V
). The first article of the
Edict of Moulins Moulins (; oc, Molins) is a in central France, capital of the . It is located on the river . Among its many tourist attractions are the , the Museum and . Geography Moulins is located on the banks of the river Allier. History Before the ...
(1566) declared that the royal domain (defined in the second article as all the land controlled by the crown for more than ten years) could not be alienated, except in two cases: by interlocking, in the case of financial emergency, with a perpetual option to repurchase the land; and to form an appanage, which must return to the crown in its original state on the extinction of the male line. The (incumbent) therefore could not separate himself from his appanage in any way. After
Charles V of France Charles V (21 January 1338 – 16 September 1380), called the Wise (french: le Sage; la, Sapiens), was King of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of France ruled from the establishment of the West Francia, Kingdom of the West Franks in 8 ...
, a clear distinction had to be made between titles given as names to children in France, and true appanages. At their birth the French princes received a title independent of an appanage. Thus, the
Duke of Anjou The Count of Anjou was the ruler of the Anjou, county of Anjou, first granted by Charles the Bald in the 9th century to Robert the Strong. Ingelger and his son, Fulk I, Count of Anjou, Fulk the Red, were viscounts until Fulk assumed the title of Co ...
, grandson of
Louis XIV , house = House of Bourbon, Bourbon , father = Louis XIII, Louis XIII of France , mother = Anne of Austria , birth_date = , birth_place = Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Kingdom of France, F ...

Louis XIV
, never possessed Anjou and never received any revenue from this province. The king waited until the prince had reached adulthood and was about to marry before endowing him with an appanage. The goal of the appanage was to provide him with a sufficient income to maintain his noble rank. The fief given in appanage could be the same as the title given to the prince, but this was not necessarily the case. Only seven appanages were given from 1515 to 1789. Appanages were abolished in 1792 before the proclamation of the
Republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a month ...
. The youngest princes from then on were to receive a grant of money but no territory. Appanages were reestablished under the first French empire by
Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon Bonaparte ; co, Napulione Buonaparte. (born Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) r ...
and confirmed by the Bourbon restoration-king
Louis XVIII Louis XVIII (Louis Stanislas Xavier; 17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), known as the Desired (), was from 1814 to 1824, except for the in 1815. He spent twenty-three years in exile: during the and the (1804–1814), and durin ...

Louis XVIII
. The last of the appanages, the
Orléanais Orléanais () is a former province of France, around the cities of Orléans Orléans (;"Orleans"< ...
, was reincorporated to the French crown when the Duke of Orléans,
Louis-Philippe Louis Philippe I (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848, the last King and penultimate monarch of France. As Duke of Chartres he distinguished himself commanding troops during the Revolutionary Wars, b ...
, became king of the French in 1830. The word is still used in French figuratively, in a non-historic sense: "to have appanage over something" is used, often in an ironic and negative sense, to claim exclusive possession over something. For example, "cows have appanage over
prion Prions are misfolded protein Protein folding is the physical process Physical changes are changes affecting the form of a chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matte ...

prion
s."


List of major French appanages


Direct Capetians

*
Henry IHenry I may refer to: 876–1366 * Henry I the Fowler, King of Germany (876–936) * Henry I, Duke of Bavaria (died 955) * Henry I of Austria, Margrave of Austria (died 1018) * Henry I of France (1008–1060) * Henry I the Long, Margrave of the Nord ...

Henry I
gave the
Duchy of Burgundy The Duchy of Burgundy (; la, Ducatus Burgundiae; french: Duché de Bourgogne, ) emerged in the 9th century as one of the successors of the ancient Kingdom of the Burgundians The Kingdom of the Burgundians or First Kingdom of Burgundy was establ ...

Duchy of Burgundy
to his brother
Robert The name Robert is an ancient Germanic given nameGermanic given names are traditionally dithematic; that is, they are formed from two elements, by joining a prefix A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word. Adding it ...
. *
Louis VI
Louis VI
gave the
County of Dreux The Counts of Dreux were a noble family of France, who took their title from the chief stronghold of their domain, the château of Dreux, which lies near the boundary between Normandy and the Île-de-France (region), Île-de-France. They are notab ...
to his son
Robert The name Robert is an ancient Germanic given nameGermanic given names are traditionally dithematic; that is, they are formed from two elements, by joining a prefix A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word. Adding it ...
. The lineage of the counts became extinct in 1355, but a cadet line, descended from Pierre Mauclerc, became Dukes of Brittany. *
Philip IIPhilip II may refer to: * Philip II of Macedon (382–336 BC) * Philip II (emperor) (238–249), Roman emperor * Philip II, Prince of Taranto (1329–1374) * Philip II, Duke of Burgundy (1342–1404) * Philip II, Duke of Savoy (1438-1497) * Philip ...

