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The agora (; grc, ἀγορά ''agorá'') was a central
public space A public space is a place that is generally open and accessible to people. Roads (including the pavement), public square A town square (or square, plaza, public square, city square, urban square, or piazza) is an open public space commonl ...
in ancient
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
city-states A city-state is an independent sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance la ...

city-states
. It is the best representation of a city-state's response to accommodate the social and political order of the polis. The literal meaning of the word "agora" is "gathering place" or "assembly". The agora was the center of the athletic, artistic, business, social, spiritual and political life in the city. The
Ancient Agora of Athens The ancient Agora of Athens (also called the Classical Agora) is the best-known example of an ancient Greek agora, located to the northwest of the Acropolis of Athens, Acropolis and bounded on the south by the hill of the Areopagus and on the ...

Ancient Agora of Athens
is the best-known example.


Origins

Early in Greek history (10th–4th centuries BC), free-born citizens would gather in the agora for military duty or to hear statements of the ruling king or council. Later, the agora also served as a
marketplace fa:بازار A market, or marketplace, is a location where people regularly gather for the purchase and sale of provisions, livestock, and other goods. In different parts of the world, a market place may be described as a ''souk'' (from the ...

marketplace
, where merchants kept stalls or shops to sell their goods amid
colonnade In classical architecture Classical architecture usually denotes architecture which is more or less consciously derived from the principles of Greek and Ancient Roman architecture, Roman architecture of classical antiquity, or sometimes even m ...

colonnade
s. This attracted
artisan Wood carver in Bali An artisan (from french: artisan, it, artigiano) is a skilled craft worker who makes or creates material objects partly or entirely by hand. These objects may be functional or strictly decorative, for example fur ...

artisan
s who built workshops nearby. From these twin functions of the agora as a political and a commercial space came the two Greek verbs , ''agorázō'', "I shop", and , ''agoreúō'', "I speak in public".


Ancient Agora of Athens

The Athenian Agora lies beneath the northern slope of the
Acropolis An acropolis (Ancient Greek: ἀκρόπολις, ''akropolis''; from ''akros'' (άκρος) or ''akron'' (άκρον), "highest, topmost, outermost" and ''polis'' (πόλις), "city"; plural in English: ''acropoles'', ''acropoleis'' or ''acropol ...

Acropolis
. The
Ancient Agora of Athens The ancient Agora of Athens (also called the Classical Agora) is the best-known example of an ancient Greek agora, located to the northwest of the Acropolis of Athens, Acropolis and bounded on the south by the hill of the Areopagus and on the ...

Ancient Agora of Athens
was the primary meeting ground for Athenians, where members of
democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people have the authority to deliberate and decide legislation ("direct democracy"), or to cho ...

democracy
congregated affairs of the state, where business was conducted, a place to hang out, and watch performers and listen to famous
philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mi ...

philosopher
s. The importance of the Athenian agora revolved around religion. The agora was a very sacred place, in which holiness is laid out in the
architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Architecture (Latin ''archi ...

architecture
of the ground in which it lay upon. The layout of the agora was centered around the Panathenaic Way, a road that ran through the middle of
Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens rect 15 475 48 ...

Athens
and to the main gate of the city,
Dipylon The Dipylon ( gr, Δίπυλον, "Two-Gated") was the main gate in the Themistoclean Walls, city wall of Classical Athens. Located in the modern suburb of Kerameikos, it led to the namesake ancient cemetery, and to the roads connecting Athens with ...
. This road was considered tremendously sacred, serving as a travel route for the
Panathenaic festival Greek vase depicting runners at the Panathenaic Games c. 530 BC The Panathenaic Games ( grc, Παναθήναια) were held every four years in Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athe ...
, which was held in the honor of the goddess
Athena Athena or Athene, often given the epithet An epithet (, ) is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage. It has various shades of meaning when applied ...

Athena
every four years. The agora was also famously known for housing the
Temple of Hephaestus The Temple of Hephaestus or ''Hephaisteion'' (also "Hephesteum"; grc, Ἡφαιστεῖον, ell, Ναός Ηφαίστου, and formerly called in error the Theseion or "Theseum"; grc, Θησεῖον, ell, Θησείο), is a well-preserve ...

