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An amateur press association (APA) is a group of people who produce individual pages or
zines A zine ( ; short for ''magazine'' or ''fanzine'') is a small-circulation self-published work of original or appropriated texts and images, usually reproduced via a copy machine. Zines are the product of either a single person or of a very small ...

zines
that are sent to a Central Mailer for collation and distribution to all members of the group.


History

The first APAs were formed by groups of amateur printers. The earliest to become more than a small informal group of friends was the National Amateur Press Association (NAPA) founded February 19, 1876, by Evan Reed Riale and nine other members in
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is ...
. It is still running as of 2018. The first
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the British identity and common culture * British English, ...

British
APA was the British Amateur Press Association founded in 1890. This is a different organisation from that launched by comics fans in 1978 (see below). The second United States APA was the United Amateur Press Association (UAPA) founded in 1895 by a group of teenagers including William H. Greenfield (aged 14) and Charles W. Heins (aged 17). This became a confederation of small amateur publishers which split into two organisations known interchangeably as UAP and UAAPA. The American Amateur Press Association (AAPA) was formed in 1936 by a secession from what was then called UAPAA. The first
science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, Parall ...

science fiction
APA was the
Fantasy Amateur Press AssociationThe Fantasy Amateur Press Association or FAPA ("FAP-uh") is science fiction fandom Science fiction fandom or SF fandom is a community or fandom A fandom is a subculture A subculture is a group of people within a culture Culture () is an u ...
(FAPA) formed by a group of
science fiction fans Science fiction fandom or SF fandom is a community or fandom A fandom is a subculture A subculture is a group of people within a culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found ...
in 1937. It continues to be active in 2020. SAPS, the Spectator Amateur Press Society, started in 1947 and is still active in 2012. VAPA, The Vanguard Amateur Press Association, formed in 1945 and lasted until 1950. The first comics APA was started by
Jerry Bails Jerry Gwin Bails (June 26, 1933 – November 23, 2006) was an American popular culturist. Known as the "Father of Comic Book Fandom," he was one of the first to approach the comic book field as a subject worthy of academic study, and was a primary ...
in 1964 in the United States. Called
CAPA-alphaCAPA-alpha (sometimes abbreviated to K-a) was the first amateur press association (APA) devoted to comic books, started by Jerry Bails (the "father of comics fandom") in the United States in 1964. History In October 1964 Bails released the first ...
(sometimes abbreviated to K-a) it grew to its present limit of 40 members. It has become the archetype for most subsequent comics APAs. Its members have included Dwight Decker,
Mark Evanier Mark Stephen Evanier (; born March 2, 1952) is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), common ...
,
Carl Gafford Carl Gafford (born November 23, 1953) is a colorist (and occasional editor) who has worked for several decades in the comics industry. His career has spanned several publishers, including Marvel Comics, DC Comics and Topps Comics. Biography Earl ...
,
Fred Patten Frederick Walter Patten (December 11, 1940 – November 12, 2018) was an American writer and historian known for his work in the science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a of which typically deals with an ...

Fred Patten
,
Richard The first or given name Richard originates, via Old French Old French (, , ; French language, Modern French: ) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century. Rather than a unified Dialect#Dialect or lan ...
and
Wendy Pini Wendy Pini ''née'' Fletcher, (born June 4, 1951) and Richard Pini (born July 19, 1950) are the husband-and-wife team responsible for creating the well-known ''Elfquest'' series of Comic book, comics, graphic novels and prose works. They are al ...

Wendy Pini
,
Roy Thomas Roy William Thomas Jr."Roy Thomas Checklist" ''Alter Ego'' vol. 3, #50 (July 2005) p. 16 (born November 22, 1940) is an American comic book writer and editor, who was Stan Lee Stan Lee (born Stanley Martin Lieber ; December 28, 1922  ...
,
Dan AldersonDaniel John Alderson (October 31, 1941 – May 17, 1989) was a scientist at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California, and a prominent participant in science fiction fandom. He came from a middle-class family and had diabetes. A high school scien ...
, Rick Norwood,
Don Markstein Don Markstein's Toonopedia (subtitled A Vast Repository of Toonological Knowledge) is an online encyclopedia of print cartoons, comic strips and animation, initiated February 13, 2001. Donald D. Markstein, the sole writer and editor of Toonopedia ...
,
Don Don, don or DON and variants may refer to: Places *Don, BeninDon is a town in Benin, Africa. It has a population of 696,969. Nearest large airports are Cadjehoun Airport, Cotonou Cadjehoun in Cotonou and Lomé-Tokoin Airport, Lomé-Tokoin in Lom ...
and
Maggie Thompson Maggie Thompson (born Margaret Curtis; November 29, 1942), is an American former librarian, longtime editor of the now-defunct ''Comics Buyer's Guide'' (a comic book industry news magazine), science fiction fandom, science fiction fan, and collect ...
and Jeffrey H. Wasserman.
Michael Barrier Michael J. Barrier (born June 15, 1940) is an American animation historian. Work Barrier was the founder and editor of ''Funnyworld'', the first magazine exclusively devoted to comics and animation. It began as a contribution to the CAPA-Alpha am ...
's animation
fanzine A fanzine ( blend of ''fan Fan commonly refers to: * Fan (machine), a machine for producing airflow, often for cooling ** Hand fan, an implement held and waved by hand to move air * Fan (person), short for fanatic; an enthusiast or supporter, espe ...