Philip II
gave his son
Philippe Hurepel Philip I of Boulogne (Philip Hurepel) (1200–1235) was a French prince, Counts of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis, Count of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis in his own right, and Count of Boulogne, Count of Mortain, Mortain, Count of Aumale, Aumale, and Dammartin-en- ...

Philippe Hurepel
the county of Clermont, then the counties of Domfront and
Mortain Mortain is a former Communes in France, commune in the Manche Departments of France, department in Normandy in north-western France. On 1 January 2016, it was merged into the new commune of Mortain-Bocage. Geography Mortain is situated on a rocky ...
. *
Louis VIII Louis VIII (5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226), nicknamed The Lion (french: Le Lion), was King of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France, frm, Royaulme de France, french: link=no, R ...
, by his 1225 will, granted **the
County of Artois The County of Artois (, ) was a historic province of the Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France; frm, Royaulme de France; french: link=yes, Royaume de France) is the historiographical name or Hyponymy and hypernymy, ...
to his second son
Robert The name Robert is an ancient Germanic given nameGermanic given names are traditionally dithematic; that is, they are formed from two elements, by joining a prefix A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word. Adding it ...

Robert
. Artois was lost by Robert's male heirs, passing through a female line, and eventually was inherited by the Dukes of Burgundy.
Louis XI Louis XI (3 July 1423 – 30 August 1483), called "Louis the Prudent" (french: le Prudent), was King of France from 1461 to 1483. He succeeded his father, Charles VII of France, Charles VII. Louis entered into open rebellion against his father ...

Louis XI
seized it upon the death of
Charles the Bold 260px, Double Briquet, struck under Charles the Bold in Bruges, 1475 Charles I (Charles Martin; german: Karl Martin; nl, Karel Maarten; 10 November 1433 – 5 January 1477), nicknamed the Bold (german: der Kühne; nl, de Stoute; frenc ...

Charles the Bold
in 1477, but his son returned it to Charles's heirs in preparation for his invasion of Italy in 1493. **the Counties of
Poitou Poitou (, , ; Poitevin dialect, Poitevin: ''Poetou'') was a Provinces of France, province of west-central France whose capital city was Poitiers. Geography The main historical cities are Poitiers (historical capital city), Châtellerault (Fran ...

Poitou
and
Auvergne Auvergne (; ; oc, label=Occitan Occitan (; oc, occitan, link=no ,), also known as ''lenga d'òc'' (; french: langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, a ...
to his fourth son Alphonse. These returned to the crown when Alphonse died without heirs in 1271. **the Counties of
Anjou Anjou (, ; ; la, Andegavia) was a French province straddling the lower Loire River The Loire (, also ; ; oc, Léger; la, Liger) is the longest river in France and the 171st longest in the world. With a length of , it drains , more than ...
and
Maine Maine () is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States, bordered by New Hampshire to the west; the Gulf of Maine to the southeast; and the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Qu ...

Maine
to his third son
John John is a common English name and surname: * John (given name) John is a common English name and surname: * John (given name) * John (surname), including a list of people who have the name John John may also refer to: New Testament Works ...
. They returned to the crown when John died without heirs in 1232. *
Louis IX Louis IX (25 April 1214 – 25 August 1270), commonly known as Saint Louis or Louis the Saint, was King of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of France ruled from the establishment of the West Francia, Kingdom of the West Franks in 843 ...

Louis IX
endowed **the Counties of
Anjou Anjou (, ; ; la, Andegavia) was a French province straddling the lower Loire River The Loire (, also ; ; oc, Léger; la, Liger) is the longest river in France and the 171st longest in the world. With a length of , it drains , more than ...
and
Maine Maine () is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States, bordered by New Hampshire to the west; the Gulf of Maine to the southeast; and the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Qu ...