Temple of Hephaestus
, the Greek god of metalworking and craftsmen. This temple is still in great condition to this day. Other temples priorly standing in the agora include honor for
Zeus Zeus or , , ; grc, Δῐός, ''Diós'', label=genitive In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Ling ...

Zeus
,
Athena Athena or Athene, often given the epithet An epithet (, ) is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage. It has various shades of meaning when applied ...

Athena
,
Apollo Apollo, grc, Ἀπόλλωνος, ''Apóllōnos'', label=genitive , ; , grc-dor, Ἀπέλλων, ''Apéllōn'', ; grc, Ἀπείλων, ''Apeílōn'', label=Arcadocypriot Greek, ; grc-aeo, Ἄπλουν, ''Áploun'', la, Apollō, ...

Apollo
, and
Ares Ares (; grc, Ἄρης, ''Árēs'' ) is the Greek god The following is a list of gods A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entities that are not subject to the laws of nature. This t ...

Ares
.


Gender roles in the Athenian Agora

Women in ancient Athens were not equivalent to
men A man is an adult male Male (♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete known as sperm. A male gamete can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fertilization. A male cannot sexual reproduction, reproduce ...

men
in any way,
female Female (symbol: ♀) is the sex Sex is either of two divisions, typically male Male (♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete known as sperm. A male gamete can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of ...

female
s were considered to be homemakers. The
Athenian agora The ancient Agora of Athens (also called the Classical Agora) is the best-known example of an ancient Greek agora upAgora of Tyre The agora (; grc, ἀγορά ''agorá'') was a central public space in ancient Greek city-states. It is ...

Athenian agora
was the arena of Athenian politics and business, of a civic order primarily dominated by
male Male (symbol: ♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete (sex cell) known as sperm, which fuses with the larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fertilization. A male organism cannot sexual reproduction, reproduce sexually ...

male
citizens.
Spokesman A spokesperson, spokesman, or spokeswoman, is someone engaged or elected to speak on behalf of others. Duties and function In the present media-sensitive world, many organizations are increasingly likely to employ professionals who have receive ...
of the Athenian patriarchy preached that no
female Female (symbol: ♀) is the sex Sex is either of two divisions, typically male Male (♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete known as sperm. A male gamete can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of ...

female
should be in public places, the Agora. Public places were considered the property of
male Male (symbol: ♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete (sex cell) known as sperm, which fuses with the larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fertilization. A male organism cannot sexual reproduction, reproduce sexually ...

male
citizens.


Professions

In the 4th and 5th centuries, there was significant evidence of women being innkeepers and
merchant A merchant is a person who trades in commodities In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distributi ...

merchant
s
selling Sales are activities related to selling or the number of goods sold in a given targeted time period. The delivery of a service for a cost is also considered a sale. The seller, or the provider of the goods or services, completes a sale in ...

selling
their products in the market of the
Athenian agora.
Athenian agora.
This part of the agora was called the "women's agora." Some of the products they sold include fruits, clothes,
pottery Pottery is the process and the products of forming vessels and other objects with clay Clay is a type of fine-grained natural soil Surface-water- gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland.">Northern_Ireland.html" ;"title="g ...
, religious and luxury goods, perfume,
incense Incense is aromatic biotic material Biotic material or biological derived material is any material that originates from living organisms. Most such materials contain carbon Carbon (from la, carbo "coal") is a chemical element Image ...

incense
,
purple dye Tyrian purple ( grc, πορφύρα ''porphúra''; la, purpura), also known as Phoenician red, Phoenician purple, royal purple, imperial purple, or imperial dye, is a reddish-purple Purple is any of a variety of color Color (Ame ...
, wreaths, and ribbons.


Women and property

In terms of the ''epikleros law,''
women A woman is an adult female Female (symbol: ♀) is the sex of an organism that produces the large non-mobile ovum, ova (egg cells), the type of gamete (sex cell) that fuses with the Sperm, male gamete during sexual reproduction. A female ...

women
are provided material security without effectively putting any
property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depending on the nature of the property, an owner of property may have the right to consume, alter, share, r ...
in their control. Further, property was
inherited
inherited
through the males line, if there is no male to succeed, then the daughter might become a provisional bearer of the property, in
Athenian agora.
Athenian agora.
The daughter is only considered supplementary until she is married.


