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Anuria is nonpassage of
urine Urine is a liquid by-product A by-product or byproduct is a secondary product derived from a production process, manufacturing process or chemical reaction; it is not the primary product or service being produced. A by-product can be useful and ...

urine
, in practice is defined as passage of less than 100Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19E PAGE 292
milliliter The litre (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval Englan ...
s of urine in a day. Anuria is often caused by failure in the function of
kidney The kidneys are two reddish-brown bean-shaped organs An organ is a group of tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given organ's tissues can be broadly categorized ...

kidney
s. It may also occur because of some severe obstruction like
kidney stone Kidney stone disease, also known as nephrolithiasis or urolithiasis, is when a calculus (medicine), solid piece of material (kidney stone) develops in the urinary tract. Kidney stones typically form in the kidney and leave the body in the urine ...
s or
tumour A neoplasm () is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of . The process that occurs to form or produce a neoplasm is called neoplasia. The growth of a neoplasm is uncoordinated with that of the normal surrounding tissue, and persists in grow ...
s. It may occur with end stage kidney disease. It is a more extreme reduction than
oliguria Oliguria or hypouresis is the low output of urine Urine is a liquid by-product A by-product or byproduct is a secondary product derived from a production process, manufacturing process or chemical reaction; it is not the primary product or servi ...
(hypouresis), with 100 mL/day being the conventional (albeit slightly arbitrary) cutoff point between the two.


Signs and symptoms

Anuria itself is a symptom, not a disease. It is often associated with other symptoms of kidney failure, such as lack of appetite, weakness, nausea and vomiting. These are mostly the result of buildup of toxins in the blood which would normally be removed by healthy kidneys.


Causes

Failure of kidney function, which can have multiple causes including medications or toxins (e.g., antifreeze, cephalosporins, ACEIs);
diabetes Diabetes mellitus, commonly known as just diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by a hyperglycemia, high blood sugar level over a prolonged period of time. Symptoms often include frequent urination, Polydipsia, increased th ...

diabetes
; high blood pressure. Stones or tumours in the urinary tract can also cause it by creating an obstruction to urinary flow. High blood calcium, oxalate, or uric acid, can contribute to the risk of stone formation. In males, an enlarged
prostate gland The prostate is both an accessory gland of the male reproductive system and a muscle-driven mechanical switch between urination and ejaculation. It is found only in some mammals. It differs between species anatomically, chemically, and physio ...
is a common cause of obstructive anuria. Acute anuria, where the decline in urine production occurs quickly, is usually a sign of obstruction or
acute kidney failure Acute kidney injury (AKI), previously called acute renal failure (ARF), is a sudden decrease in kidney function that develops within 7 days, as shown by an increase in serum creatinine Creatinine ( or ; from el, κρέας, kreas, flesh) is a ...
. Acute kidney failure can be caused by factors not related to the kidney, such as
heart failure Heart failure (HF), also known as congestive heart failure (CHF) and (congestive) cardiac failure (CCF), is a Syndrome, set of manifestations caused by the failure of the heart's function as a pump supporting the Circulatory system, blood flow t ...
,
mercury poisoning Mercury poisoning is a type of metal poisoning due to exposure to mercury. Symptoms depend upon the type, dose, method, and duration of exposure. They may include muscle weakness, poor coordination, numbness in the hands and feet, skin rashes, ...
, infection, and other conditions that cause the kidney to be deprived of blood flow.


Treatment

Treatment is dependent on the underlying cause of this symptom. The most easily treatable cause is obstruction of urine flow, which is often solved by insertion of a
urinary catheter In urinary catheterization a latex, polyurethane, or silicone tube known as a urinary catheter is inserted into the urinary bladder, bladder through the urethra. Catheterization allows urine to drain from the bladder for collection. It may also be ...
into the
urinary bladder The urinary bladder, or simply bladder, is a hollow muscular MUSCULAR (DS-200B), located in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. ...
.
Mannitol Mannitol is a type of sugar alcohol Sugar alcohols (also called polyhydric alcohols, polyalcohols, alditols or glycitols) are organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific dis ...
is a medicine that is used to increase the amount of water removed from the blood and thus improve the blood flow to the kidneys. However, mannitol is contraindicated in anuria secondary to renal disease, severe dehydration, intracranial bleeding (except during
craniotomy A craniotomy is a surgical operation in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to access the brain. Craniotomies are often critical operations, performed on patients who are suffering from brain lesions or traumatic brain injury ...
), severe pulmonary congestion, or pulmonary edema.
Dextrose Glucose is a simple sugar with the Chemical formula#Molecular formula, molecular formula . Glucose is the most abundant monosaccharide, a subcategory of carbohydrates. Glucose is mainly made by plants and most algae during photosynthesis from water ...

Dextrose
and
dobutamine Dobutamine is a medication used in the treatment of cardiogenic shock and severe heart failure Heart failure (HF), also known as congestive heart failure (CHF), (congestive) cardiac failure (CCF), and decompensatio cordis, is when the heart ...

dobutamine
are both used to increase blood flow to the kidney and act within 30 to 60 minutes.


References


External links

{{Urinary system symptoms and signs Symptoms and signs: Urinary system