Maine
(1246) to his youngest brother,
Charles Charles is a masculine given name A given name (also known as a first name or forename) is the part of a personal name A personal name, or full name, in onomastic Onomastics or onomatology is the study of the etymology, histor ...
. They passed to Charles's granddaughter, who married Charles, Count of Valois, the younger son of
Philip III
Philip III
, and thence to their son,
Philip Philip, also Phillip, is a male given name, derived from the Greek language, Greek (''Philippos'', lit. "horse-loving" or "fond of horses"), from a compound of (''philos'', "dear", "loved", "loving") and (''hippos'', "horse"). Prominent Philip ...

Philip
. When Philip inherited the throne as Philip VI, the lands reverted to the crown. **the County of Orléans to his eldest son, Philip. It returned to the crown when he succeeded his father in 1270 as
Philip III
Philip III
. **the
County of Valois Image:Valois Arms.svg, 125px, Coat of arms of the counts and dukes of Valois. The Valois ( , also , ; originally ''Pagus Valensis'') was a region in the valley of the Oise river in Picardy in the north of France. It was a fief in West Francia and s ...
(ca. 1268) to his second son, Jean Tristan. This title became extinct upon Jean Tristan's death in 1270. **the Counties of
Alençon Alençon (, , ; nrf, Alençoun) is a commune in Normandy Normandy (; french: link=no, Normandie ; nrf, Normaundie; from Old French , plural of ''Normant'', originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is a geo ...
and
Perche Perche () (French: ''le Perche'') is a former Provinces of France, province of France, known historically for its forests and, for the past two centuries, for the Percheron draft horse, draft horse breed. Until the French Revolution, Perche was b ...
(1268) to his third son,
Pierre Pierre is a masculine given name. It is a French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a ...
. This title became extinct on Pierre's death in 1284. **the
County of Clermont-en-BeauvaisisThe counts of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis first appeared in the early 11th century. Their principal town was Clermont, now in the Oise Oise ( ; ; pcd, Oése) is a department in the north of France France (), officially the French Republic (f ...
(1269) to his fourth son,
Robert The name Robert is an ancient Germanic given nameGermanic given names are traditionally dithematic; that is, they are formed from two elements, by joining a prefix A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word. Adding it ...

Robert
. Robert's son,
LouisLouis may refer to: * Louis (given name) Louis is the French language, French form of the Old Frankish language, Old Frankish given name Clovis (given name), Chlodowig and one of two English language, English forms, the other being Lewis (given nam ...
, was later given the
Duchy of Bourbon Duke of Bourbon (french: Duc de Bourbon) is a title in the peerage of France The Peerage of France (french: Pairie de France) was a hereditary distinction within the French nobility which appeared in 1180 in the Middle Ages, and only a smal ...
, which was treated as an appanage, although it was not technically one. Louis later traded Clermont for La Marche with his cousin
Charles, Count of Angoulême Charles of Orléans (1459 – 1 January 1496) () was the Count of Angoulême from 1467 until his death. He succeeded his father, John John is a common English name and surname: * John (given name) John is a common English name and surname: ...

Charles, Count of Angoulême
, younger brother of King Philip V. These appanages remained in the Bourbon family until they were confiscated due to the treason of
Charles III, Duke of Bourbon Charles III (17 February 1490 – 6 May 1527) was a French military leader, the count of Montpensier The French lordship of Montpensier (named after the village of Montpensier, Puy-de-Dôme, Montpensier, département in France, départemen ...

Charles III, Duke of Bourbon
in 1527. *Philip III granted **the
County of Valois Image:Valois Arms.svg, 125px, Coat of arms of the counts and dukes of Valois. The Valois ( , also , ; originally ''Pagus Valensis'') was a region in the valley of the Oise river in Picardy in the north of France. It was a fief in West Francia and s ...
to his second son
Charles Charles is a masculine given name A given name (also known as a first name or forename) is the part of a personal name A personal name, or full name, in onomastic Onomastics or onomatology is the study of the etymology, histor ...