Marriage and divorce

Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens The Acropo ...

Athenian
marriages were not celebrations of true love consummated, but they included quite the celebration. Marriages were contractual agreements between Athenian households, women would leave their families and all they knew and move with their spouse and family. These were occasions that brought women into the public view they often didn't share with the men in their communities. Marriages were easily dissolved in
Ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of Classical Antiquity, antiquity ( AD 600). This era wa ...
, if an Athenian rejected his wife, she would go back home to her ''
kyrios ''Kyrios'' or ''kurios'' ( grc, κύριος, kū́rios) is a Greek language, Greek word which is usually translated as "lord" or "master". It is used in the Septuagint translation of the Hebrew religious text, scriptures about 7000 times, in pa ...

kyrios
'' (her father), and her
dowry A dowry is a payment, such as property or money, paid by the bride's family to the groom or his family at the time of marriage. Dowry contrasts with the related concepts of bride price Bride price, bridewealth, or bride token, is money ...
went with her.
Divorce Divorce (also known as dissolution of marriage) is the optional process of terminating a marriage in Stockholm Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock is a culturally and often legally recognized union between people calle ...

Divorce
s were, in practice, almost exclusively initiated by males, either by the husband rejecting a wife, or by the wife's relatives, either on their own or at the instigation of the wife who wanted to escape a marriage where she dealt with
maltreatment Abuse is the improper usage or treatment of a thing, often to Distributive justice, unfairly or improperly gain benefit. Abuse can come in many forms, such as: physical or verbal maltreatment, injury, assault, violation, rape, unjust practices ...
. A women of the
5th century The 5th century is the time period from 401 __NOTOC__ Year 401 ( CDI) was a common year starting on Tuesday A common year starting on Tuesday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or wikt:bissextile, bissexti ...
, Hipparete, took affairs into her own hands, and left her philandering husband, and filed for divorce. This initiative didn't work out too well in her favor, and her husband humiliated by dragging her very publicly through the
Athenian agora The ancient Agora of Athens (also called the Classical Agora) is the best-known example of an ancient Greek agora upAgora of Tyre The agora (; grc, ἀγορά ''agorá'') was a central public space in ancient Greek city-states. It is ...

Athenian agora
and took her back home, she made all the gossip headlines of the agora. This treatment would happen to many women in the


Rituals

The Athenian calendar glistened with religious festivals that were held in the These festivals were significant for women as they provided a reason for them to leave their homes and socialize with people outside their family. Also, many of these religious festivals were performed by women, these duties included officiating the worship of , the namesake of the city,
Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens rect 15 475 48 ...

Athens
. Doing these rituals for
goddesses A goddess is a female deity. In many known cultures, goddesses are often linked with literal or metaphorical pregnancy or imagined feminine roles associated with how women and girls are perceived or expected to behave. This includes themes of ...
are a prerequisite for the daughters of
aristocratic Aristocracy ( grc-gre, ἀριστοκρατία , from 'excellent', and , 'rule') is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: A ...
families. A large number of Athenian girls took part in ''Arkteia,'' or bear-festival, in honor of goddess
Artemis Artemis (; grc-gre, Ἄρτεμις Artemis, ) is the Greek goddess Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or ori ...

Artemis
, this festival was to embark young girls into women-hood, preparing them for marriage and child birth. Women of all ranks and classes could be seen making offerings at the small shrines that dotted the Also, women get to set up more substantial memorials to their
piety Piety is a virtue Virtue ( la, virtus ''Virtus'' () was a specific virtue in Ancient Rome. It carries connotations of valor, manliness, excellence, courage, character, and worth, perceived as masculine strengths (from Latin ''vir'', "man" ...
within the agora. Religious festivals were a huge opportunity for the women of
Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens rect 15 475 48 ...

Athens
to participate in their social culture.


Marble-workers in the Athenian Agora

As of the early
5th century The 5th century is the time period from 401 __NOTOC__ Year 401 ( CDI) was a common year starting on Tuesday A common year starting on Tuesday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or wikt:bissextile, bissexti ...
, the
Ancient Agora of Athens The ancient Agora of Athens (also called the Classical Agora) is the best-known example of an ancient Greek agora, located to the northwest of the Acropolis of Athens, Acropolis and bounded on the south by the hill of the Areopagus and on the ...

