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Anti-communism is a
political movement A political movement is a collective attempt by a group of people to change government policy or social values. Political movements are usually in opposition to an element of the status quo  and are often associated with a certain ideology. So ...
and
ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of ...
opposed to
communism Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...

communism
. Organized anti-communism developed after the 1917
October Revolution The October Revolution,. officially known as the Great October Socialist Revolution. under the Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence ...

October Revolution
in Russia and it reached global dimensions during the
Cold War The Cold War was a period of geopolitical Geopolitics (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loc ...
, when the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
and the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
engaged in an intense rivalry. Anti-communism has been an element of movements which hold many different political positions, including
conservatism Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), taste, as well as the philosophy of art (its own area of philosophy that comes out of ae ...
,
fascism Fascism () is a form of far-right, authoritarian ultranationalism characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition, and strong regimentation of society and the economy that rose to prominence in early 20th-century Europ ...

fascism
,
liberalism Liberalism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals ...

liberalism
,
nationalism Nationalism is an idea and movement that holds that the nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target ...
and
social democracy Social democracy is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the Cognition, cognit ...
as well as
anarchist Anarchism is a political philosophy and Political movement, movement that is sceptical of authority and rejects all involuntary, coercive forms of hierarchy. Anarchism calls for the abolition of the State (polity), state, which it holds to ...

anarchist
or
libertarian Libertarianism (from french: libertaire, "libertarian"; from la, libertas, "freedom") is a political philosophy Political philosophy or political theory is the philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and funda ...

libertarian
and even
socialist Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the Cognition, cognitive pr ...

socialist
and anti-Stalinist left viewpoints. It has also been prominent in
resistance movements A resistance movement is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to withstand the legally established government or an occupying power Military or belligerent occupation, often simply occupation, is provisional ...
against communism under
socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is bor ...
s governed by
communist parties A communist party is a left-wing Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism Egalitarianism (), or equalitarianism, is a school of thought within political philosophy that builds from the concept of social equal ...
throughout history. The first organization which was specifically dedicated to opposing communism was the Russian
White movement The White movement ( rus, Бѣлое движеніе/Белое движение, r= Beloye dvizheniye, p= ˈbʲɛləɪ dvʲɪˈʐenʲɪɪ) also known as the Whites (Бѣлые/Белые, ''Beliye''), was a loose confederation of anti-communist ...
which fought in the
Russian Civil War , date = October Revolution, 7 November 1917 – Yakut revolt, 16 June 1923{{Efn, The main phase ended on 25 October 1922. Revolt against the Bolsheviks continued Basmachi movement, in Central Asia and Tungus Republic, the Far East th ...
starting in 1918 against the recently established
Bolshevik government Under the leadership of Russian communist Vladimir Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov. ( 1870 – 21 January 1924), better known by his alias Lenin,. was a Russian revolutionary, politician, and political theorist. He served as the first and fou ...
. The White movement was militarily supported by several allied foreign governments which represented the first instance of anti-communism as a government policy. Nevertheless, the
Red Army The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army,) frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links= ...
defeated the White movement and the Soviet Union was created in 1922. During the existence of the Soviet Union, anti-communism became an important feature of many different political movements and governments across the world. In the United States, anti-communism came to prominence with the
First Red Scare The First Red Scare was a period during the early 20th-century history of the United States marked by a widespread fear of far-left Far-left politics are politics further to the left of the left–right political spectrum than the standar ...
of 1919–1920. During the 1920s and 1930s, opposition to communism in Europe was promoted by conservatives, fascists, liberals and social democrats. Fascist governments rose to prominence as major opponents of communism in the 1930s and they founded the
Anti-Comintern Pact The Anti-Comintern Pact (german: Antikominternpakt; ; ja, 防共協定, ''Bōkyō kyōtei''), officially the Agreement against the Communist International (German: ''Abkommen gegen die Kommunistische Internationale''), was an anti-Communist ...

Anti-Comintern Pact
in 1936 as an anti-communist alliance. In Asia, the
Empire of Japan The was a historical nation-state A nation state is a political unit where the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of Sta ...

Empire of Japan
and the
Kuomintang The Kuomintang (KMT), also referred to as the Guomindang (GMD) or the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Taiwan, Republic of China, initially Republic of China (1912–1949), on the Mainland China, Chinese mainland and ...
(the Chinese Nationalist Party) were the leading anti-communist forces during this period. After
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, fascism ceased to be a major political movement due to the defeat of the Axis powers. The victorious
Allies An alliance is a relationship among people, groups, or sovereign state, states that have joined together for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose, whether or not explicit agreement has been worked out among them. Members of an alli ...
were an international coalition that was primarily led by the United States, the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
and the Soviet Union, but after the war this alliance quickly broke down into two opposing camps, namely a Marxist–Leninist one led by the Soviet Union and a liberal-capitalist one led by the United States. The rivalry between the two sides came to be known as the
Cold War The Cold War was a period of geopolitical Geopolitics (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loc ...
and during this period the United States government played a leading role in supporting global anti-communism as part of its
containment '' Containment is a geopolitical Geopolitics (from Greek γῆ ''gê'' "earth, land" and πολιτική ''politikḗ'' "politics") is the study of the effects of Earth's geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally ...

containment
policy. There were numerous military conflicts between Communists and anti-Communists in various parts of the world, including the
Chinese Civil War The Chinese Civil War was a civil war in China fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led Nationalist government, government of the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China (ROC) and forces of the Communist Party of China (CPC) lastin ...
, the
Korean War The Korean War (see § Names) was a war fought between North Korea North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. It b ...

Korean War
, the
Malayan Emergency The Malayan Emergency, also known as the Anti–British National Liberation War (1948–1960) was a guerrilla war fought in British Malaya The term "British Malaya" (; ms, Tanah Melayu British) loosely describes a set of states on the ...
, the
Vietnam War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Vietnam War , partof = the Indochina Wars The Indochina Wars ( vi, Chiến tranh Đông Dương) were a series of wars fought in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled ...
, the
Soviet–Afghan War The Soviet–Afghan War was a conflict wherein insurgent groups known collectively as the Mujahideen ''Mujahideen'', or ''Mujahidin'' ( ar, مُجَاهِدِين, mujāhidīn), is the plural form of ''mujahid'' ( ar, مجاهد, mujā ...
and the forces of
Operation Condor Operation Condor ( es, link=no, Operación Cóndor, also known as ''Plan Cóndor''; pt, Operação Condor) was a United States-backed campaign of political repression and state terrorism, state terror involving Intelligence (information gatheri ...
.
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance A military alliance is a formal agreement betwe ...
was founded as an anti-communist military alliance in 1949 and it continued throughout the Cold War. With the
Revolutions of 1989 The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave A revolutionary wave or revolutionary decade is one series of revolution In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics. It is a social science d ...
and the
dissolution of the Soviet Union The dissolution of the Soviet Union, also negatively connoted as rus, Разва́л Сове́тского Сою́за, r=Razvál Sovétskovo Sojúza, ''Ruining of the Soviet Union''. (1988–1991) was the process of internal political, ...
in 1991, most of the world's Marxist–Leninist governments were overthrown and the Cold War ended. Nevertheless, anti-communism remains an important intellectual element of many contemporary political movements and organized anti-communism is a factor in the domestic opposition that exists to varying degrees within the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

People's Republic of China
and other countries that are governed by Communist parties. Criticism of anti-communism and accounts of political repression and economic development under Marxist–Leninist rule is diverse.


Anti-communist movements


Left-wing anti-communism

Since the split of the Communist parties from the socialist
Second International The Second International (1889–1916) was an organisation of workers' movement, socialist and labour parties, formed on 14 July 1889 at two simultaneous Paris meetings in which delegations from twenty countries participated. The Second Internat ...
to form the Marxist–Leninist
Third International The Communist International (Comintern), also known as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international organization ''International Organization'' is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the entire field of inter ...
,
social democrats Social democracy is a Political philosophy, political, Social philosophy, social, and economic philosophy within socialism that supports Democracy, political and economic democracy. As a policy regime, it is described by academics as advocatin ...
have been critical of Communism for its anti-liberal nature. Examples of left-wing critics of Marxist–Leninist states and parties are
Friedrich Ebert Friedrich Ebert (; 4 February 187128 February 1925) was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany The Social Democratic Party of Germany (german: Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, ; SPD, ) is a social democratic pol ...

Friedrich Ebert
,
Boris Souvarine Boris Souvarine (1895 – 1 November 1984), also known as Varine, was a French Marxism, Marxist, Communism, communist activist, essayist and journalist. A founding member of the French Communist Party, Souvarine is noted for being the only non-Rus ...
,
George Orwell Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950) known by his pen name A pen name, also called a ''nom de plume'' () or a literary double, is a pseudonym (or, in some cases, a variant form of a real name) adopted by an author and printed ...

George Orwell
,
Bayard Rustin Bayard Rustin (; March 17, 1912 – August 24, 1987) was an American leader in social movements for civil rights, socialism, nonviolence, and gay rights. Rustin worked with A. Philip Randolph on the March on Washington Movement, in 1941, to pr ...
,
Irving Howe Irving Howe (; June 11, 1920 – May 5, 1993) was an American literary and social critic and a prominent figure of the Democratic Socialists of America The Democratic Socialists of America (DSA) is a socialist Socialism is a Polit ...
and
Max Shachtman Max Shachtman (; September 10, 1904 – November 4, 1972) was an American Marxist theorist. He went from being an associate of Leon Trotsky to a social democrat and mentor of senior assistants to AFL-CIO President George Meany. Beginnings ...
. The
American Federation of Labor The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was a national federation of labor unions in the United States Labor unions in the United States are organizations that represent workers in many industries recognized under US labor law since the 1935 en ...
has always been strongly anti-communist. The more leftist
Congress of Industrial Organizations The Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) was a federation of that organized workers in in the and from 1935 to 1955. Created in 1935 by , who was a part of the (UMW), it was originally called the Committee for Industrial Organization ...
purged its Communists in 1947 and has been staunchly anti-communist ever since. In Britain, the
Labour Party Labour Party or Labor Party may refer to: Angola *MPLA, known for some years as "Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola – Labour Party" Antigua and Barbuda *Antigua and Barbuda Labour Party Argentina *Labour Party (Argentina) Armenia ...
strenuously resisted Communist efforts to infiltrate its ranks and take control of locals in the 1930s. The Labour Party became anti-communist and Labour Prime Minister
Clement Attlee Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, (3 January 18838 October 1967) was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head o ...

Clement Attlee
was a staunch supporter of
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance A military alliance is a formal agreement betwe ...
.


Liberals

In ''
The Communist Manifesto ''The Communist Manifesto'', originally the ''Manifesto of the Communist Party'' (german: Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei), is an 1848 pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx Karl Heinrich Marx (; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was ...
'',
Karl Marx Karl Heinrich Marx (; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, M ...