Charles
. Charles was later given the Counties of
Alençon Alençon (, , ; nrf, Alençoun) is a commune in Normandy Normandy (; french: link=no, Normandie ; nrf, Normaundie; from Old French , plural of ''Normant'', originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is a geo ...
,
Perche Perche () (French: ''le Perche'') is a former Provinces of France, province of France, known historically for its forests and, for the past two centuries, for the Percheron draft horse, draft horse breed. Until the French Revolution, Perche was b ...
, and
Chartres Chartres () is a Communes of France, commune and capital of the Eure-et-Loir Departments of France, department in France. It is located about southwest of Paris. Chartres is famous worldwide for its Chartres Cathedral, cathedral. Mostly cons ...
by his brother,
Philip IV of France Philip IV (April–June 1268 – 29 November 1314), called Philip the Fair (french: Philippe le Bel), was King of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France, frm, Royaulme de France, french ...

Philip IV of France
. Valois passed to Charles's eldest son, Philip upon his death in 1325, and returned to the crown when Philip became King Philip VI in 1328. Alençon and Perche passed to Charles's younger son,
Charles Charles is a masculine given name A given name (also known as a first name or forename) is the part of a personal name A personal name, or full name, in onomastic Onomastics or onomatology is the study of the etymology, histor ...
. A descendant was raised to the dignity of Duke of Alençon. These titles returned to the crown upon the extinction of the Alençon line in 1525. **the County of Beaumont-sur-Oise to his third son
LouisLouis may refer to: * Louis (given name) Louis is the French language, French form of the Old Frankish language, Old Frankish given name Clovis (given name), Chlodowig and one of two English language, English forms, the other being Lewis (given nam ...
. Louis was later given the County of Évreux by his brother Philip IV. These titles returned to the throne upon the death of Queen Blanche of Navarre in 1441. *Philip IV endowed **the
County of Poitou The County of Poitou (Medieval Latin, Latin ''comitatus Pictavensis'') was a historical region of France, consisting of the three sub-regions of Vendée, Deux-Sèvres and Vienne. Its name is derived from the ancient Gaul tribe of Pictones. The coun ...
for his second son,
Philip Philip, also Phillip, is a male given name, derived from the Greek language, Greek (''Philippos'', lit. "horse-loving" or "fond of horses"), from a compound of (''philos'', "dear", "loved", "loving") and (''hippos'', "horse"). Prominent Philip ...

Philip
. This title returned to the throne when Philip became king in 1316. **the Counties of La Marche and
Angoulême Angoulême (; Poitevin-Saintongeais: ''Engoulaeme''; oc, Engoleime) is a communes of France, commune, the capital of the Charente Departments of France, department, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France. The inhabitants of the ...

Angoulême
for his third son,
Charles IVCharles IV may refer to: * Charles IV of France (1294–1328), "the Fair" * Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor (1316–1378) * Charles IV of Navarre (1421–1461) * Charles IV, Duke of Anjou (1446–1481) * Charles IV, Duke of Alençon (1489–1525) * C ...

Charles IV
. Charles later traded La Marche for the
County of Clermont-en-BeauvaisisThe counts of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis first appeared in the early 11th century. Their principal town was Clermont, now in the Oise Oise ( ; ; pcd, Oése) is a department in the north of France France (), officially the French Republic (f ...
with the
Duke of Bourbon Duke is a male title either of a monarch ruling over a duchy, or of a member of Royal family, royalty, or nobility. As rulers, dukes are ranked below emperors, kings, grand princes, grand dukes, and sovereign princes. As royalty or nobility, t ...
. His titles returned to the throne when Charles became king in 1322.


House of Valois

*Philip VI endowed **the
Duchy of Normandy The Duchy of Normandy grew out of the 911 Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and international organizati ...

Duchy of Normandy
for his elder son
John John is a common English name and surname: * John (given name) John is a common English name and surname: * John (given name) * John (surname), including a list of people who have the name John John may also refer to: New Testament Works ...

John
. This title returned to the throne when John succeeded his father in 1350. **the Duchy of Orléans for his younger son
Philip Philip, also Phillip, is a male given name, derived from the Greek language, Greek (''Philippos'', lit. "horse-loving" or "fond of horses"), from a compound of (''philos'', "dear", "loved", "loving") and (''hippos'', "horse"). Prominent Philip ...
. This title returned to the throne when Philip died without issue in 1375. *John II ''the Good'', on his departure to England in 1360, granted **the Duchies of
Anjou Anjou (, ; ; la, Andegavia) was a French province straddling the lower Loire River The Loire (, also ; ; oc, Léger, ; la, Liger) is the longest river in France and the 171st longest in the world. With a length of , it drains , more th ...
and of Maine to his second son
LouisLouis may refer to: * Louis (given name) Louis is the French language, French form of the Old Frankish language, Old Frankish given name Clovis (given name), Chlodowig and one of two English language, English forms, the other being Lewis (given nam ...