Ancient Agora of Athens
was known as glorious and richly decorated, set with famous works of art, many of them sculpted from
marble Marble is a metamorphic rock , a type of metamorphic rock Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock (geology), rock to new types of rock, in a process called metamorphism upright=1.35, Schematic representation of ...

marble
. The buildings of the Athenian Agora had marble decoration and housed dedications in the form of Finds from the agora excavations identified that generations of marble-workers made the agora of Athens an important center for the production of marble sculptures. Marble-workers made sculptures, marble weights,
sundials A sundial is a horological device that tells the time of day (in modern usage referred to as civil time In modern usage, civil time refers to statutory time scales designated by civilian authorities, or to local time indicated by clocks. Mo ...
, furniture parts, an assortment of kitchen utensils. In the excavations of the Athenian agora revealed the remains of many marble-working establishments, and various unfinished statues, reliefs, and utilitarian objects.


Marble workshops in the Agora

Excavations of the Athenian agora has proved that marble-workers were very active, the earliest workshops being established in the early
5th century The 5th century is the time period from 401 __NOTOC__ Year 401 ( CDI) was a common year starting on Tuesday A common year starting on Tuesday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or wikt:bissextile, bissexti ...
. The earliest areas used by marble workers was the residential and industrial district southwest of the agora. Another area where marble-workers set up shop was in the South Square, after the sack of
Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens rect 15 475 48 ...

Athens
by the Roman general
Sulla Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (; 138–78 BC), commonly known as Sulla, was a Roman general A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines Marines or naval infan ...

Sulla
in 86 B.C. As the South Square was in ruins, marble-workers were attracted to the remains of the marble temples. A workshop from the southern corner of the agora was also important, the Library of Pantainos rented out rooms to marble-workers.


Famous marble-workers in the Agora

Literacy and evidence from excavations give a sense of statues and famous marble sculptors in the These famous marble-workers of the Agora include, the 5th-century master
Phidias of the Parthenon to his Friends'' (1868) by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema Phidias or Pheidias (; grc, Φειδίας, ''Pheidias'';  480 – 430 BC) was a Hellenic civilization, Greek sculptor, painter, and architect. His Statue of Zeus ...

Phidias
and his associate
Alkamenes Alcamenes ( grc, Ἀλκαμένης) was an ancient Greek Sculpture, sculptor of Lemnos and Athens, who flourished in the 2nd half of the 5th century BC. He was a younger contemporary of Phidias and noted for the delicacy and finish of his work ...
, and the 4th-century sculptors
Praxiteles Praxiteles (; el, Πραξιτέλης) of Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. r ...
,
BryaxisImage:Serapis Pio-Clementino Inv689 n2.jpg, Bust of Serapis. Roman copy of the original Bryaxis. Bryaxis ( grc, Βρύαξις or Βρύασσις; fl. 350 BC) was a Greeks, Greek sculptor. He created the sculptures on the north side of the mausoleu ...
, and
Euphranor AGMA Apollon Patroos Euphranor. Euphranor of Corinth Corinth ( ; el, Κόρινθος, Kórinthos, ) is the successor to an ancient city, and is a former municipality in Corinthia, Peloponnese (region), Peloponnese, which is located in sou ...
.


Phidias

Phidias of the Parthenon to his Friends'' (1868) by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema Phidias or Pheidias (; grc, Φειδίας, ''Pheidias'';  480 – 430 BC) was a Hellenic civilization, Greek sculptor, painter, and architect. His Statue of Zeus ...

Phidias
was the most well known marble-worker to have worked in the agora. He was famous for his gold and ivory cult statue of , and for his three lost sculptures of
Athena Athena or Athene, often given the epithet An epithet (, ) is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage. It has various shades of meaning when applied ...

Athena
.


Alcamenes

A well-known associate of
Phidias of the Parthenon to his Friends'' (1868) by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema Phidias or Pheidias (; grc, Φειδίας, ''Pheidias'';  480 – 430 BC) was a Hellenic civilization, Greek sculptor, painter, and architect. His Statue of Zeus ...