Karl Marx
and
Friedrich Engels Friedrich Engels ( ,"Engels"
''
outlined some provisional short-term measures that could be steps towards
communism Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...
. They noted that " ese measures will, of course, be different in different countries. Nevertheless, in most advanced countries, the following will be pretty generally applicable".
Ludwig von Mises Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (; 29 September 1881 – 10 October 1973) was an Austrian School economist, historian, logician, and Sociology, sociologist. Mises wrote and lectured extensively on the societal contributions of classical liberal ...

Ludwig von Mises
described this as a "10-point plan" for the redistribution of land and production and argued that the initial and ongoing forms of redistribution constitute direct coercion. Neither Marx's 10-point plan nor the rest of the manifesto say anything about who has the right to carry out the plan.
Milton Friedman Milton Friedman (; July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and c ...

Milton Friedman
argued that the absence of voluntary economic activity makes it too easy for repressive political leaders to grant themselves coercive powers. Friedman's view was also shared by
Friedrich Hayek Friedrich August von Hayek ( , ; 8 May 189923 March 1992), often referred to by his initials F. A. Hayek, was an Austrian-British economist, and philosopher who is best known for his defence of classical liberalism. Hayek shared the 1974 Nob ...
and
John Maynard Keynes John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, ( ; 5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946) was an English economist An economist is a professional and practitioner in the social science Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a ...

John Maynard Keynes
, both of whom believed that capitalism is vital for freedom to survive and thrive.


Objectivists

Objectivists Objectivism is a philosophical system developed by Russian-American Russian Americans ( rus, ру́сские америка́нцы, links= y, r= rússkiye amerikántsy, p= ˈruskʲɪje ɐmʲɪrʲɪˈkant͡sɨ) are Americans Americans ...
who follow
Ayn Rand Ayn Rand (; born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum;,  – March 6, 1982) was a Russian-American writer and philosopher. She is known for her two best-selling novels, ''The Fountainhead'' and ''Atlas Shrugged'', and for developing a philosophic ...

Ayn Rand
are strongly anti-communist. They argue that wealth (or any other human value) is the creation of individual minds, that human nature requires motivation by personal incentive and therefore that only political and economic freedom are consistent with human prosperity. They believe this is demonstrated by the comparative prosperity of
free market In economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of pl ...
economies. Rand writes that Communist leaders typically claim to work for the common good, but many or all of them have been corrupt and totalitarian.


Former communists

Milovan Djilas Milovan Djilas (; , ; 1911–1995) was a Communist Party of Yugoslavia, Yugoslav communist politician, Marxism, theorist and author. He was a key figure in the Partisans (Yugoslavia), Partisan movement during World War II, as well as in the post- ...

Milovan Djilas
was a former
Yugoslav Yugoslav or Yugoslavian may refer to: * Yugoslavia, or any of the three historic states carrying that name: ** Kingdom of Yugoslavia, a European monarchy which existed 1918–1945 (officially called "Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes" 1918–19 ...

Yugoslav
Communist official who became a prominent dissident and critic of Communism.
Leszek Kołakowski Leszek Kołakowski (; ; 23 October 1927 – 17 July 2009) was a Polish philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philosophos, meaning 'lover of w ...
was a Polish Communist who became a famous anti-communist. He was best known for his critical analyses of
Marxist Marxism is a method of socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how modern society, societies soci ...
thought, especially his acclaimed three-volume history, '' Main Currents of Marxism'', which is "considered by some to be one of the most important books on political theory of the 20th century". '' The God That Failed'' is a 1949 book which collects together six essays with the testimonies of a number of famous former Communists who were writers and journalists. The common theme of the essays is the authors' disillusionment with and abandonment of Communism. The promotional
byline The byline (or by-line in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of gram ...
to the book is "Six famous men tell how they changed their minds about Communism". Four more notable anti-communists were
Whittaker Chambers Whittaker Chambers (born Jay Vivian Chambers; April 1, 1901 – July 9, 1961) was an American writer-editor, who, after early years as a Communist Party A communist party is a left-wing political party that seeks to realize the social an ...

Whittaker Chambers
, a former spy for the Soviet Union who testified against his fellow spies before the
House Un-American Activities Committee The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HCUA), popularly dubbed the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), and from 1969 onwards known as the House Committee on Internal Security, was an investigative committee A committee or co ...
; Bella Dodd; and
Anatoliy Golitsyn Anatoliy Mikhaylovich Golitsyn CBE The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, and public service outside the ...
and
Oleg Kalugin Oleg Danilovich Kalugin (russian: Олег Данилович Калугин; born 6 September 1934) is a former KGB general A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or ...
, both former
KGB The KGB ( rus, links=no, Комитет государственной безопасности (КГБ), a=ru-KGB.ogg, p=kəmʲɪˈtʲet ɡəsʊˈdarstvʲɪn(ː)əj bʲɪzɐˈpasnəsʲtʲɪ, Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti), translated ...
and the latter a general. Other anti-communists who were once Marxists include the writers
Max Eastman Max Forrester Eastman (January 4, 1883 – March 25, 1969) was an American writer on literature, philosophy and society, a poet and a prominent political activist. Moving to New York City for graduate school, Eastman became involved with radical ...

Max Eastman
,
John Dos Passos John Roderigo Dos Passos (; January 14, 1896 – September 28, 1970) was an American novelist, most notable for his U.S.A. (trilogy), ''U.S.A.'' trilogy. Born in Chicago, Dos Passos graduated from Harvard College in 1916. He traveled widely as a y ...

John Dos Passos
,
James Burnham James Burnham (November 22, 1905 – July 28, 1987) was an American philosopher and political theorist. He chaired the philosophy department at New York University; His first book was ''An Introduction to Philosophical Analysis'' (1931). B ...
,
Morrie Ryskind Morris "Morrie" Ryskind (October 20, 1895 – August 24, 1985) was an American drama Drama is the specific Mode (literature), mode of fiction Mimesis, represented in performance: a Play (theatre), play, opera, mime, ballet, etc., performed ...
, Frank Meyer, ,
Sidney Hook Sidney Hook (December 20, 1902 – July 12, 1989) was an American philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, ex ...
, the contributors to the book '' The God That Failed'':
Louis Fischer Louis Fischer (29 February 1896 – 15 January 1970) was an American journalist. Among his works were a contribution to the ex-Communist treatise '' The God that Failed'' (1949), a ''Life of Mahatma Gandhi'' (1950), basis for the Academy Award ...
,
André Gide André Paul Guillaume Gide (; 22 November 1869 – 19 February 1951) was a French author and winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature (in 1947). Gide's career ranged from its beginnings in the Symbolism (arts), symbolist movement, to the advent ...

André Gide
,
Arthur Koestler Arthur Koestler, (, ; ; hu, Kösztler Artúr; 5 September 1905 – 1 March 1983) was a Hungarian British Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation ...
,
Ignazio Silone Secondino Tranquilli (1 May 1900 – 22 August 1978), known by the pseudonym Ignazio Silone (, ), was an Italian political leader, novelist, and short-story writer, world-famous during World War II for his powerful anti-Fascist novels. He was nomi ...
,
Stephen Spender Sir Stephen Harold Spender (28 February 1909 – 16 July 1995) was an English poet, novelist and essayist whose work concentrated on themes of social injustice and the class struggle Class conflict, also referred to as class struggle and c ...
and Richard Wright. Anti-communists who were once socialists, liberals or
social democrats Social democracy is a Political philosophy, political, Social philosophy, social, and economic philosophy within socialism that supports Democracy, political and economic democracy. As a policy regime, it is described by academics as advocatin ...
include John Chamberlain,
Friedrich Hayek Friedrich August von Hayek ( , ; 8 May 189923 March 1992), often referred to by his initials F. A. Hayek, was an Austrian-British economist, and philosopher who is best known for his defence of classical liberalism. Hayek shared the 1974 Nob ...
,
Raymond Moley Raymond Charles Moley (September 27, 1886 – February 18, 1975) was an American political economist. Initially a leading supporter of the New Deal The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms, and regulation ...
,
Norman Podhoretz Norman Podhoretz (; born January 16, 1930) is an American neoconservative pundit, who identifies his views as "paleo-neoconservative".
,
David Horowitz David Joel Horowitz (born January 10, 1939) is an American conservative Conservatism is a Political philosophy, political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions. The central tenets of conservatism may vary in relat ...
, and
Irving Kristol Irving Kristol (; January 22, 1920 – September 18, 2009) was an American journalist who was dubbed the "godfather of neoconservatism". As a founder, editor, and contributor to various magazines, he played an influential role in the intellect ...
.


Counter-revolutionary movements

A wave of revolutionary impulses since the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its ...

French Revolution
that had swept over Europe and other parts of the world and thus also created as a Counter-revolutionary reaction. Historian describes, in the book
Fire in the Minds of Men ''Fire in the Minds of Men: Origins of the Revolutionary Faith'' is a book about the spread of ideas written by James H. Billington, historian and Librarian of Congress. The book analyzes the ideas that inspired European revolutionary movements fr ...
, the historical frame of revolutions that extended from the waning of the French Revolution in the late eighteenth century and that culminated in the
Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relatio ...

Russian Revolution
. Most exiled Russian
White émigré A white Russian émigré was a Russian subject who emigrated from the territory of former Imperial Russia in the wake of the Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory ...
that included exiled Russian liberals were actively anti-communist in the 1920s and 1930s. Many of them had been or where active in the White movements that functioned as a
big tent Big tent or catch-all party is used in reference to a political party's policy of permitting or encouraging a broad spectrum of views among its members. This is in contrast to other parties that defend a determined ideology and seek voters wh ...
movement representing an array of political opinions in Russia united in their opposition to the Bolsheviks. In Britain, anti-communism was widespread among the British foreign policy elite in the 1930s with its strong upperclass connections. The upper-class
Cliveden set The Cliveden Set were a 1930s upper-class Upper class in modern societies is the social class composed of people who hold the highest social status, usually are the economic inequality, wealthiest members of class society, and wield the greatest po ...
was strongly anti-communist in Britain. In the United States, anti-communist fervor was at its highest during the late 1940s and early 1950s, when a
Hollywood blacklist The Hollywood blacklist was the colloquial term for what was in actuality a broader entertainment industry blacklist Blacklisting is the action of a group or authority, compiling a blacklist (or black list) of people, countries or other ent ...
was established, the
House Un-American Activities Committee The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HCUA), popularly dubbed the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), and from 1969 onwards known as the House Committee on Internal Security, was an investigative committee A committee or co ...
held the televised
Army–McCarthy hearings The Army–McCarthy hearings were a series of hearings held by the United States Senate The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress The United States Congress or U.S. Congress is the bicameral le ...
, led by Senator
Joseph McCarthy Joseph Raymond McCarthy (November 14, 1908 – May 2, 1957) was an American politician and attorney who served as a Republican United States Senate, U.S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin from 1947 until his death in 1957. Beginning in ...