fanzine
''Funnyworld'' began as a CAPA-alpha contribution. Decker and Gafford were also founding members of the
minicomics A minicomic is a creator-published comic book, often photocopying, photocopied and stapled or with a handmade binding. In the United Kingdom and Europe the term British small press comics, small press comic is equivalent with minicomic, reserved fo ...

minicomics
co-op A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous The federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Российск ...

co-op
the United Fanzine Organization. The difference in a co-op and an APA is that an APA is helmed by a central mailer, to whom the members send copies of their publications. The central mailer then compiles all the books into one large volume, which is then mailed out to the membership in "mailings" (called "bundles" by a few APAs). In a co-op, however, there is no central mailer; the members distribute their own works, and are linked by a group newsletter, a group symbol that appears on each member work, and a group checklist in every "member zine." The first
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
an comics APA was called PAPA and launched by a group of
comics a medium Medium may refer to: Science and technology Aviation *Medium bomber, a class of war plane *Tecma Medium, a French hang glider design Communication * Media (communication), tools used to store and deliver information or d ...

comics
fan Fan commonly refers to: * Fan (machine), a machine for producing airflow, often for cooling ** Hand fan, an implement held and waved by hand to move air * Fan (person), short for fanatic; an enthusiast or supporter, especially with regard to enterta ...
s in January 1978. Soon renamed BAPA (for "British APA"), it celebrated its twenty-fifth anniversary in 2003, but folded the following summer. The APA model was picked up by artists in the 1980s. Groups of artists contributed elements of combined duplicated artworks that omitted the conversational elements of the fandom-based APAs (these pieces are sometimes called "assembly art"). During this same period, a group of British science fiction and comics fans also set up a short-lived "tape APA", contributing music and spoken word to a central anthology. The latest innovation is a digital distribution, e-APA. Copies of past "mailings" are archived at the online resource
eFanzines The single largest online distribution point for science fiction fanzines, eFanzines was launched by Bill Burns on 7 December 2000 and recorded its 500,000th visit in December 2008. It was a Hugo Award finalist for "best web site" in 2005, one of o ...
.


Organization

APAs were a way for widely distributed groups of people to discuss a common interest together in a single forum before the advent of electronic
bulletin boards A bulletin board system or BBS (also called ''Computer Bulletin Board Service'', ''CBBS'') is a computer server running list of BBS software, software that allows users to connect to the system using a terminal program. Once logged in, the user c ...
or the
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

Internet
. Many were founded in the 1930s and later by
fans Fan commonly refers to: * Fan (machine) Sounds from a household fan. A fan is a powered machine A machine is a man-made device that uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an action. Machines can be driven by anima ...
of
science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, Parall ...

science fiction
,
comics a medium Medium may refer to: Science and technology Aviation *Medium bomber, a class of war plane *Tecma Medium, a French hang glider design Communication * Media (communication), tools used to store and deliver information or d ...

comics
,
music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common elements such as (which governs and ), (and its associated concepts , , and ...

music
,
cinema Cinema may refer to: Film * Cinematography Cinematography (from ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It ...

