HOME

TheInfoList




Animal breeding is a branch of
animal science Animal science (also bioscience) is described as "studying the biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology ...
that addresses the evaluation (using
best linear unbiased predictionIn statistics, best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) is used in linear mixed models for the estimation of random effects model, random effects. BLUP was derived by Charles Roy Henderson in 1950 but the term "best linear unbiased predictor" (or "pred ...
and other methods) of the genetic value (estimated breeding value, EBV) of livestock. Selecting for breeding animals with superior EBV in growth rate, egg, meat, milk, or wool production, or with other desirable traits has revolutionized livestock production throughout the entire world. The scientific theory of animal breeding incorporates
population genetics Population genetics is a subfield of that deals with genetic differences within and between s, and is a part of . Studies in this branch of examine such phenomena as , , and . Population genetics was a vital ingredient in the of the . Its pri ...
,
quantitative genetics Quantitative genetics deals with phenotype right , Here the relation between genotype and phenotype is illustrated, using a Punnett square, for the character of petal color in pea plants. The letters B and b represent genes for color, and t ...
,
statistics Statistics is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sens ...

statistics
, and recently
molecular genetics Molecular genetics is a sub-field of biology that addresses how differences in the structures or expression of DNA molecules manifests as variation among organisms. Molecular genetics often applies an "investigative approach" to determine the ...
and is based on the pioneering work of
Sewall Wright Sewall Green Wright FRS(For) H FRSE (December 21, 1889March 3, 1988) was an American geneticist known for his influential work on evolutionary theory Evolutionary thought, the recognition that species change over time and the perceived unde ...

Sewall Wright
,
Jay Lush Jay Laurence Lush (January 3, 1896 – May 22, 1982) was a pioneering animal geneticist who made important contributions to livestock breeding. He is sometimes known as the father of modern scientific animal breeding. Lush received National Medal ...
, and Charles Henderson.


Breeding stock

Breeding stock is a group of animals used for the purpose of planned breeding. When individuals are looking to breed animals, they look for certain valuable traits in
purebred Purebreds, also called purebreeds, are "cultivated varieties" (''cultivars'') of an animal species achieved through the process of selective breeding. When the pedigree chart, lineage of a purebred animal is recorded, that animal is said to be ' ...
animals, or may intend to use some type of
crossbreeding A crossbreed is an organism with purebred parents of two different breeds, varieties, or populations. ''Crossbreeding'', sometimes called "designer crossbreeding", is the process of breeding such an organism, While crossbreeding is used to main ...
to produce a new type of stock with different, and presumably super abilities in a given area of endeavor. For example, when breeding swine for meat, the "breeding stock should be sound, fast growing, muscular, lean, and reproductively efficient." The "subjective selection of breeding stock" in horses has led to many
horse breeds This article is a list of horse The horse (''Equus ferus caballus'') is a Domestication, domesticated odd-toed ungulate, one-toed ungulate, hoofed mammal. It belongs to the taxonomic family Equidae and is one of two Extant taxon, extant subspe ...
with particular performance traits. While breeding animals is common in an agricultural setting, it is also a common practice for the purpose of selling animals meant as
pet A pet, or companion animal, is an animal kept primarily for a person's company or entertainment rather than as a working animal, livestock or a laboratory animal. Popular pets are often considered to have attractive appearances, Animal cognitio ...

pet
s, such as
cats The cat (''Felis catus'') is a of small . It is the only domesticated species in the family and is often referred to as the domestic cat to distinguish it from the wild members of the family. A cat can either be a house cat, a or a ; ...
,
dogs The dog or domestic dog (''Canis familiaris'' or ''Canis lupus familiaris'') is a domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the ...
,
horses The horse (''Equus ferus caballus'') is a Domestication, domesticated odd-toed ungulate, one-toed ungulate, hoofed mammal. It belongs to the taxonomic family Equidae and is one of two Extant taxon, extant subspecies of wild horse, ''Equus ferus ...
, and
birds Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With ...
, as well as less common animals, such as
reptile Reptiles, as most commonly defined, are the animals in the class Class or The Class may refer to: Common uses not otherwise categorized * Class (biology), a taxonomic rank * Class (knowledge representation), a collection of individuals or ...

reptile
s or some
primates A primate ( ) (from Latin , from 'prime, first rank') is a eutherian mammal constituting the Taxonomy (biology), taxonomic order (biology), order Primates (). Primates arose 85–55 million years ago first from small Terrestrial animal, ...
.