Joseph McCarthy
, and the
John Birch Society The John Birch Society (JBS) is an American political advocacy group Advocacy groups, also known as special interest groups, use various forms of advocacy in order to influence public opinion and ultimately policy. They play an important ro ...

John Birch Society
was formed.


Fascism and Nazism

Fascism is often considered to be a reaction to communist and socialist uprisings in Europe.
Italian Fascism Italian Fascism ( it, fascismo italiano), also known as Classical Fascism or simply Fascism, is the original fascist Fascism () is a form of far-right Far-right politics, also referred to as the extreme right or right-wing extremism ...
, founded and led by , took power after years of leftist unrest led many conservatives to fear that a communist revolution was inevitable.
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was ...

Nazi Germany
's massacres and killings included the persecution of communists and among the first to be sent to concentration camps. Historians
Ian Kershaw Sir Ian Kershaw (born 29 April 1943) is an English historian whose work has chiefly focused on the social history of 20th-century Germany. He is regarded by many as one of the world's leading experts on Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany, and is par ...
and
Joachim Fest Joachim Clemens Fest (8 December 1926 – 11 September 2006) was a German journalist, critic and editor who was best known for his writings and public commentary on Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. ...
argue that in the early 1920s the
Nazis Nazism (), officially National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus; ), is the ideology and practices associated with Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (german: link=no, Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, NSDAP, or National Socia ...

Nazis
were only one of many nationalist and fascist political parties contending for the leadership of Germany's anti-communist movement. The Nazis only came to dominance during the
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression An economic depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a economic recession, recess ...
, when they organized street battles against German Communist formations. When
Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (; 20 April 188930 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the dictator of Nazi Germany, Germany from 1933 to 1945. Adolf Hitler's rise to power, He rose to power as the leader of the Nazi Party, becoming Cha ...

Adolf Hitler
came to power in 1933, his propaganda chief
Joseph Goebbels Paul Joseph Goebbels (; 29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German Nazism, Nazi politician who was the ''Gauleiter'' (district leader) of Berlin, chief propagandist for the Nazi Party, and then Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment a ...
set up the "". It published massive amounts of anti-Bolshevik propaganda, with the goal of demonizing Bolshevism and the Soviet Union before a worldwide audience. In Europe, numerous far-right activists including some conservative intellectuals, capitalists and industrialists were vocal opponents of Communism. During the late 1930s and the 1940s, several other anti-communist regimes and groups supported fascism. These included the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las JONS in Spain; the Vichy France, Vichy regime and the Legion of French Volunteers against Bolshevism (''Wehrmacht'' Infantry Regiment 638) in France; and in South America movements such as the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance and Brazilian Integralism.


Religions


Buddhists

Thích Huyền Quang was a prominent Vietnamese Bhikkhu, Buddhist monk and anti-communist dissident. In 1977, Quang wrote a letter to Prime Minister Phạm Văn Đồng detailing accounts of oppression by the Marxist–Leninist regime."Vietnamese Federation For Fatherland's Integrity"
For this, he and five other senior monks were arrested and detained. In 1982, Quang was arrested and subsequently placed under permanent house arrest for opposition to government policy after publicly denouncing the establishment of the state-controlled Buddhist Sangha of Vietnam, Vietnam Buddhist Church. Thích Quảng Độ was a Vietnamese Buddhist monk and an anti-communist dissident. In January 2008, the Europe-based magazine ''A Different View'' chose Thích Quảng Độ as one of the 15 Champions of World Democracy.


Christianity

The Catholic Church has a long history of anti-communism. The most recent Catechism of the Catholic Church states: "The Catholic Church has rejected the Totalitarianism, totalitarian and State atheism, atheistic ideologies that have been associated with 'communism' in modern times. [...] Regulating the economy solely by centralized planning perverts the basis of social bonds [...] [Still,] reasonable regulation of the marketplace and economic initiatives, in keeping with a just hierarchy of values and a view to the common good, is to be commended". Pope John Paul II was a harsh critic of Communism as was Pope Pius IX, who issued a pope, Papal encyclical, entitled ''Quanta cura'', in which he called "Communism and Socialism" the most fatal error. Popes' anti-communist stances were carried on in Italy by the Christian Democracy (Italy), Christian Democracy (DC), the centrist party founded by Alcide De Gasperi in 1943, which dominated Italian politics for almost fifty years, until its dissolution in 1993, preventing the Italian Communist Party (PCI) from reaching power. From 1945 onward, the Australian Labor Party (ALP) leadership accepted the assistance of an anti-communist Roman Catholic movement, led by B. A. Santamaria in order to oppose alleged communist subversion of Australian trade unions, of which Catholics were an important traditional support base. Bert Cremean, Deputy Leader of State Parliamentary Labor Party and Santamaria, met with ALP's political and industrial leaders to discuss the movements assisting their opposition to what they alleged was Communist subversion of Australian trade unionism. To oppose Communist infiltration of unions Industrial Groups were formed. The groups were active from 1945 to 1954, with the knowledge and support of the ALP leadership, until after Labor's loss of the 1954 election, when federal leader H. V. Evatt in the context of his response to the Petrov affair blamed "subversive" activities of the "Groupers" for the defeat. After bitter public dispute, many Groupers (including most members of the New South Wales and Victoria (Australia), Victorian state executives and most Victorian Labor branches) were expelled from the ALP and formed the Democratic Labor Party (historical), historical Democratic Labor Party (DLP). In an attempt to force the ALP reform and remove alleged Communist influence, with a view to then rejoining the "purged" ALP, the DLP Electoral system of Australia#Preferential voting, preferenced the Liberal Party of Australia (LPA), enabling them to remain in power for over two decades. The strategy was unsuccessful and after the Whitlam Government during the 1970s the majority of the DLP decided to wind up the party in 1978, although the small federal and state-based Democratic Labour Party (Australia), Democratic Labour Party continued based in Victoria, with state parties reformed in New South Wales and Queensland in 2008. After the Soviet occupation of Hungary during the final stages of the Second World War, many clerics were arrested. The case of the Archbishop József Mindszenty of Esztergom, head of the Catholic Church in Hungary, was the most known. He was accused of treason to the Communist ideas and was sent to trials and tortured during several years between 1949 and 1956. During the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 against Marxism–Leninism and Soviet control, Mindszenty was set free and after the failure of the movement he was forced to move to the United States' embassy in Budapest, where he lived until 1971 when the Vatican and the Marxist–Leninist government of Hungary pacted his way out to Austria. In the following years, Mindszenty travelled all over the world visiting the Hungarian colonies in Canada, United States, Germany, Austria, South Africa and Venezuela. He led a high critical campaign against the Leninist regime denouncing the atrocities committed by them against him and the Hungarian people. The Leninist government accused him and demanded that the Vatican remove him the title of Archbishop of Esztergom and forbid him to make public speeches against Communism. The Vatican eventually annulled the excommunication imposed on his political opponents and stripped him of his titles. The Pope, who declared the Archdiocese of Esztergom officially vacated, refused to fill the seat while Mindszenty was still alive. In 1972, American priest Francis E. Fenton of the Orthodox Roman Catholic Movement wrote that although the Church has always fought communism, things have changed since the death of Pope Pius XII.


Falun Gong

Falun Gong practitioners are against the Communist Party of China's persecution of Falun Gong. In April 1999, over ten thousand Falun Gong practitioners gathered at the Communist Party headquarters (Zhongnanhai) in a silent protest following an history of Falun Gong#Zhongnanhai incident, incident in Tianjin.Reid, Graham (29 Apr – 5 May 2006
"Nothing left to lose"
''New Zealand Listener''. Retrieved 6 July 2006.
Danny Schechter, ''Falun Gong's Challenge to China: Spiritual Practice or Evil Cult?'', Akashic books: New York, 2001, p. 66. Two months later, the Communist Party banned the practice, initiated a security crackdown and began a propaganda campaign against it., Amnesty International.Johnson, Ian, ''Wild Grass: three portraits of change in modern china'', Vintage (8 March 2005) Since 1999, Falun Gong practitioners in China have reportedly been subject to torture, Arbitrary arrest and detention, arbitrary imprisonment,Leung, Beatrice (2002) 'China and Falun Gong: Party and society relations in the modern era', Journal of Contemporary China, 11:33, 761–84 beatings, Unfree labour, forced labor, Persecution of Falun Gong#Organ harvesting, organ harvestingDavid Kilgour, David Matas (6 July 2006, revised 31 January 2007
"An Independent Investigation into Allegations of Organ Harvesting of Falun Gong Practitioners in China"
(free in 22 languages) organharvestinvestigation.net.
and Political abuse of psychiatry#China, psychiatric abuses.Sunny Y. Lu, MD, PhD, and Viviana B. Galli, MD, "Psychiatric Abuse of Falun Gong Practitioners in China", ''J Am Acad Psychiatry Law'', 30:126–30, 2002.Robin J. Munro, "Judicial Psychiatry in China and its Political Abuses", ''Columbia Journal of Asian Law'', Columbia University, Volume 14, Number 1, Fall 2000, p. 114. Falun Gong responded with their own media campaign and have emerged as a notable voice of dissent against the Communist Party by founding organizations such as the ''Epoch Times'', New Tang Dynasty Television and others that criticize the Communist Party. Falun Gong activists made repeated allegations of torture having taken place while in custody. The Chinese government rejects the allegations, stating that deaths from custody occurred due to factors such as natural causes and refusal of medical treatment. According to David Ownby, " e Chinese government has suppressed movements like the Falun Gong hundred of times over the course of Chinese history", adding that the Chinese Communist government did "the same thing the imperial state had always done, which was to arrest and generally, not always, execute the leaders and pretend to reeducate the others and send them back home and hope that they would be good people from there on". Most information obtained by the Western media about Falun Gong is distributed by the Rachlin media group which is described as a public relations firm for Falun Gong. According to reports released by Vienna Radio Network on July 12, Gunther von Hagens, a famous German anatomist, recently held an exhibition of human bodies which provoked Falun Gong's allegations of live organ harvest. Hagens held a news conference at which he confirmed that none of the human bodies exhibited had come from China. The statement made by Hagens refuted the Falun Gong's rumors. According to Chinese government officials, " e allegations that Falun Gong members are being murdered in China for organ harvesting, as well as the Kilgour-Matas report, have long before been found false and proved to be nothing but a lie fabricated by a handful of anti-China people to tarnish China's reputation. The virulent accusations made during the hearing had already been robustly refuted seven years before, not only by Chinese authorities but also by diplomats and journalists of several other countries who conducted their own conscientious investigations in China, including officers and staff of the U.S. Embassy in Beijing and the U.S. Consulate-General in Shenyang". In 2006, allegations emerged that a large number of Falun Gong practitioners Persecution of Falun Gong#Organ harvesting, had been killed to supply China's organ transplant industry.Gutmann, Ethan
"China's Gruesome Organ Harvest"
The Weekly Standard, 24 November 2008
The Kilgour-Matas report found that "the source of 41,500 transplants for the six-year period 2000 to 2005 is unexplained" and concluded that "there has been and continues today to be large scale organ seizures from unwilling Falun Gong practitioners". Ethan Gutmann estimated that 65,000 Falun Gong practitioners were killed for their organs from 2000 to 2008.Jay Nordlinger (25 August 2014
"Face The Slaughter: The Slaughter: Mass Killings, Organ Harvesting, and China's Secret Solution to Its Dissident Problem, by Ethan Gutmann"
''National Review''
Barbara Turnbull (21 October 2014