cinema
and other topics as a way to develop writing, design and illustration skills. Many professional journalists, creative writers and artists practised in APA groups and email mailing lists. A Central Mailer (CM) (sometimes called a ''Distribution Manager'' or ''Official Editor'') is the coordinator of an APA. The heart of the role is the distribution of the association's publication to its members. The CM manages the subscription lists and the deadlines to which the association works. The CM is usually responsible for chasing members to ensure maximum participation although some APAs simply accumulate contributions between deadlines and mail out whatever is available at the mailing deadline. Where the APA requires the submission of multiple copies by contributors, the CM merely collates the contributions. Some APAs involve the submission of camera ready copy; in such cases the CM arranges the reproduction of the material. Most APAs require the members to submit a minimum amount of material in a specified format to a specified number of mailings. This minimum activity (abbreviated to "minac") is usually specified as something in the form of (for example): "at least two A4 pages to at least two out of every three mailings". Most APAs also require each member to maintain a credit balance in a central funds account to cover common reproduction costs and postage. In most APAs the CM provides an administrative report listing the contents of each mailing and any business information associated with the association. This can include financial accounts, membership information and some news items. Although most APAs have predetermined deadlines at regular intervals it is normal practice for the CM to specify the next mailing deadlines explicitly in each mailing. Although some APAs are
autocratic Autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power over a State (polity), state is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (exc ...
, most run on a
democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: Politics *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people ...

democratic
basis and the CM usually
chairs One of the basic pieces of furniture Furniture refers to movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating (e.g., chairs, stools, and sofas), eating (table (furniture), tables), and sleeping (e.g., beds). Furn ...

chairs
any discussions and arranges any management meetings. APAs that require members to submit multiple copies of their contribution (commonly called "apazines") usually set a limit to the number of members and run a waiting list if this becomes necessary. In many cases people on the waiting list are permitted to contribute to mailings and may receive excess apazines provided by the members.


List of notable APAs

Unless otherwise stated, these APAs are based in the United States. *
Alarums and Excursions ''Alarums and Excursions'' (''A&E'') is an amateur press association (APA) started in June 1975 by Lee Gold; publication continues to the present day. It was one of the first publications to focus solely on role-playing games. History In 1964, Bru ...
role-playing game A role-playing game (sometimes spelled roleplaying game; abbreviated RPG) is a game in which players assume the roles of character Character(s) may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''Character'' (novel), a 1936 Dutch ...
s * Aotearapa – New Zealand's longest running science fiction publication * British Amateur Press Association – the first British APA, primarily for amateur printers * British Amateur Press Association – an unrelated British comics APA (1977–2004) *
CAPA-alphaCAPA-alpha (sometimes abbreviated to K-a) was the first amateur press association (APA) devoted to comic books, started by Jerry Bails (the "father of comics fandom") in the United States in 1964. History In October 1964 Bails released the first ...
(also known as K-a) – the first comics APA. Alumni include
Mark Evanier Mark Stephen Evanier (; born March 2, 1952) is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), common ...
,
Carl Gafford Carl Gafford (born November 23, 1953) is a colorist (and occasional editor) who has worked for several decades in the comics industry. His career has spanned several publishers, including Marvel Comics, DC Comics and Topps Comics. Biography Earl ...
,
Fred Patten Frederick Walter Patten (December 11, 1940 – November 12, 2018) was an American writer and historian known for his work in the science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a of which typically deals with an ...

Fred Patten
,
Richard The first or given name Richard originates, via Old French Old French (, , ; French language, Modern French: ) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century. Rather than a unified Dialect#Dialect or lan ...
and
Wendy Pini Wendy Pini ''née'' Fletcher, (born June 4, 1951) and Richard Pini (born July 19, 1950) are the husband-and-wife team responsible for creating the well-known ''Elfquest'' series of Comic book, comics, graphic novels and prose works. They are al ...