Purebred breeding

Mating animals of the same breed for maintaining such breed is referred to as purebred breeding. Opposite to the practice of mating animals of different breeds, purebred breeding aims to establish and maintain stable traits, that animals will pass to the next generation. By "breeding the best to the best", employing a certain degree of
inbreeding Inbreeding is the production of offspring In biology, offspring are the young born of living organism, organisms, produced either by a single organism or, in the case of sexual reproduction, two organisms. Collective offspring may be known as ...
, considerable
culling In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechan ...
, and selection for "superior" qualities, one could develop a bloodline or "
breed A breed is a specific group of domestic animals having homogeneous appearance (phenotype), homogeneous behavior, and/or other characteristics that distinguish it from other organisms of the same species. In literature, there exist several slight ...
" superior in certain respects to the original base stock. Such animals can be recorded with a
breed registry A breed registry, also known as a herdbook, studbook or register, in animal husbandry Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the ke ...
, the organisation that maintains
pedigree Pedigree may refer to: Breeding * Pedigree chart, a document to record ancestry, used by genealogists in study of human family lines, and in selective breeding of other animals ** Pedigree, a human genealogy (ancestry chart) ** Pedigree (animal) ...
s and/or
stud book A breed registry, also known as a herdbook, studbook or register, in animal husbandry Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key d ...
s. The observable phenomenon of
hybrid vigor Heterosis, hybrid vigor, or outbreeding enhancement is the improved or increased function of any biological quality in a Hybrid (biology), hybrid offspring. An offspring is heterotic if its trait (biology), traits are enhanced as a result of mi ...
stands in contrast to the notion of breed purity.


Backyard breeding

In the United States, a backyard breeder is someone who breeds animals, often without registration and with a focus on profit. In some cases, the animals are inbred narrowly for looks, with little regard to health. The term is considered derogatory. If a backyard
dog breeder Dog breeding is the practice of Canine reproduction, mating selected dogs with the intention of maintaining or producing specific qualities and characteristics. When dogs reproduce without such human intervention, their offspring's characteristics ...
has a significant number of breeding animals, they become associated with
puppy mill A puppy mill, also known as a puppy farm, is a commercial dog breeding facility characterized by quick breeding and poor conditions. Although no standardized legal definition for "puppy mill" exists, a definition was established in ''Avenson v. Ze ...
s. Most puppy mills are licensed with the USDA.Rescue groups paint a sad story of Iowa's puppy mills
The Messenger.


See also

*
Animal husbandry Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Ex ...


Plant and animal breeding

* Artificial insemination of livestock and pets *
Artificial selection This Chihuahua (dog), Chihuahua mixed-breed dog, mix and Great Dane shows the wide range of dog breed sizes created using selective breeding. Selective breeding (also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans use animal breed ...
*
Agricultural science Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, mo ...
* Backyard breeder * Genomics of domestication *
Plant breeding Plant breeding is the science of changing the traits of plants Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy ...
* Progeny testing *
Selective breeding Selective breeding (also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans use animal breeding Animal breeding is a branch of animal science Animal science (also bioscience) is described as "studying the biology Biology i ...


People

* Robert Bakewell * Arthur B. Chapman *
James Hutton James Hutton (; 3 June 172614 June 1726 New Style Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) indicate a dating system from before and after a calendar change, respectively. Usually this is the change from the Julian calendar The Julian c ...

James Hutton


Other topics

* BLUPF90 and
ASRemlASReml is a statistical software package for fitting linear mixed models using restricted maximum likelihood, a technique commonly used in plant breeding, plant and animal breeding and quantitative genetics as well as other fields. It is notable for ...
: software packages for animal breeding statistics *
Veterinary medicine Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine Medicine is the science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such ...
**
Veterinary surgeon Veterinary surgery is surgery Surgery ''cheirourgikē'' (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via la, chirurgiae, meaning "hand work". is a medical or dental specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques ...
**
Veterinarian A veterinarian (vet), also known as a veterinary surgeon or veterinary physician, is a medical professional who practices veterinary medicine by treating diseases, disorders, managing reproductive health and injuries in non-human animal ...


Further reading

* * * * * * * * * * * * FAO. (2007)
The Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources and the Interlaken
Rome. *FAO. (2010)

ttp://www.fao.org/docrep/012/i1103e/i1103e00.htm FAO Animal Production and Health Guidelines.No. 3. Rome. *FAO. (2015)
The Second Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources forFood and Agriculture.
Rome.


References


External links

*
Domestic Animal Diversity Information System
*

*


Academic centers

* * * * * * * *


Journals

*


Organizations

* * * * * * * {{Authority control Livestock