''Toronto Star''
Ethan Gutmann (August 2014
The Slaughter: Mass Killings, Organ Harvesting and China's Secret Solution to Its Dissident Problem
"Average number of Falun Gong in Laogai System at any given time" Low estimate 450,000, High estimate 1,000,000 p 320. "Best estimate of Falun Gong harvested 2000 to 2008" 65,000 p. 322.
In 2009, courts in Spain and Argentina indicted senior Chinese officials for genocide and crimes against humanity for their role in orchestrating the suppression of Falun Gong.Reuters
"Argentine judge asks China arrests over Falun Gong"
22 December 2009.


Literature

George Orwell Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950) known by his pen name A pen name, also called a ''nom de plume'' () or a literary double, is a pseudonym (or, in some cases, a variant form of a real name) adopted by an author and printed ...

George Orwell
, a democratic socialism, democratic socialist, wrote two of the most widely read and influential anti-totalitarian novels, namely ''Nineteen Eighty-Four'' and ''Animal Farm'', both of which featured allusions to the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
under the History of the Soviet Union (1927–1953), rule of Joseph Stalin. Also on the left-wing,
Arthur Koestler Arthur Koestler, (, ; ; hu, Kösztler Artúr; 5 September 1905 – 1 March 1983) was a Hungarian British Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation ...
—a former member of the Communist Party of Germany—explored the ethics of revolution from an anti-communist perspective in a variety of works. His trilogy of early novels testified to Koestler's growing conviction that utopian ends do not justify the means often used by revolutionary governments. These novels are ''The Gladiators (novel), The Gladiators'' (which explores the slave uprising led by Spartacus in the Roman Empire as an allegory for the Russian Revolution (1917), Russian Revolution), ''Darkness at Noon'' (based on the Moscow Trials, this was a very widely read novel that made Koestler one of the most prominent anti-communist intellectuals of the period), ''The Yogi and the Commissar'' and ''Arrival and Departure''.
Whittaker Chambers Whittaker Chambers (born Jay Vivian Chambers; April 1, 1901 – July 9, 1961) was an American writer-editor, who, after early years as a Communist Party A communist party is a left-wing political party that seeks to realize the social an ...

Whittaker Chambers
—an American ex Communist who became famous for his cooperation with the
House Un-American Activities Committee The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HCUA), popularly dubbed the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), and from 1969 onwards known as the House Committee on Internal Security, was an investigative committee A committee or co ...
(HUAC), where he implicated Alger Hiss—published an anti-communist memoir, ''Witness'', in 1952. It became "the principal rallying cry of anti-Communist conservatives". Boris Pasternak, a Russian writer, rose to international fame after his anti-communist novel ''Doctor Zhivago (novel), Doctor Zhivago'' was smuggled out of the Soviet Union (where it was banned) and published in the West in 1957. He received the Nobel Prize for Literature, much to the chagrin of the Soviet authorities. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn was a Russian novelist, dramatist and historian. Through his writings—particularly ''The Gulag Archipelago'' and ''One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich'', his two best-known works—he made the world aware of the Gulag, the Soviet Union's forced labor camp system. For these efforts, Solzhenitsyn was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1970 and was exiled from the Soviet Union in 1974. Herta Müller is a Romanian-born German novelist, poet and essayist noted for her works depicting the harsh conditions of life in Communist Romania under the repressive Nicolae Ceauşescu regime, the history of the Germans in the Banat (and more broadly, Transylvania) and the persecution of Romanian Germans of Romania, ethnic Germans by Stalinism, Stalinist Soviet occupation of Romania, Soviet occupying forces in Romania and the Soviet-imposed Communist regime of Romania. Müller has been an internationally known author since the early 1990s and her works have been translated into more than 20 languages. She has received over 20 awards, including the 1994 Kleist Prize, the 1995 Aristeion Prize, the 1998 International Dublin Literary Award, the 2009 Franz Werfel Human Rights Award and the 2009 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Ayn Rand Ayn Rand (; born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum;,  – March 6, 1982) was a Russian-American writer and philosopher. She is known for her two best-selling novels, ''The Fountainhead'' and ''Atlas Shrugged'', and for developing a philosophic ...

Ayn Rand
was a Russian-American 20th-century writer who was an enthusiastic supporter of ''laissez-faire'' capitalism. She wrote ''We the Living'' about the effects of Communism in Russia. Richard Wurmbrand wrote about his experiences being tortured for his faith in Communist Romania. He ascribed Communism to a demonic conspiracy and alluded to
Karl Marx Karl Heinrich Marx (; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, M ...

Karl Marx
being demon-possessed.


Evasion of censorship

Samizdat was a key form of dissident activity across the Soviet bloc. Individuals reproduced censored publications by hand and passed the documents from reader to reader, thus building a foundation for the successful resistance of the 1980s. This grassroots practice to evade officially imposed censorship was fraught with danger as harsh punishments were meted out to people caught possessing or copying censorship, censored materials. Vladimir Bukovsky defined it as follows: "I myself create it, edit it, censor it, publish it, distribute it, and get imprisoned for it." During the Cold War, Western countries invested heavily in powerful transmitters which enabled broadcasters to be heard in the Eastern Bloc, despite attempts by authorities to radio jamming, jam such signals. In 1947, Voice of America (VOA) started broadcasting in Russian with the intent to counter Soviet propaganda directed against American leaders and policies.Whitton, John B. (January 1951). "Cold War Propaganda". ''The American Journal of International Law''. 45 (1): 151–153. These included Radio Free Europe (RFE), Rundfunk im amerikanischen Sektor, RIAS, Deutsche Welle (DW), Radio France International (RFI), the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), ABS-CBN Corporation, ABS-CBN and the Japan Broadcasting Corporation (NHK). The Soviet Union responded by attempting aggressive, electronic radio jamming, jamming of VOA (and some other Western) broadcasts in 1949. The BBC World Service similarly broadcast language-specific programming to countries behind the Iron Curtain. In the People's Republic of China, people have to bypass the Internet censorship in the People's Republic of China, Chinese Internet censorship and other forms of censorship.


Anti-communism in different countries and regions


Europe


Council of Europe and European Union

Resolution 1481/2006 of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE), issued on 25 January 2006 during its winter session, "strongly condemns crimes of totalitarian communist regimes". The European Parliament has proposed making 23 August a Europe-wide day of remembrance for 20th-century Nazi and Communist crimes.


Albania

In the early years of the Cold War, Midhat Frashëri tried to patch together a coalition of anti-communist opposition forces in Britain and the United States. The "Free Albania" National Committee was officially formed on 26 August 1949 in Paris. Frashëri was its chairman, with other members of the Directing Board: Nuçi Kotta, Albaz Kupi, Said Kryeziu and Zef Pali. It was supported by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and placed as member of National Committee for a Free Europe. Albania has enacted the Law on Communist Genocide with the purpose"The OMRI annual survey of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, 1995", , 1996
pp. 149–50
the text of the introductory provisions of the law, translated from the ''Official Journal of the Republic of Albania'', no. 21, September 1995, pp. 923–24
of expediting the prosecution of the violations of the basic human rights and freedoms by the former Hoxhaism, Hoxhaist and Maoist governments of the Socialist People's Republic of Albania. The law has also been referred to in English as the "Genocide Law" and the "Law on Communist Genocide".


Armenia

In February 1921, the left-wing nationalist Armenian Revolutionary Federation (Dashnaktsutyun) staged an February Uprising, uprising against the Bolshevik authorities of Armenia just three months after the disestablishment of the First Republic of Armenia and its Sovietization. The nationalists temporarily took power. Subsequently, the anti-communist rebels, led by the prominent nationalist leader Garegin Nzhdeh, retreated to the mountainous region of Zangezur (Syunik) and established the Republic of Mountainous Armenia, which lasted until mid-1921.


Belgium

Since before World War II, there were some anti-communist organizations such as the Union Civique Belge and the Société d'Etudes Politiques, Economiques et Sociales (SEPES). Catholic anti-communism was especially prominent; members of clergy supported anti-communist literature ventures, including Belina-Podgaetsky's first novel, ''L’Ouragan rouge,'' in the 1930s.


Czechoslovakia

Interwar Czechoslovakia contained fascist movements that had anti-communist ideas. Czechoslovak Fascists of Moravia had powerful patrons. One patron was the Union of Industrialists (Svaz prumyslnikti), which helped them financially. The Union of Industrialists acted as an in-between through which Frantisek Zavfel, a National Democratic member of Czechoslovakian legislature, supported the movement. The Moravian wing of fascism also enjoyed the support of the anti-Bolshevik Russians centered around Hetman Ostranic. The fascists of Moravia shared many of the same ideas as fascists in Bohemia such as hostility to the Soviet Union and anti-Communism. The Moravians also campaigned against what they perceived to be the divisive idea of class struggle. The view of fascism as a barrier against communism was widespread in Czechoslovakia, where during the 1920s propaganda was conducted against establishing diplomatic relations with the Soviet government in Russia. In 1922, after Czechoslovakia and Russia concluded a trade agreement, the extreme right fascist-inclined elements of the National Democratic Party increased their opposition to the government. The country's foremost fascist, Radola Gajda, founded the National Fascist Camp. The National Fascist Camp condemned Communism, Jews and anti-Nazi refugees from Germany. There was a strong anti-communist campaign in January 1923 following the attempted assassination of the country's Finance Minister, which they linked to the beginning of a communist-led takeover. The uprising in Plzeň was an anti-communist revolt by Czechoslovak workers in 1953. The Velvet Revolution or Gentle Revolution was a nonviolence, non-violent revolution in Czechoslovakia that saw the overthrow of the Soviet backed, Marxist–Leninist government. It is seen as one of the most important of the
Revolutions of 1989 The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave A revolutionary wave or revolutionary decade is one series of revolution In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics. It is a social science d ...
. On 17 November 1989, riot police suppressed a peaceful student activism, student demonstration in Prague. That event sparked a series of popular demonstrations from 19 November to late December. By 20 November, the number of peaceful protesters assembled in Prague had swollen from 200,000 the previous day to an estimated half-million. A two-hour general strike, involving all citizens of Czechoslovakia, was held on 27 November. In June 1990, Czechoslovakia held its first democratic elections since 1946.