Wendy Pini
,
Roy Thomas Roy William Thomas Jr."Roy Thomas Checklist" ''Alter Ego'' vol. 3, #50 (July 2005) p. 16 (born November 22, 1940) is an American comic book writer and editor, who was Stan Lee Stan Lee (born Stanley Martin Lieber ; December 28, 1922  ...
,
Tony Isabella Tony Isabella (born December 22, 1951) is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly ...
,
Dan AldersonDaniel John Alderson (October 31, 1941 – May 17, 1989) was a scientist at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California, and a prominent participant in science fiction fandom. He came from a middle-class family and had diabetes. A high school scien ...
, Rick Norwood,
Don Markstein Don Markstein's Toonopedia (subtitled A Vast Repository of Toonological Knowledge) is an online encyclopedia of print cartoons, comic strips and animation, initiated February 13, 2001. Donald D. Markstein, the sole writer and editor of Toonopedia ...
, and
Don Don, don or DON and variants may refer to: Places *Don, BeninDon is a town in Benin, Africa. It has a population of 696,969. Nearest large airports are Cadjehoun Airport, Cotonou Cadjehoun in Cotonou and Lomé-Tokoin Airport, Lomé-Tokoin in Lom ...
and
Maggie Thompson Maggie Thompson (born Margaret Curtis; November 29, 1942), is an American former librarian, longtime editor of the now-defunct ''Comics Buyer's Guide'' (a comic book industry news magazine), science fiction fandom, science fiction fan, and collect ...
. *
Fantasy Amateur Press AssociationThe Fantasy Amateur Press Association or FAPA ("FAP-uh") is science fiction fandom Science fiction fandom or SF fandom is a community or fandom A fandom is a subculture A subculture is a group of people within a culture Culture () is an u ...
(FAPA) – the first science fiction APA, founded in 1937 by
Donald A. Wollheim Donald Allen Wollheim (October 1, 1914 – November 2, 1990) was an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of ...
, still running in 2020. Alumni include
Forrest J Ackerman Forrest James Ackerman (November 24, 1916 – December 4, 2008) was an American magazine editor; science fiction writer Some notable science fiction File:Imagination 195808.jpg, Space exploration, as predicted in August 1958 in the science ...
,
Gregory Benford Gregory Benford (born January 30, 1941) is an American science fiction author Some notable science fiction authors (in alphabetical order): A *Dafydd ab Hugh (born 1960) *Alexander Abasheli (1884–1954) *Edwin Abbott Abbott (1838–1926) ...
,
James Blish James Benjamin Blish () was an American science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced sc ...
,
Robert Bloch Robert Albert Bloch (; April 5, 1917September 23, 1994) was an American fiction writer, primarily of crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term ''crime'' does not, in modern ...
,
Marion Zimmer Bradley Marion Eleanor Zimmer Bradley (June 3, 1930 – September 25, 1999) was an American author of fantasy Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction involving Magic (supernatural), magical elements, typically set in a fictional universe and som ...
,
F. M. Busby Francis Marion Busby (March 11, 1921 - February 17, 2005) was a science fiction writer and science fiction fandom, science fiction fan. In 1960 he was a co-winner of the Hugo Award for Best Fanzine. Biography Francis Marion "Buz" Busby was born in ...
,
Terry Carr Terry Gene Carr (February 19, 1937 – April 7, 1987) was an American science fiction science fiction fandom, fan, author, editor, and writing instructor. Background and discovery of fandom Carr was born in Grants Pass, Oregon. He attended the ...
,
Jack Chalker Jack Laurence Chalker (December 17, 1944 – February 11, 2005) was an American science fiction author. Chalker was also a BCPSS, Baltimore City Schools history teacher in Maryland for 12 years, retiring during 1978 to write full-time. He also wa ...
,
Willis Conover Willis Clark Conover, Jr. (December 18, 1920 – May 17, 1996) was a producer and broadcaster on the for over forty years. He produced jazz concerts at the , the , and for movies and television. By arranging concerts where people of all races ...
, E. Everett Evans, Richard Geis,
Jim Harmon James Judson Harmon (21 April 1933 – 16 February 2010), better known as Jim Harmon, was an American short story author and popular culture historian who wrote extensively about the old-time radio, Golden Age of Radio. He sometimes used the pseud ...
,
Patrick
Patrick
&
Teresa Nielsen Hayden Teresa Nielsen Hayden (born March 21, 1956) is an American science fiction File:Imagination 195808.jpg, Space exploration, as predicted in August 1958 in the science fiction magazine ''Imagination (magazine), Imagination.'' Science fiction (som ...
, Lee Hoffman,
Damon Knight Damon Francis Knight (September 19, 1922 – April 15, 2002) was an American science fiction author Some notable science fiction authors (in alphabetical order): A *Dafydd ab Hugh (born 1960) *Alexander Abasheli (1884–1954) * ...
,
David Langford David Rowland Langford (born 10 April 1953) is a British author, editor, and critic, largely active within the science fiction field. He publishes the science fiction fanzine and newsletter ''Ansible'', and holds the all-time record for most ...