Louis
. This title returned to the throne upon the death of duke
Charles IVCharles IV may refer to: * Charles IV of France (1294–1328), "the Fair" * Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor (1316–1378) * Charles IV of Navarre (1421–1461) * Charles IV, Duke of Anjou (1446–1481) * Charles IV, Duke of Alençon (1489–1525) * C ...
, Louis I's great-grandson, in 1481. **the Duchies of
Berry A berry is a small, pulpy, and often edible fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who speci ...
and Rulers of Auvergne, of Auvergne to his third son John, Duke of Berry, John. These titles returned to the throne upon John's death without male issue in 1416. **In 1363, John II granted the
Duchy of Burgundy The Duchy of Burgundy (; la, Ducatus Burgundiae; french: Duché de Bourgogne, ) emerged in the 9th century as one of the successors of the ancient Kingdom of the Burgundians The Kingdom of the Burgundians or First Kingdom of Burgundy was establ ...

Duchy of Burgundy
to his fourth son Philip II, Duke of Burgundy, Philip. Upon the death of Philip's great-grandson
Charles the Bold 260px, Double Briquet, struck under Charles the Bold in Bruges, 1475 Charles I (Charles Martin; german: Karl Martin; nl, Karel Maarten; 10 November 1433 – 5 January 1477), nicknamed the Bold (german: der Kühne; nl, de Stoute; frenc ...

Charles the Bold
in 1477, King Louis XI claimed the reversion of Burgundy and seized the territory. It continued to be claimed, however, by Charles's daughter Mary of Burgundy, Mary and her heirs. When Mary's grandson Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Emperor Charles V defeated and captured
Francis IFrancis I or Francis the First may refer to: * Francesco I Gonzaga (1366–1407) * Francis I, Duke of Brittany (1414–1450), reigned 1442–1450 * Francis I of France (1494–1547), reigned 1515–1547 * Francis I, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg (1510–15 ...
at the Battle of Pavia in 1525, he forced Francis to sign a treaty recognizing him as Duke of Burgundy, but Francis disavowed the treaty when he was released, and the cession was revoked by the Treaty of Cambrai four years later. Charles and his heirs reserved their claims, however, and this reservation was repeated as late as the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, when Philip IV of Spain continued to reserve his rights to the Duchy. *Charles VI of France, Charles VI granted the Duchy of Orléans and the County of Angoulême to his brother Louis I, Duke of Orléans, Louis in 1392. The Duchy of Orléans returned to the crown when Louis I's grandson became Louis XII of France in 1498. The County of Angoulême returned to the crown when Louis I's great-grandson became Francis I of France in 1515. *Louis XI granted the Duchies of
Berry A berry is a small, pulpy, and often edible fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who speci ...
, Duchy of Normandy, Normandy, and Duchy of Guyenne, Guyenne to his younger brother Charles de Valois, Duc de Berry, Charles. These titles returned to the crown when Charles died in 1472. *
Francis IFrancis I or Francis the First may refer to: * Francesco I Gonzaga (1366–1407) * Francis I, Duke of Brittany (1414–1450), reigned 1442–1450 * Francis I of France (1494–1547), reigned 1515–1547 * Francis I, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg (1510–15 ...
granted the Duchies of Duchy of Orléans, Orléans, Duchy of Angoulême, Angoulême, and Duchy of Châtellerault, Châtellerault and the Counties of County of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis, Clermont-en-Beauvaisis and La Marche to his second surviving son, Charles II de Valois, Duke of Orléans, Charles in 1540. To this was added the
Duchy of Bourbon Duke of Bourbon (french: Duc de Bourbon) is a title in the peerage of France The Peerage of France (french: Pairie de France) was a hereditary distinction within the French nobility which appeared in 1180 in the Middle Ages, and only a smal ...
in 1544. These titles returned to the crown when Charles died without issue in 1545. *Charles IX of France, Charles IX granted **the Duchies of Duchy of Anjou, Anjou and Duchy of Bourbonnais, Bourbonnais and the County of Forez to the older of his two brothers, Henry III of France, Henry, in 1566. He added the Duke of Auvergne, Duchy of Auvergne to these holdings in 1569. The titles returned to the crown when Henry succeeded his brother in 1574. **the Duchies of Duchy of Alençon, Alençon and Duchy of Château-Thierry, Château-Thierry and the Counties of
Perche Perche () (French: ''le Perche'') is a former Provinces of France, province of France, known historically for its forests and, for the past two centuries, for the Percheron draft horse, draft horse breed. Until the French Revolution, Perche was b ...
, County of Mantes, Mantes, and County of Meulan, Meulan to his youngest brother, François, Duc d'Anjou, Francis in 1566. To this he later added the Duchy of Évreux and the
County of Dreux The Counts of Dreux were a noble family of France, who took their title from the chief stronghold of their domain, the château of Dreux, which lies near the boundary between Normandy and the Île-de-France (region), Île-de-France. They are notab ...
in 1569. Francis's other brother, Henry III, increased his holdings still further in 1576, granting him the Duchies of Duchy of Anjou, Anjou, Duchy of Touraine, Touraine, and
Berry A berry is a small, pulpy, and often edible fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who speci ...
and the County of Maine. All these titles returned to the crown upon Francis's death without issue in 1584.