Finland

Anti-communism in the Nordic countries was at its highest extent in Finland between the world wars. In Finland, nationalistic anti-communism existed before the Cold War in the forms of the Lapua Movement and the Patriotic People's Movement (Finland), Patriotic People's Movement, which was outlawed after the Continuation War. During the Cold War, the Constitutional Right Party was opposed to communism. Anti-communist Finnish White Guards were engaged in armed hostilities against the Russian Soviet Government in Russia's civil war across the border in the Russian province of East Karelia. These armed hostilities preceded the overthrow of Finland's revolutionary government in 1918 and after the 1920 peace agreement with Russia that established Russian-Finnish borders. Following Finland's independence in 1917–1918, the Finnish White Guard forces had negotiated and acquired help from Germany. Germany landed close 10,000 men in the city of Hanko on 3 April 1918. Finland's civil war was short and bloody. A recorded 5,717 pro-Communist forces were killed in battle. Communists and their supporters fell victim to an anti-communist campaign of White Terror in which an estimated 7,300 people were killed. Following the end of the conflict, estimates of 13,000 to 75,000 pro-communist prisoners perished in prison camps due to factors such as malnutrition. Finnish anti-communism persisted during the 1920s. White Guard militias formed during the civil war in 1918 were retained as an armed 100,000 strong 'civil guard'. The Finnish used these militias as a permanent anti-communist auxiliary to the military. In Finland, anti-communism had an official character and was prolific in institutions. After the Finnish increased its support and received nearly 14 per cent of the vote in the 1929 elections, civil guards and local farmers violently suppressed up a communist party meeting in Lapua. This place gave its name to a direct action movement, the sole purpose of which was to fight against communism.


France

International anti-Communism played a major role in Franco-German-Soviet relations in the 1920s. Pragmatic realists and anti-Communist ideologues confronted each other over trade, security, electoral politics, and the danger of socialist revolution. At the end of 1932, François de Boisjolin organized the Ligue Internationale Anti-Communiste."Les cahiers d'histoire sociale: revue trimestrielle de l'Institut d'histoire sociale, Issues 14–16", , 2000 The organization members came mainly from the wine region of South West France (wine region), South West France. In 1939, the Law on the Freedom of the Press of 29 July 1881 was amended and François de Boisjolin and others were arrested. French communists played a major role in the wartime Resistance, but were distrusted by the key leader Charles de Gaulle. By 1947, Raymond Aron (1905–83) was the leading intellectual challenging the far-left that permeated much of the French intellectual community. He became a combative Cold Warrior quick to challenge anyone, including Jean-Paul Sartre, who embraced Communism and defended Stalin. Aron praised American capitalism, supported NATO, and denounced Marxist Leninism as a totalitarian movement opposed to the values of Western liberal democracy.


Germany

In
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was ...

Nazi Germany
, the Nazi Party banned Communist parties and targeted communists. After the Reichstag Fire, violent suppression of Communists by the Sturmabteilung was undertaken nationwide and 4,000 members of the Communist Party of Germany were arrested. The Nazi Party also established Nazi concentration camps, concentration camps for their political opponents, such as communists. Nazi propaganda dismissed the communists as "Red subhumans". Nazi German leader
Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (; 20 April 188930 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the dictator of Nazi Germany, Germany from 1933 to 1945. Adolf Hitler's rise to power, He rose to power as the leader of the Nazi Party, becoming Cha ...

Adolf Hitler
focused on the threat of communism. He described communists as "a mob storming about in some of our streets in Germany, it a conception of the world which is in the act of subjecting to itself the entire Asiatic continent". Hitler believed that about Communism, "unless it were halted it would 'gradually shatter the whole world [...] and transform it as completely as did Christianity". Anti-Communism was a significant part of Hitler's propaganda throughout his career. Hitler's foreign relations focused around the Anti-Comintern Pact and always looked towards Russia as the point of Germany's expansion. Surpassed only by antisemitism, Anti-Communism was the most continuous and persistent theme of Hitler's political life and that of the Nazi Party. According to Hitler, " e Jewish doctrine of Marxism repudiates the aristocratic principle of nature and substitutes for it and the eternal privilege of force and energy, numerical mass and its dead weight. Thus it denies the individual worth of the human personality, impugns the teaching that nationhood and race have a primary significance, and by doing this takes away the very foundations of human existence and human civilization." Shortly after the Nazis in Germany seized power, they repressed communists. Beginning in 1933, the Nazis perpetrated repressions against communists, including detainment in concentration camps and torture. The first prisoners in the first Nazi concentration camp of Dachau were communists. Whereas communism placed a priority on social class, Nazism emphasized the nation and race above all else. Nazi propaganda recast communism as "Judeo-Bolshevism", with Nazi leaders characterizing communism as a Jewish plot seeking to harm Germany. The Nazis view of "Judeo-Bolshevism" as a threat was influenced by Germany's proximity to the Soviet Union. For Nazis, Jews and communists became interchangeable. Hitler's speech to a Nuremberg Rally in September 1937 had forceful attacks on communism. He identified communism with a Jewish world conspiracy from Moscow as "a fact proved by irrefutable evidence". He believed that Jews had established a cruel rule over Russians and other nationalities, and sought to expand their rule to the rest of Europe and the world. During the invasion and occupation of the Soviet Union, the Nazis and their military leaders targeted Soviet commissars for persecution. Nazis leaders saw commissars as embodiment of "Jewish Bolshevism" that would force their military to fight to the end and commit cruelties against Germans. On 6 June 1941, German Army High Command ordered the execution of all "political commissars" who acted against German troops. The order had the widespread support among the strongly anti-communist German officers and was applied widely. The order was applied against combatants and prisoners as well as on battlefields and occupied territories. Following their placement in concentration camps, most Soviet "commissars" were executed within days. The systematic mass extermination of Soviet "commissars" had exceeded all previous campaigns of murder by the Nazis. For the first time and towards Soviet "commissars", Nazi concentration camps executed people on a large scale. During the two-month period spanning September to October 1941, German SS men put to death around 9,000 Soviet POWs in Sachsenhausen. Following the Nazi Germany#Turning point and collapse, fall of Nazi Germany and emergence of two rival states, East Germany, East and West Germany, the larger, democratic and significantly wealthier Western country positioned itself as an antithesis to the Eastern Bloc, Soviet-dominated East. As such, the Communist Party of Germany was banned in 1956, and all major political parties, including the Christian Democratic Union of Germany and Social Democratic Party of Germany became staunchly anti-communist. The first post-WW2 German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer became an anti-communist icon who placed his opposition to the totalitarian USSR even higher than his dislike of Nazism. Adenauer prioritized the struggle against the USSR over denazification policies, and put an end to the persecution of former Nazis, granting clemency to those who were not involved in abhorrent human rights abuses and even allowed some to hold governmental positions. Officials were allowed to retake jobs in civil service, with the exception of people assigned to Group I (Major Offenders) and II (Offenders) during the denazification review process.Art, David, ''The politics of the Nazi past in Germany and Austria'', Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005, pp. 53–55


Hungary

In Hungary, a Soviet Republic was formed in March 1919. It was led by communists and socialists. Acting with support of the French government, the Romanian army, along with Czech and Yugoslav forces already occupying parts of Hungary, invaded and overthrew the communist government in the capital, Budapest, in late 1919. Local Hungarian counter-revolutionary militias, rallying around Nicholas Horthy, ex-admiral of the Austro-Hungarian fleet, attacked and killed socialists, communists and Jews in a counter-revolutionary terror, lasting into 1920. The Hungarian regime subsequently established had refused to establish diplomatic relations with Soviet Russia. An estimated 5,000 people were put to death during the Hungarian White Terror of 1919–1920, and tens of thousands were imprisoned without trial. Alleged Communists were sought and jailed by the Hungarian regime and murdered by right-wing vigilante groups. The Jewish population that Hungarian regime elements accused of being connected with communism was also persecuted. Anti-communist Hungarian military officers linked Jews with communism. Following the overthrow of the Soviet government in Hungary, the lawyer Oscar Szollosy published a widely circulated newspaper article on "The Criminals of the Dictatorship of the Proletariat" in which he identified Jewish "red, blood-stained knights of hate" as the main perpetrators as the driving force behind communism. German leader
Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (; 20 April 188930 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the dictator of Nazi Germany, Germany from 1933 to 1945. Adolf Hitler's rise to power, He rose to power as the leader of the Nazi Party, becoming Cha ...

Adolf Hitler
wrote a letter to Hungarian leader Horthy in which Germany's attack on the Soviet Union was justified because Germany felt that it was upholding European culture and civilization. According to the German ambassador in Budapest, who delivered Hitler's letter, Horthy declared: "For 22 years he had longed for this day, and was now delighted. Centuries later humanity would be thanking the Fuhrer for his deed. One hundred and eighty million Russians would now be liberated from the yoke forced upon them by 2 million Bolshevists". At the end of November 1941, Hungarian brigades began to arrive in Ukraine to perform exclusively police functions in the occupied territories. For 1941-1943 only in Chernigov region and the surrounding villages, Hungarian troops took part in the extermination of an estimated 60,000 Soviet citizens. Hungarian troops were characterized by ill-treatment of Soviet partisans and also Soviet prisoners of war. When retreating from the Chernyansky district of the Kursk region, it was testified that "the Hungarian military units kidnapped 200 prisoners of war of the Red Army and 160 Soviet patriots from the concentration camp. On the way, the fascists blocked all of these 360 people in the school building, doused with gasoline and lit them. Those who tried to escape were shot". The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 was a revolt against the government of the Hungarian People's Republic and its Stalinist policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956. The revolt began as a student demonstration which attracted thousands as it marched through central Budapest to the Hungarian Parliament Building, Parliament building. A student delegation entering the Hungarian Radio, radio building in an attempt to broadcast Demands of Hungarian Revolutionaries of 1956, its demands was detained. When the delegation's release was demanded by the demonstrators outside, they were fired upon by the State Protection Authority, State Security Police (ÁVH) from within the building. As the news spread quickly, disorder and violence erupted throughout the capital. The revolt moved quickly across People's Republic of Hungary, Hungary and the government fell. After announcing a willingness to negotiate a withdrawal of Soviet forces, the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union changed its mind and moved to crush the revolution.