David Langford
, Robert A. W. Lowndes,
Sam Moskowitz Sam Moskowitz (June 30, 1920 – April 15, 1997) was an American writer, critic, and historian of science fiction File:Imagination 195808.jpg, Space exploration, as predicted in August 1958 in the science fiction magazine ''Imagination (magazin ...
,
Frederik Pohl Frederik George Pohl Jr. (; November 26, 1919 – September 2, 2013) was an American science-fiction writer, editor Editing is the process of selecting and preparing written Writing is a medium of human communication Commu ...
,
Robert Silverberg Robert Silverberg (born January 15, 1935) is an American author and editor, best known for writing science fiction. He is a multiple winner of both Hugo Award, Hugo and Nebula Awards, a member of the Science Fiction and Fantasy Hall of Fame, a ...

Robert Silverberg
and
Wilson Tucker Arthur Wilson "Bob" Tucker (November 23, 1914 – October 6, 2006) was an American theater technician who became well known as a writer of mystery Mystery, The Mystery, Mysteries or The Mysteries may refer to: People * Mystery (pickup artist) ...
. *
Friends of Lulu Image:ValerieD'Orazio11.15.08ByLuigiNovi2.jpg, Friends of Lulu President Valerie D'Orazio at the Friends of Lulu table at the Big Apple Con, November 15, 2008 Friends of Lulu was a non-profit, national charitable organization in the United States ...
– APA for members of the women-friendly comics organization, including
Trina Robbins Trina Robbins (born Trina Perlson; August 17, 1938 in Brooklyn, New York) is an People of the United States, American cartoonist. She was an early and influential participant in the underground comix movement, and one of the first few female arti ...
,
Heidi MacDonald Heidi MacDonald (born November 15) is a writer and editor in the field of comic book A comic book, also called comic magazine or (in the United Kingdom and Ireland) simply comic, is a publication that consists of comics art in the form of seq ...
,
Deni Loubert Denise "Deni" Loubert (born September 30, 1951) Miller, John Jackson"Comics Industry Birthdays" ''Comics Buyer's Guide ''Comics Buyer's Guide'' (''CBG''; ), established in 1971, was the longest-running English-language periodical Periodical liter ...
, etc.; several issues published in 1994 * Interlac – ''
Legion of Super-Heroes The Legion of Super-Heroes is a fictional superhero A superhero or superheroine is a that possesses , abilities beyond those of ordinary people, and fits the role of the , typically using his or her powers to help the , or dedicating thems ...
'' comics. Alumni include
Jim Shooter James Shooter (born September 27, 1951) is an American writer, editor and publisher for various comic books. He started professionally in the medium at the age of 14, and he is most notable for his successful and controversial run as Marvel Comics ...
(founding member),
Tom and Mary Bierbaum Tom and Mary Bierbaum are an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the Unite ...
,
Dave Cockrum David Emmett Cockrum (; November 11, 1943 – November 26, 2006) was an American comics artist A cartoonist (also comic strip creator, comic book artist, graphic novel artist, or comic book illustrator) is a visual artist An artist is a per ...

Dave Cockrum
,
Colleen Doran Colleen Doran is an American writer-artist and cartoonist. She illustrated hundreds of comics, graphic novels, books and magazines, including the autobiographical graphic novel of Marvel Comics editor and writer Stan Lee Stan Lee (born Stan ...

Colleen Doran
,
Paul Levitz Paul Levitz (; born October 21, 1956) is an American comic book writer, editor Editing is the process of selecting and preparing written Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meanin ...

Paul Levitz
, Tom McCraw, and
Mark Waid Mark Waid (; born March 21, 1962) is an American comic book writer A script is a document describing the narrative and dialogue of a comic book in detail. It is the comic book equivalent of a Television, television program teleplay or a film scre ...
. * Rowrbrazzle
anthropomorphic Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an ...
s and funny animals; its founder dedicated it to "Funny animals, plants, machines, and squash." * United Fanzine Organization
Minicomic A minicomic is a creator-published comic book, often photocopied and stapled or with a handmade binding. In the United Kingdom and Europe the term small press comic is equivalent with minicomic, reserved for those publications measuring A6 (105& ...
creators.


See also

*
Committee of correspondence The committees of correspondence were, prior to the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegate ...
* Hamilton Wood Type and Printing Museum


References


Sources

* 227pp. * Watts, Eric L., ''The New Moon Directory'', self-published from 1988-1998 (contained complete index of all known APA's at the time) * Wertham, Fredric, ''The World of Fanzines'', (Carbondale & Evanston: Southern Illinois University Press, 1973)


External links


American Amateur Press AssociationThe British Amateur Press Association (BAPA)National Amateur Press Association
{{DEFAULTSORT:Amateur Press Association Magazines Alternative media