Phidias
was
Alcamenes Alcamenes ( grc, Ἀλκαμένης) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided ...
, whose most important works in the agora were the bronze cult statues of
Hephaestus Hephaestus (; wikt:Hephaestus#Alternative forms, eight spellings; grc-gre, Ἥφαιστος, Hḗphaistos) is the Greek god of blacksmiths, metalworking, carpenters, craftsmen, artisans, sculpture, sculptors, metallurgy, Fire (classical el ...
and
Athena Athena or Athene, often given the epithet An epithet (, ) is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage. It has various shades of meaning when applied ...

Athena
in the
Temple of Hephaestus The Temple of Hephaestus or ''Hephaisteion'' (also "Hephesteum"; grc, Ἡφαιστεῖον, ell, Ναός Ηφαίστου, and formerly called in error the Theseion or "Theseum"; grc, Θησεῖον, ell, Θησείο), is a well-preserve ...

Temple of Hephaestus
.


Praxiteles and Bryaxis

These famous sculptors are attested in the agora by the discovery of signed pieces of work that could no longer be preserved. A marble statue signed and possibly carved by
BryaxisImage:Serapis Pio-Clementino Inv689 n2.jpg, Bust of Serapis. Roman copy of the original Bryaxis. Bryaxis ( grc, Βρύαξις or Βρύασσις; fl. 350 BC) was a Greeks, Greek sculptor. He created the sculptures on the north side of the mausoleu ...
was found in the agora behind the Royal Stoa.


Euphranor

The
4th century The 4th century (per the Julian calendar The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman people, Roman general and statesman who played a critical role in Crisis of the ...
marble-worker known for his sculptures, made a colossal statue
Apollo Apollo, grc, Ἀπόλλωνος, ''Apóllōnos'', label=genitive , ; , grc-dor, Ἀπέλλων, ''Apéllōn'', ; grc, Ἀπείλων, ''Apeílōn'', label=Arcadocypriot Greek, ; grc-aeo, Ἄπλουν, ''Áploun'', la, Apollō, ...

Apollo
for the
Temple of Apollo PatroosThe Temple of Apollo Patroos (meaning "from the fathers") is a small ruined temple of Ionic order The Ionic order is one of the three canonic classical order, orders of classical architecture, the other two being the Doric order, Doric and the Cori ...

Temple of Apollo Patroos
on the west side of the agora.


Location and constituents of the Athenian Agora

The agora was usually located in the middle of a city or near the harbor. Agoras were built of
colonnade In classical architecture Classical architecture usually denotes architecture which is more or less consciously derived from the principles of Greek and Ancient Roman architecture, Roman architecture of classical antiquity, or sometimes even m ...

colonnade
s, or rows of long columns, and contained
stoa A stoa (; plural, stoas,"stoa", ''Oxford English Dictionary'', 2nd Ed., 1989 stoai, or stoae ), in ancient Greek architecture Ancient Greek architecture came from the Greek-speaking people (''Hellenic'' people) whose culture Culture () is ...
e, also known as a long open walk way below the colonnades. They were beautifully decorated with fountains, trees, and statues. When the Athenian agora was rebuilt after the
Greco-Persian Wars The Greco-Persian Wars (also often called the Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empi ...
, colonnades and stoae were not incorporated.


Phobia

The term ''
agoraphobia Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder Anxiety disorders are a cluster of mental disorder A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impair ...
'' denotes a phobic condition in which the sufferer becomes anxious in environments that are unfamiliar – for instance, places where they perceive that they have little control. Such anxiety may be triggered by wide-open spaces, by crowds, or by some public situations, and the psychological term derives from the agora as a large and open gathering place.


See also

*
Agorism Agorism is a social philosophy that advocates creating a society in which all relations between people are voluntary exchanges by means of counter-economics, engaging with aspects of nonviolent revolution. It was first proposed by American li ...
*
Platonic Academy The Academy (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ) ...
*
Stoa A stoa (; plural, stoas,"stoa", ''Oxford English Dictionary'', 2nd Ed., 1989 stoai, or stoae ), in ancient Greek architecture Ancient Greek architecture came from the Greek-speaking people (''Hellenic'' people) whose culture Culture () is ...


References

* https://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/68303


External links

*
Official Athenian agora excavations


{{Ancient Greece topics Ancient Greek society Archaeological terminology Economy of ancient Greece Ancient Greek buildings and structures Public space