Moldova

The 2009 Moldova civil unrest, Moldovan anti-communist social movement emerged on 7April 2009 in major cities of Moldova after the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova (PCRM) had allegedly rigged elections. The anti-communists organized themselves using an online social network service, Twitter, hence its moniker used by the media, the Twittered revolution, Twitter Revolution"Twitter Revolution: Fearing Uprising, Russia Backs Moldova's Communists"
''Der Spiegel'', 10 April 2009
or Colour revolution#Reactions and connected movements in other countries, Grape revolution.


Poland

Vladimir Lenin saw Poland as the bridge which the
Red Army The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army,) frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links= ...
would have to cross in order to assist the Soviet Empire, other Communist movements and help bring about other European revolutions. Poland was the first country which successfully stopped a Communist military advance. Between February 1919 and March 1921, Poland's successful defence of its independence was known as the Polish–Soviet War. According to American sociologist Alexander Gella, "the Polish victory had gained twenty years of independence not only for Poland, but at least for an entire central part of Europe".Aleksander Gella, ''Development of Class Structure in Eastern Europe: Poland and Her Southern Neighbors'', SUNY Press, 1988,
Google Print, p. 23
/ref> After the German and Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939, the first Polish uprising during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
was against the Soviets. The Czortków Uprising occurred during 21–22 January 1940 in the Soviet-occupied Podolia. Teenagers from local high schools stormed the local Red Army barracks and a prison in order to release Polish soldiers who had been imprisoned there. In the latter years of the war, there were Soviet partisans in Poland, increasing conflicts between Polish and Soviet partisans and some groups continued to oppose the Soviets long after the war. Between 1944 and 1946, soldiers of the anti-communist armed groups, known as the cursed soldiers, made a series of Raids on communist prisons in Poland (1944–1946), attacks on communist prisons immediately following the end of World War II in Poland. The last of the cursed soldiers, members of the militant anti-communist resistance in Poland, was Józef Franczak, who was killed with a pistol in his hand by ZOMO in 1963. Poznań 1956 protests were massive anti-communist protests in the People's Republic of Poland. Protesters were repressed by the regime. The Polish 1970 protests ( pl, Grudzień 1970) were anti-Comintern protests which occurred in northern Poland in December 1970. The protests were sparked by a sudden increase in the prices of food and other everyday items. As a result of the riots, brutally put down by the Polish People's Army and the Milicja Obywatelska, Citizen's Militia, at least 42 people were killed and more than 1,000 were wounded. Solidarity (Polish trade union), Solidarity was an anti-communist trade union in a Warsaw Pact country. In the 1980s, it constituted a broad anti-communist movement. The government attempted to destroy the union during the Martial law in Poland, period of martial law in the early 1980s and several years of repression, but in the end it had to start negotiating with the union. The Polish Round Table Agreement, Round Table Talks between the government and the Solidarity-led opposition led to 1989 Polish legislative elections, semi-free elections in 1989. By the end of August, a Solidarity-led coalition government was formed and in December 1990 Wałęsa was elected President of Poland. Since then, it has become a more traditional trade union.


Romania

The Romanian anti-communist resistance movement lasted between 1948 and the early 1960s. Armed resistance was the first and most structured form of resistance against the Communist regime. It was not until the overthrow of Nicolae Ceaușescu, Nicolae Ceauşescu in late 1989 that details about what was called "anti-communist armed resistance" were made public. It was only then that the public learned about the numerous small groups of "haiducs" who had taken refuge in the Carpathian Mountains, where some resisted for ten years against the troops of the Securitate. The last "haiduc" was killed in the mountains of Banat in 1962. The Romanian resistance was one of the longest lasting armed movement in the former Eastern bloc, Soviet bloc. The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was a week-long series of increasingly violent riots and fighting in late December 1989 that overthrew the government of Ceauşescu. After a show trial, Ceauşescu and his wife Elena Ceauşescu, Elena were executed. Romania was the only Eastern Bloc country to overthrow its government violently or to execute its leaders.


Spain

In Spain, anti-communism has been present in both the political Left-wing politics, left and Right-wing politics, right. In the decade preceding the Spanish Civil War, the Communist Party of Spain (PCE) was overshadowed by and competed with Confederación Nacional del Trabajo, Spain's anarcho-syndicalist and Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, Socialist counterparts. Under the dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera, preeminent PCE members were jailed and the headquarters was moved to Paris. Furthermore, the party was weakened by factionalism in the Communist International, Comintern and the poor representatives it was sent from Moscow. Until 1934, when the PCE joined Manuel Azaña, Manuel Azaña's government, the PCE opposed the Second Spanish Republic, Republic. Left consolidation under Prime Minister Manuel Azaña, Azaña corresponded with the Comintern directive to form broad coalitions opposing
fascism Fascism () is a form of far-right, authoritarian ultranationalism characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition, and strong regimentation of society and the economy that rose to prominence in early 20th-century Europ ...

fascism
. Upon their 1934 merger with the PSOE under the :ast:Alianza_Obrera, Alianza Obrera, the communists reversed their view on the Republic and their influence expanded. Between 1934 and 1936, the PCE's membership grew from approximately one thousand to thirty thousand. During the Spanish Civil War, the PCE was uncharacteristically moderate, prioritized garnering middle-class support and the war effort over revolutionary policy. Communists lost favor after the Republican faction (Spanish Civil War), Republicans lost the war, and anti-communism spread to the remainder of the Spanish left. This shift was, in part, at reaction to the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, which was seen as as a Soviet concession to Nazism, Nazi
fascism Fascism () is a form of far-right, authoritarian ultranationalism characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition, and strong regimentation of society and the economy that rose to prominence in early 20th-century Europ ...

fascism
, and the PCE's refusal to share the aid it received from the Soviet Union with other leftists. Some leftists blamed the PCE for the Republicans' defeat. In Spain and internationally, the Catholic Church was a critical anti-communist influence. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the Catholic Church retained a great deal of Spain's wealth, but were losing social influence. Spanish Constitution of 1931, The Second Republic’s new constitution “...withdrew education...from the clergy, dissolved the Jesuit order, banned monks and nuns from trading, and secularized marriage.” (Deschner,48); this marked a sharp contrast from the Restoration (Spain), Restoration period, during which the Church retained a religious monopoly. The Church reacted to this change and anti-clerical destruction of Church property by funding the Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Rights (CEDA) and denouncing the ‘red’ Republican government.  In 1937, Pope Pius XI released Divini Redemptoris, ''Divini Redemptoris'', an anti-communist encyclical. The document reflected the attitudes of Spanish bishops, claiming that communists were slaughtering clerics and all opposed to atheism. Anti-communism was a shared ideological feature among Spain's various right-wing groups in the lead-up to the Spanish Civil War. Within the right-wing, the Catholic Church's anti-communism pulled together the political interests of the lower, agrarian classes, the landed aristocracy, and industrialists. Despite these groups' political differences, Popular Front (Spain), The Popular Front's 1936 Spanish general election, electoral victory in 1936 spurred CEDA, Catholic authoritarians, Carlism, Carlists, Spanish Renovation, monarchists, some Spanish Military Union, military officers, and Falange Española de las JONS, fascists to Unification Decree (Spain, 1937), consolidate under the FET y de las JONS, Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las JONS headed by the general and future dictator, Francisco Franco. was organized in 1932. The Spanish Civil War was fought from 1936 to 1939 between the anti-communist Nationalist faction (Spanish Civil War), Nationalist faction led by Francisco Franco and the pro-communist Republican faction (Spanish Civil War), Republican faction led by Manuel Azaña. It ended with the capture of Madrid and a complete Nationalist victory in 1939.


Turkey

Anti-communist opinions in Anatolia started in early 20th century, and first anti-communist incident occurred in 1920s. On 28 January 1920, Mustafa Subhi, founder of the Communist Party of Turkey (historical), Communist Party of Turkey, was assassinated together with his wife and his 21 communist comrades traveling while to Batumi in the Black Sea. In the following years, more pressure was put on communist activities. Many members and symphatisers of the Communist Party of Turkey (historical), Communist Party of Turkey including Hikmet Kıvılcımlı, Nâzım Hikmet and Şefik Hüsnü were mass arrested on 25 October 1927. Later, in 1937, a committee with the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk decided that works of Hikmet Kıvılcımlı are detrimental communist propaganda, and that they should be censored.
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
caused a rapid increase in anti-communism in Turkey. Then the Prime Minister of Turkey Şükrü Saracoğlu said that "as a Turk, he passionately wants Russia to be eliminated" and then the Turkish embassy to Germany Hüseyin Numan Menemencioğlu stated that "Turkey certainly will benefit from a complete as possible defeat of Bolshevik Russia" in a speech he made in Berlin. On 4 December 1945, main printing press of the ''Tan'' newspaper, which had communist opinions and defended normalization of the relations between Turkey and Soviet Union, was raided and looted by Turanism, Turanist and Islamism, Islamist mobs, leaving several journalists wounded. After the 1971 Turkish military memorandum, the new administration started a purge campaign against communist institutions and persons both in military and public, resulting in arrestings and in some cases, torture of many communist intellectuals, soldiers and students. Leaders of the Workers' Party of Turkey, Behice Boran and Sadun Aren were arrested and many communist intellectuals such as Hikmet Kıvılcımlı, Mihri Belli and Doğan Avcıoğlu had to flee the country for their life safety. In 1971, Deniz Gezmiş, Hüseyin İnan and Yusuf Aslan were executed. In March 1973, Turkish Armed Forces published a book named ''How Communists Deceive Our Workers and Our Youth''. The book consisted 32 pages, and included many anti-communist phrases in it. Bülent Ecevit, who served as the Prime Minister of Turkey four times between 1974 and 2002, openly expressed anti-communist opinions. Most famously, in 1975, Ecevit said "Republican People's Party (Turkey), Republican People's Party is the most powerful party of Turkey. It will block communism, as long as it stays strong, there will not be communism in Turkey."


Ukraine

During and after Euromaidan, starting with the fall of the monument to Lenin in Kyiv on 8 December 2013, several Lenin monuments and statues were removed/destroyed by protesters. The ban on communist symbols did result in the removement of hundreds of statues, the replacement of millions of street signs and the renaming of populated places including some of Ukraine's biggest cities like Dnipro.