House of Bourbon

*Louis XIII of France, Louis XIII granted the Duchies of Duchy of Orléans, Orléans and Duchy of Chartres, Chartres and the County of Blois to his younger brother Gaston, Duke of Orléans, Gaston in 1626. To this was added the Duchy of Valois in 1630. These titles returned to the crown on Gaston's death without male issue in 1660. *
Louis XIV , house = House of Bourbon, Bourbon , father = Louis XIII, Louis XIII of France , mother = Anne of Austria , birth_date = , birth_place = Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Kingdom of France, F ...

Louis XIV
granted **the Duchies of Duchy of Orléans, Orléans, Duchy of Chartres, Chartres, and Duchy of Valois, Valois to his brother, Philippe I, duc d'Orléans, Philippe in 1661. To this was added the Duchy of Nemours in 1672. These titles passed to his descendants and were abolished during the Revolution in 1790. They were restored to the heir at the time of the Bourbon Restoration in France, Restoration in 1814. At the accession of Louis Philippe of France, Louis Philippe, these titles merged into the crown. **the Duchies of Duchy of Alençon, Alençon and Duchy of Angoulême, Angoulême and the County of Ponthieu to his third grandson, Charles, Duke of Berry (1686–1714), Charles, duc de Berry in 1710. These titles returned to the crown upon his death without surviving issue in 1714 *Louis XV of France, Louis XV granted **the Duchy of Anjou and the Counties of
Maine Maine () is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States, bordered by New Hampshire to the west; the Gulf of Maine to the southeast; and the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Qu ...

Maine
,
Perche Perche () (French: ''le Perche'') is a former Provinces of France, province of France, known historically for its forests and, for the past two centuries, for the Percheron draft horse, draft horse breed. Until the French Revolution, Perche was b ...
, and County of Senonches, Senonches to his second surviving grandson, Louis XVIII of France, Louis Stanislas, comte de Provence in 1771. Louis was further given the Duchy of Alençon by his brother Louis XVI of France, Louis XVI in 1774. These titles were abolished during the Revolution in 1790. When the monarchy and apanages were restored in 1814, Louis had inherited the throne as Louis XVIII, and his titles merged into the crown. **the Duchies of Duchy of Auvergne, Auvergne, Duchy of Angoulême, Angoulême and Duchy of Mercœur, Mercœur and the Viscounty of Limoges to his youngest grandson Charles X of France, Charles, comte d'Artois in 1773. To this was added in 1774 by his brother, Louis XVI the Marquisate of Pompadour and the Viscounty of Turenne. In 1776, Louis XVI deprived Charles of Limoges, Pompadour, and Turenne, and gave him in exchange the Duchies of
Berry A berry is a small, pulpy, and often edible fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who speci ...
and Duchy of Châteauroux, Châteauroux, the Counties of County of Argenton, Argenton and County of Ponthieu, Ponthieu, and the Seigneur de Henrichemont, Lordship of Henrichemont. In 1778, the apanage was further reshaped, with Auvergne and Mercœur removed and replaced with the
County of Poitou The County of Poitou (Medieval Latin, Latin ''comitatus Pictavensis'') was a historical region of France, consisting of the three sub-regions of Vendée, Deux-Sèvres and Vienne. Its name is derived from the ancient Gaul tribe of Pictones. The coun ...
, leaving Charles with a final apanage consisting of the Duchies of Angoulême, Berry, and Châteauroux, the Counties of Argenton, Ponthieu, and Poitou, and the Lordship of Henrichemont. These titles were abolished during the Revolution in 1790, but were restored at the time of the Restoration in 1814. They merged into the crown when Charles became king in 1824. Although Napoleon restored the idea of apanage in 1810 for his sons, none were ever granted, nor were any new apanages created by the restoration monarchs.


