, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonant
s, sometimes synonymous with pre-palatal consonants, are intermediate in articulation
between the coronal
consonants, or which have simultaneous alveolar
articulation. In the official IPA chart, alveolo-palatals would appear between the retroflex
consonants but for "lack of space".
[John Esling, 2010, "Phonetic Notation". In Hardcastle, Laver, & Gibbon, eds, ''The Handbook of Phonetic Sciences'', p 693]
Ladefoged and Maddieson characterize the alveolo-palatals as palatalized postalveolar
s), articulated with the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge and the body of the tongue raised toward the palate,
whereas Esling describes them as advanced
palatals (pre-palatals), the furthest front of the dorsal consonant
s, articulated with the body of the tongue approaching the alveolar ridge
These descriptions are essentially equivalent, since the contact includes both the blade and body (but not the tip) of the tongue (see schematic at right). They are front enough that the fricatives and affricates are sibilant
s, the only sibilants among the dorsal consonants.
The alveolo-palatal sibilants are often used in varieties of Chinese
such as Mandarin
, and Wu
, as well as other East Asian languages
such as Japanese
such as Tibetan
as well as Tai languages
such as Thai
. Alveolo-palatal sibilants are also a feature of many Slavic languages
, such as Polish
, and Serbo-Croatian
, and of Northwest Caucasian languages
, such as Abkhaz
. The alveolo-palatal consonants included in the International Phonetic Alphabet
The letters and are essentially equivalent to and . They are the sibilant homologues of the pre-palatal fricatives and .
Stops, nasals, and liquids
Symbols for alveolo-palatal stops (), nasal
s () and liquids
() are sometimes used in sinological
circles (a circumflex accent is also sometimes seen), but they are not recognized by the IPA. They may be simple palatal or palatalized consonants, classified as alveolo-palatals because they pattern with the alveolo-palatal sibilants of the language rather than because they are alveolo-palatal in articulation.
In standard IPA, they can be transcribed or . An alternative transcription for the voiced alveolo-palatal stop and nasal is , but it is used only when cannot be displayed properly.
For example, the Polish nasal represented with the letter ''ń
'' is a palatalized laminal alveolar nasal and thus often described as alveolo-palatal rather than palatal. The "palatal" consonants of Indigenous Australian languages
are also often closer to alveolo-palatal in their articulation.
Category:Place of articulation