Asia


Republic of China

Before the founding of the People's Republic of China, the
Kuomintang The Kuomintang (KMT), also referred to as the Guomindang (GMD) or the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Taiwan, Republic of China, initially Republic of China (1912–1949), on the Mainland China, Chinese mainland and ...
, also known as the Chinese Nationalist Party, led by Chiang Kai-shek, was ruling Republic of China (1912–1949), China and strongly opposed the Communist Party of China. On 12 April 1927, Chiang Kai-shek purged the communists in what was known as the Shanghai massacre which led to the
Chinese Civil War The Chinese Civil War was a civil war in China fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led Nationalist government, government of the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China (ROC) and forces of the Communist Party of China (CPC) lastin ...
. Initially, the Kuomintang had success in doing so until a Second Sino-Japanese War, full-scale invasion of China by Japan forced both the Nationalists and the Communists into an Second United Front, alliance. After the war, the two parties were thrown back into a civil war. The Kuomintang were defeated in the mainland and went into exile in Taiwan while the rest of China became Communist in 1949.


People's Republic of China

The Chinese democracy movement is a loosely organized anti-communist movement in the People's Republic of China. The movement began during Beijing Spring in 1978 and it played an important role in the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. The 1959 Tibetan Rebellion had some anti-communist leanings. In the 1990s, the movement underwent a decline both within China and overseas. It is currently fragmented and most analysts do not consider it a serious threat to Communist rule. Charter 08 is a manifesto signed by over 303 Chinese intellectuals and human rights activists who seek to promote political reform and democratization in the People's Republic of China. It calls for greater Freedom of speech, freedom of expression and election, free elections. It was published on 10 December 2008, the 60th anniversary of the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Its name is a reference to Charter 77 which was issued by dissidents in History of Czechoslovakia (1948–89), Czechoslovakia. Since its release, the charter has been signed by more than 8,100 people both inside and outside of China.


Hong Kong

Before 1997, most of the anti-communists were supporters of the
Kuomintang The Kuomintang (KMT), also referred to as the Guomindang (GMD) or the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Taiwan, Republic of China, initially Republic of China (1912–1949), on the Mainland China, Chinese mainland and ...
. They opposed the Chinese Communist Party's rule in mainland China and its One-party state, single party dictatorship. Hong Kong has had numerous anti-communist protests, supported by political parties of the Pro-democracy camp (Hong Kong), pro-democracy camp. Memorials for the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, Memorials for the Tiananmen Square Massacre of 1989 are held every year in Hong Kong. Tens of thousands people have attended the candlelight vigil. The end of the failed 2014 Hong Kong protests, 2014 Umbrella Movement marked a novel and intensified wave of civic nationalism in the territory. Localist groups (Hong Kong), Localists have fiercely opposed Chinese communist rule since the transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong in Handover of Hong Kong, 1997, with some calling for Hong Kong independence movement, independence from China.


South Korea

Choi ji-ryong is an outspoken anti-communist cartoonist in South Korea. His editorial cartoons have been critical of Korean presidents Kim Dae-jung and Roh Moo Hyun.


Taiwan

On 28 February 1947, the Kuomintang had cracked down on an anti-government uprising in Taiwan known as the February 28 incident and this began the White Terror (Taiwan), White Terror in Taiwan. While in Taiwan, the Republic of China government remained anti-communist and attempted to Project National Glory, recover the mainland from the Communist forces. They also actively supported anticommunist efforts in Southeast Asia and around the world. This effort did not cease until the death of Chiang Kai-shek in 1975.


India

India is involved in law and order operations against a long-standing Naxalite–Maoist insurgency. Along with this, there are many state-sponsored anti-Maoist militias.


Indonesia

From October 1965 to the early months of 1966, an estimated 500,000–3,000,000 people were killed by the Indonesian military and allied militia in anti-communist purges which targeted members of the Communist Party of Indonesia and alleged sympathizers.Mark Aarons (2007).
Justice Betrayed: Post-1945 Responses to Genocide
" In David A. Blumenthal and Timothy L. H. McCormack (eds).
The Legacy of Nuremberg: Civilising Influence or Institutionalised Vengeance? (International Humanitarian Law).
' Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p
80
Western governments colluded in the massacres, CIA activities in Indonesia#Anti-communist purge, in particular the United States, which provided the Indonesian military weapons, money, equipment and lists containing the names of thousands of suspected communists.Mark Aarons (2007).
Justice Betrayed: Post-1945 Responses to Genocide
" In David A. Blumenthal and Timothy L. H. McCormack (eds).
The Legacy of Nuremberg: Civilising Influence or Institutionalised Vengeance? (International Humanitarian Law).
' Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p.&nbs
81
A tribunal in late 2016 declared the massacres a crime against humanity and also named the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia as accomplices to those crimes.


Vietnam

Anti-communist organizations that are located outside Vietnam but also hold demonstrations in Vietnam are Provisional National Government of Vietnam, Khmers Kampuchea-Krom Federation, Viet Tan, People's Action Party of Vietnam, Government of Free Vietnam, Montagnard Foundation, Inc., Vietnamese Constitutional Monarchist League and Nationalist Party of Greater Vietnam.


Japan and Manchukuo

During the
Russian Civil War , date = October Revolution, 7 November 1917 – Yakut revolt, 16 June 1923{{Efn, The main phase ended on 25 October 1922. Revolt against the Bolsheviks continued Basmachi movement, in Central Asia and Tungus Republic, the Far East th ...
, Japan supported
White movement The White movement ( rus, Бѣлое движеніе/Белое движение, r= Beloye dvizheniye, p= ˈbʲɛləɪ dvʲɪˈʐenʲɪɪ) also known as the Whites (Бѣлые/Белые, ''Beliye''), was a loose confederation of anti-communist ...
s in northeast Asia such as Grigory Mikhaylovich Semyonov's White movement in Transbaikal and the Chinese Beiyang government's Occupation of Mongolia during the primacy of the Anhui clique. However, the movements failed and the White Army fled to Manchuria. In 1920, the Zhili–Anhui War began and the Anhui clique was beaten; by 1921, the
Red Army The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army,) frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links= ...
had control of outer Mongolia. During the Nikolayevsk incident starting in March 1920, Russian Jewish journalist Gutman Anatoly Yakovlevich began to issue the Delo Rossii in Tokyo, an anti-Bolshevistic Russian language newspaper.6.露字新聞「デーロ、ロシー」発刊/1 大正9年3月12日から大正9年9月6日 「JACAR(アジア歴史資料センター)Ref.B03040699800、新聞雑誌発刊計画雑件(B-1-3-1-117)(外務省外交史料館)」
10.浦汐政府対日宣伝開始記事ノ件 自大正九年九月 「JACAR(アジア歴史資料センター)Ref.B03040651200、新聞雑誌出版物等取締関係雑件 第四巻(B-1-3-1-075)(外務省外交史料館)」
In June, Romanovsky Georgy Dmitrievich, who had been the chief authorized officer and military representative at the Allied command in the Far East, discussed with a delegate of Semyonov's army, Syro-Boyarsky Alexander Vladimirovich and thereafter acquired the ''Delo Rossii'' gazette. In July, he began to distribute the translated version of the ''Delo Rossii'' gazette to noted Japanese officials and socialites. In 1928, Japanese army precipitated the Huanggutun incident and shortly thereafter the Fengtian clique came under the control of the
Kuomintang The Kuomintang (KMT), also referred to as the Guomindang (GMD) or the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Taiwan, Republic of China, initially Republic of China (1912–1949), on the Mainland China, Chinese mainland and ...
(Northern Expedition). In 1929, Sino-Soviet conflict (1929), Sino-Soviet conflict began. During the conflict, the Siberian self-government, which was according to Grigory Semyonov the successor of the Far Eastern Republic, planned the occupation of Primorsky Krai under Japanese support, but when they negotiated to
Kuomintang The Kuomintang (KMT), also referred to as the Guomindang (GMD) or the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Taiwan, Republic of China, initially Republic of China (1912–1949), on the Mainland China, Chinese mainland and ...
regime the latter was afraid of White Russian's arming. In 1933, Japan participated in the ninth conference of the International Entente Against the Third International and founded the Association for the Study of International Socialistic Ideas and Movements ( ja, 国際思想研究会). In the summer of 1935, the Comintern held the Seventh World Congress of the Comintern in which they set Japan and Germany as the communizing targets and the Chinese Communist Party declared the August 1 Declaration, August1 Declaration. After that, Japan defined their anti-communistic "Three Principles of HIROTA" for relations with China and also Japan concluded the
Anti-Comintern Pact The Anti-Comintern Pact (german: Antikominternpakt; ; ja, 防共協定, ''Bōkyō kyōtei''), officially the Agreement against the Communist International (German: ''Abkommen gegen die Kommunistische Internationale''), was an anti-Communist ...

Anti-Comintern Pact
with Germany. In March 1935, Manchukuo purchased the Chinese Eastern Railway, North Manchuria Railway and its railway zone from the Soviet Union. The residents (Harbin Russians) who had Soviet nationality emigrated to the Soviet Union. In 1937, the Soviet Union ordered the NKVD Order No. 00593 to eliminate people of suspected of having a connection to the White Russian movement. 48,133 Harbinites were repressed, of which 30,992 were shot. During the Great Purge, the Far Eastern Commander of the NKVD Genrikh Lyushkov defected to Japan in June 1938. The note of Lyushkov was issued by Japanese authorities, but ''The New York Times'' judged the note was a "Diary for Japanese Schoolboy". In November 1938, Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe declared the anti-communistic New Order in East Asia. In 1940, Japan, Manchukuo and the Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China declared the which is based on the New Order in East Asia. During the period of Occupation of Japan, American occupation between 1948 and 1951, a "red purge" occurred in Japan in which over 20,000 people accused of being Communists were purged from their places of employment.


Middle East


South America

During the 1970s, the right-wing military juntas of South America implemented
Operation Condor Operation Condor ( es, link=no, Operación Cóndor, also known as ''Plan Cóndor''; pt, Operação Condor) was a United States-backed campaign of political repression and state terrorism, state terror involving Intelligence (information gatheri ...
, a campaign of political repression involving tens of thousands of political assassinations, illegal detentions and tortures of communist sympathizers. The campaign was aimed at eradicating alleged communist and socialist influences in their respective countries and control opposition against the government, which resulted in a large number of deaths. Participatory governments include Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay, with limited support from the United States.


Brazil

In the 2018 Brazilian general election, the campaign of Jair Bolsonaro painted candidate Fernando Haddad, former president Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and the centre-left Workers' Party (Brazil), Worker's Party as communists and socialists, claiming they could turn Brazil into "a Venezuela". The motto "Our flag never will be red" has been a symbol of anti-communism in Brazil, going so far as being uttered by Bolsonaro himself during his inauguration speech. Anti-communism in Brazil is primarily represented by right-wing and far-right political parties such as Bolsonaro's Alliance for Brazil, the Social Liberal Party, the Social Christian Party (Brazil), Social Christian Party, Patriota, the Brazilian Labour Renewal Party, Podemos (Brazil), Podemos and the New Party (Brazil), New Party.