Western feudal appanages outside France


Appanages within Britain

English and British monarchs frequently granted appanages to younger sons of the monarch. Most famously, the Houses of House of York, York and House of Lancaster, Lancaster, whose feuding over the succession to the List of English monarchs, English throne after the end of the main line of the House of Plantagenet caused the Wars of the Roses, were both established when the Duke of York, Duchies of York and Duke of Lancaster, Lancaster were given as appanages for Edmund of Langley and John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, John of Gaunt, the younger sons of King Edward III of England, Edward III. In modern times, the Duchy of Cornwall is the permanent statutory appanage of the monarch's eldest son, intended to support him until such time as he inherits the Crown. Other titles have continued to be granted to junior members of the royal family, but without associated grants of land directly connected with those titles, any territorial rights over the places named in the titles, or any income directly derived from those lands or places by virtue of those titles.


Scotland

The defunct Kingdom of Strathclyde was granted as an appanage to the future David I of Scotland by his brother Edgar, King of Scots. Remnants of this can be found within the patrimony of the Prince of Scotland, currently Prince Charles, Duke of Rothesay.


Kingdom of Jerusalem

In the only crusader state of equal rank in protocol to the states of Western Europe, the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the County of Jaffa and Ascalon was often granted as an appanage.


Brigantine Portugal

With the installation of the House of Braganza on the Portuguese throne in 1640, an official appanage was created for the second eldest son of the monarch, the House of the Infantado. The Infantado included several land grants and palaces, along with a heightened royal pension.


Equivalents outside Western Europe

The practice is certainly not unique to western feudalism * The principalities of European Russia had a similar practice; an appanage given to a younger male of the royal family was called an ''udel''. The frequency and importance of the custom was particularly important between the mid-13th and the mid-15th centuries; some historians refer to this era as "the appanage period". * In Medieval Serbia, an appanage was predominantly given to a younger brother of the supreme ruler, called a . Its use began in the 9th century and continued into the 14th century, with the fall of the Serbian Empire. * In the Indian subcontinent, the (a type of fief) was often thus assigned to individual junior relatives of the ruling house of a princely state, but not as a customary right of birth, though in practice usually hereditarily held, and not only to them but also to commoners, normally as an essentially meritocratic grant of land and taxation rights (guaranteeing a "fitting" income, in itself bringing social sway, in the primary way in a mainly agricultural society), or even as part of a deal. *The seniormost woman in the Travancore royal family held the estate of Attingal, also known as the Sreepadam Estate in appanage for life. All the income derived from this estate was the private property of the senior maharani, alternatively known as the Senior Rani of Attingal (). *The Javanese kingdom of , which dominated eastern Java in the 14th and 15th centuries, was divided into (provinces). The administration of these was entrusted to members of the royal family, who bore the title of i.e. , "lord of" (the word being akin to the Thai language, Thai ), followed by the name of the land they were entrusted with: for example a sister of king Hayam Wuruk (r. 1350-1389) was , "lady of Lasem".