United States


1920s and 1930s

The first major manifestation of anti-communism in the United States occurred in 1919 and 1920 during the
First Red Scare The First Red Scare was a period during the early 20th-century history of the United States marked by a widespread fear of far-left Far-left politics are politics further to the left of the left–right political spectrum than the standar ...
, led by Attorney General Alexander Mitchell Palmer. During the Red Scare, the Lusk Committee investigated those suspected of sedition and many laws were passed in the United States that sanctioned the firings of Communists. The Hatch Act of 1939, which was sponsored by Carl Hatch of New Mexico, attempted to drive Communism out of public work places. The Hatch Act outlawed the hiring of federal workers who advocated the "overthrow of our Constitutional form of government". This phrase was specifically directed at the Communist Party USA. Later in the spring of 1941, another anti-communist law was passed, Public Law 135, which sanctioned the investigation of any federal worker suspected of being Communist and the firing of any Communist worker. Catholics often took the lead in fighting against Communism in America. Pat Scanlan (1894–1983) was the managing editor (1917–1968) of the ''Brooklyn Tablet'', the official paper of the Brooklyn diocese. He was a leader in the fight against the Ku Klux Klan and supported the National Legion of Decency efforts to minimize Human sexuality, sexuality in Hollywood films. Historian Richard Powers says:
Pat Scanlan emerged in the 1920s as the leading spokesman for an especially pugnacious brand of militant Catholic anti-communism, that of Irish Americans, Irish-Americans who, after suffering from 100 years of anti-Catholic prejudice in America, reacted to any criticism of the Church as a bigoted attack on their own hard-won status in American society. [...] He combined a vivid writing style filled with H. L. Mencken, Menckenesque invective, with an unbridled love of controversy. Under Scanlan, the ''Tablet'' became the national voice of Irish Catholic anti-communism—and a thorn in the side of New York's Protestants and Jews.


Cold War era, 1946–1991

Following World War II and the rise of the Soviet Union, many anti-communists in the United States feared that Communism would triumph throughout the entire world and eventually become a direct threat to the United States. There were fears that the Soviet Union and its allies such as the People's Republic of China were using their power to forcibly bring countries under Communist rule. Eastern Europe, North Korea, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, British Malaya, Malaya and Indonesia were cited as evidence of this.
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance A military alliance is a formal agreement betwe ...
was a military alliance of nations in Western Europe which was led by the United States and it sought to halt further Communist expansion by pursuing the
containment '' Containment is a geopolitical Geopolitics (from Greek γῆ ''gê'' "earth, land" and πολιτική ''politikḗ'' "politics") is the study of the effects of Earth's geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally ...

containment
strategy. The deepening of the
Cold War The Cold War was a period of geopolitical Geopolitics (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loc ...
in the 1950s saw a dramatic increase in anti-communism in the United States, including the anti-communist campaign which is known as McCarthyism. Thousands of Americans, such as the filmmaker Charlie Chaplin, were accused of being Communists or sympathizers and many became the subject of aggressive investigations by government committees such as the House Committee on Un-American Activities. As a result of sometimes vastly exaggerated accusations, many of the accused lost their jobs and became blacklisted, although most of these verdicts were later overturned. This was also the period of the McCarran Internal Security Act and the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg trial. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, many records such as the Venona Project were made public that in fact verified that many of those thought to be falsely accused for political purposes were in fact Communist spies or sympathizers. It was in this period that Robert W. Welch Jr. organized the
John Birch Society The John Birch Society (JBS) is an American political advocacy group Advocacy groups, also known as special interest groups, use various forms of advocacy in order to influence public opinion and ultimately policy. They play an important ro ...

John Birch Society
, which became a leading force against the "Communist conspiracy" in the United States. During the 1980s, the Ronald Reagan administration pursued an aggressive policy against the Soviet Union and its allies by building up weapons programs, including the Strategic Defense Initiative. The Reagan Doctrine was implemented to reduce the influence of the Soviet Union worldwide by providing aid to anti-Soviet resistance movements, including the Contras in Nicaragua and the Mujahideens in Afghanistan. The accidental downing of Korean Air Lines Flight 007 near Moneron Island by the Soviets on 1September 1983 contributed to the anti-communism sentiment of the 1980s. KAL 007 had been carrying 269 people, including a sitting Congressman, Larry McDonald, who was a leader in the John Birch Society. The United States government argued its anti-communist policies by citing the human rights record of Communist states, most notably the Soviet Union during the Joseph Stalin era, Maoism, Maoist China, North Korea and the Pol Pot-led anti-Hanoi Khmer Rouge government and the pro-Hanoi People's Republic of Kampuchea in Cambodia. During the 1980s, the Kirkpatrick Doctrine was particularly influential in American politics and it advocated the United States support of anti-communist governments around the world, including authoritarian regimes. In support of the Reagan Doctrine and other anti-communist foreign and defense policies, prominent United States and Western anti-communists warned that the United States needed to avoid repeating the West's perceived mistakes of appeasement of Nazi Germany. In one of the most prominent anti-communist speeches of any president, Reagan labeled the Soviet Union an "Evil Empire speech, evil empire" and anti-communist intellectuals prominently defended the label. In 1987, for instance, in commemoration of the 70th anniversary of the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution, Michael Johns of The Heritage Foundation cited 208 perceived acts of evil by the Soviets since the revolution. In 1993, Congress passed and President Clinton signed Public Law 103-199 for the construction of a national monument to the 100 million victims of Communism. In 2007, President Bush attended its inauguration.


Post-Cold War era developments

Anti-communism became significantly muted after the 1980s–1990s Chinese economic reform and the fall of the Soviet Union and Eastern bloc Communist governments in Europe between 1989 and 1991, the result of which being that fear of a worldwide Communist takeover was no longer a serious concern. However, remnants of anti-communism remain in foreign policy with regard to Cuba and North Korea. In the case of Cuba, the United States only recently began to terminate its United States embargo against Cuba, economic sanctions against the country. Tensions with North Korea have heightened as the result of reports that it is stockpiling nuclear weapons and the assertion that it is willing to sell its nuclear weapons and ballistic missile technology to any group willing to pay a high enough price. Ideological restrictions on naturalization in U.S. law, Ideological restrictions on naturalization in United States law remain in effect, affecting prospective immigrants who were at one time members of a Communist party and the Communist Control Act of 1954, Communist Control Act which outlaws the Communist Party still remains in effect, although it was never enforced by the Federal Government. Some states also still have laws banning Communists from working in the state government. Since the September 11 attacks on the United States and the subsequent implementation of the Patriot Act which was overwhelmingly passed by Congress and signed into law and strongly supported by President Bush, some Communist groups in the United States have been subjected to renewed scrutiny by the government. On 24 September 2010, over 70 FBI agents simultaneously raided homes and served subpoenas to prominent antiwar and international solidarity activists who were thought to be members of the Freedom Road Socialist Organization (FRSO) in Minneapolis, Chicago and Grand Rapids and they also visited and attempted to question activists in Milwaukee, Durham and San Jose. The search warrants and subpoenas indicated that the FBI was looking for evidence that was related to their "material support of terrorism". In the process of raiding an activist's home, FBI agents accidentally left behind a file of secret FBI documents which showed that the raids were aimed at people who were actual or suspected members of the FRSO. The documents revealed a series of questions that agents would ask activists regarding their involvement in the FRSO and their international solidarity work that was related to their dealings with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. Later, members of the newly formed Committee to Stop FBI Repression held a press conference in Minnesota in which they revealed that the FBI had placed an informant inside the FRSO in order to gather information prior to the raids. On October 2, 2020, the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services issued policy guidance in the USCIS Policy Manual to address inadmissibility based on membership in or affiliation with the communist party or any other totalitarian party. It said that unless otherwise exempt, any intending immigrant who was a member or affiliate of a communist or totalitarian party, or subdivision or affiliate, domestic or foreign, was inadmissible to the United States. It also indicated that the communist party or any other totalitarian party was inconsistent and incompatible with the naturalization Oath of Allegiance (United States), Oath of Allegiance to the United States.


South Africa

The popularisation of anti-communism came just after the Second World War and coinciding with the origins of apartheid. The ideology of anti-communism can largely be drawn on racial lines with white South Africans largely being anti-communist. The fiercely anti-communist National Party (South Africa), National Party can also trace some of their votes to this policy. In South Africa, a common term was coined called ''Rooi Gevaar'', literally meaning "Red Danger" in Afrikaans. In 1950, South Africa would ban the South African Communist Party with the Suppression of Communism Act. South Africa would become involved in conflicts in Southern Africa against Communist factions such as SWAPO in Namibia and the MPLA in Angola. Many anti-apartheid organisations such as the African National Congress and the Pan African Congress had many Communist members such as Nelson Mandela. This led to more extreme anti-communism in many white South Africans. At the collapse of Communism in the late 1980s and early 1990s and the conclusion of the South African Border War, President F. W. De Klerk saw a opening for a peaceful resolution to the end of apartheid and the start of democracy in South Africa.


Analysis and response

Some academics and journalists argue that anti-communist narratives have exaggerated the extent of political repression and censorship in states under communist rule or have drawn comparisons with what they see as atrocities that were perpetrated by capitalist countries, particularly during the Cold War. They include Mark Aarons, Vincent Bevins, Noam Chomsky, Jodi Dean, Kristen Ghodsee Seumas Milne, and Michael Parenti.


See also

* Anti-communist mass killings * Anti-Leninism * ''The Black Book of Communism'' * Communist bandit * Crimes against humanity under communist regimes * Criticism of anarchism * Criticism of communist party rule * Criticism of Marxism * Criticism of socialism * Decommunization * Joint Committee Against Communism * Mass killings under communist regimes * Red Scare * Soviet dissidents * :Anti-communists


References


Further reading

* Kennan, George F. (1964). ''On Dealing with the Communist World'', in series, ''The Elihu Root Lectures''. New York: Harper & Row. xi, 57 p. ''N.B''.: Also on t.p.: "Published for the Council on Foreign Relations". * Gülstorff, Torben (2015). ''Warming Up a Cooling War: An Introductory Guide on the CIAS and Other Globally Operating Anti-communist Networks at the Beginning of the Cold War Decade of Détente'', in series
Cold War International History Project Working Paper Series #75
Washington.


External links

* Stephane Courtois (1997)
''The Black Book of Communism''

Foundation for the Investigation of Communist Crimes

Global Museum on Communism




An open letter from leaders of Russian Anti-Communist Organizations to the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. * Michael Johns (fall 1987)
"Seventy Years of Evil: Soviet Crimes from Lenin to Gorbachev"
''Policy Review''.
The Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation

Victims of Communism history

Victims of Communism research
* {{authority control Anti-communism, Capitalism Communism Conservatism Fascism Liberalism Political movements