Appanage system of the Mongol Empire and Mongolian monarchs

The royal family of the Mongol Empire owned the largest appanages in the world because of their enormous empire. In 1206, Genghis Khan awarded large tracts of land to his family members and loyal companions, most of whom were of common origin. Shares of booty were distributed much more widely. Empresses, princesses, and meritorious servants, as well as children of concubines, all received full shares including war prisoners.Weatherford, Jack. ''Genghis Khan and the making of the modern world'', pp. 220–227. For example, Kublai summoned two siege engineers from the Ilkhanate, and after their success rewarded them with lands. After the Mongol conquest in 1238, the port cities in Crimea paid List of Khans of the Golden Horde, the Jochids custom duties and the revenues were divided among all Chingisid princes in Mongol Empire in accordance with the appanage system. As loyal allies, the Kublaids in East Asia and the Ilkhanids in Persia sent clerics, doctors, artisans, scholars, engineers and administrators to and received revenues from the appanages in each other's khanates. The Great Khan Möngke Khan, Möngke divided up shares or appanages in Persia and made redistribution in Central Asia in 1251-1256. Although the Chagatai Khanate was the smallest in size, the Chagatai Khans held the cities of Kath, Uzbekistan, Kat and Khiva in Khorazm, and some cities and villages in Shanxi and Iran, as well as their nomadic grounds in Central Asia. The first Ilkhan, Hulagu, owned 25,000 households of silk-workers in China, valleys in Tibet, and lands in Mongolia. In 1298, his descendant Ghazan of Persia sent envoys with precious gifts to the Great Khan Temür Khan, and asked for the share of lands and revenues held by his great-grandfather in the Yuan Dynasty, Yuan lands (China and Mongolia). It is claimed that Ghazan received revenues that were not sent since the time of Möngke Khan.Jackson, Peter. "From Ulus to Khanate: the making of Mongol States, c. 1220-1290" in ''The Mongol Empire and Its Legacy'', pp. 12–38. The appanage holders demanded excessive revenues and freed themselves from taxes. Ögedei decreed that nobles could appoint darughachi and judges in the appanages instead of direct distribution without the permission of the Great Khan, thanks to the brilliant Khitan people, Khitan minister Yelü Chucai. Both Güyük Khan, Güyük and Möngke restricted the autonomy of the appanages, but Kublai Khan continued Ögedei's regulations. Ghazan also prohibited any misfeasance of appanage holders in the Ilkhanate, and Yuan councillor Temuder restricted Mongol nobles' excessive powers in appanages in China and Mongolia. Kublai's successor Temür abolished imperial son-in-law King Chungnyeol of Goryeo's 358 departments which caused financial pressures to Korean people, though, Mongols gave them some autonomy. The appanage system was severely affected beginning with the civil strife in the Mongol Empire from 1260 to 1304. Nevertheless, this system survived. For example, Abagha of the Ilkhanate allowed Möngke Temür of the Golden Horde to collect revenues from silk workshops in northern Persia in 1270, and Baraq (Chagatai Khan), Baraq of the Chagatai Khanate sent his Muslim vizier to the Ilkhanate in 1269, ostensibly to investigate his appanages there. (The vizier's real mission was to spy on the Ilkhanids.) After a peace treaty declared among Mongol Khans: Temür, Duwa, Chapar, Tokhta and Oljeitu in 1304, the system began to see a recovery. During the reign of Tugh Temür, Yuan court received a third of revenues of the cities of Transoxiana (Mawarannahr) under Chagatai Khans while Chagatai elites such as Eljigidey, Duwa Temür, Tarmashirin were given lavish presents and sharing in the Yuan Dynasty's patronage of Buddhist temples. Tugh Temür was also given some Russian captives by Chagatai prince Changshi as well as Kublai's future khatun Chabi had servant Ahmad Fanakati from Fergana Valley before her marriage. In 1326, Golden Horde started sending tributes to Great Khans of Yuan Dynasty again. By 1339, Ozbeg and his successors had received annually 24 thousand ding (currency), ding in paper currency from their Chinese appanages in Shanxi, Cheli and Hunan. H. H. Howorth noted that Ozbeg's envoy required his master's shares from the Yuan court, the headquarters of the Mongol world, for the establishment of new post stations in 1336.H. H. Howorth '' History of the Mongols'', Vol II, p. 172. This communication ceased only with the breakup, succession struggles and rebellions of Mongol Khanates. After the fall of the Mongol Empire in 1368, the Mongols continued the tradition of appanage system. They were divided into districts ruled by hereditary noblemen. The units in such systems were called and during Northern Yuan Dynasty in Mongolia. However, the called their appanage unit or . Appanages were called Eight Banners, banners () under the Qing dynasty.


See also

* Cadet branch * Crown lands of France


Notes


References


Citations


Sources


"Apanages in the French monarchy"
on François Velde's ''Heraldica'' site. * , undated (early 20th century; in French) * {{Authority control Feudal duties Kingdom of France Monarchy Nobility Inheritance