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Afforestation is the establishment of a forest or stand of trees (
forestation Forestation is either growing existing forests (proforestation) or establishing forest growth on areas that either had forest or lacked it naturally. In the first case, the process is called reforestation, while the second is called afforestation. ...

forestation
) in an area where there was no previous tree cover. Many government and non-governmental organizations directly engage in afforestation programs to create forests and increase
carbon capture Carbon capture and storage (CCS), or carbon capture and sequestration and carbon control and sequestration, is the process of capturing waste carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical formula ) is a colorless gas with a density about 53% higher ...
. One of the most famous organizations promoting afforestation today to fight the climate crisis i
Ecologi
Afforestation is an increasingly sought-after method to fight climate concerns, as it is known to increase the soil quality and organic carbon levels into the soil, avoiding desertification. Changing the world one tree at a time: The rate of net forest loss decreased substantially over the period 1990–2020 due to a reduction in deforestation in some countries, plus increases in forest area in others through afforestation and the natural expansion of forests. A 2019 study of the global potential for tree restoration showed that there is space for at least 9 million km2 of new forests worldwide, which is a 25% increase from current conditions. This forested area could store up to 205 gigatons of carbon or 25% of the atmosphere's current carbon pool by reducing CO2 in the atmosphere and introducing more O2.


Procedure

The process of afforestation begins with site selection. Several environmental factors of the site must be analyzed, including
climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a la ...

climate
,
soil Soil is a mixture In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound, comp ...

soil
,
vegetation Vegetation is an assemblage of plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular re ...

vegetation
, and human activity. These factors will determine the quality of the site, what species of trees should be planted, and what planting method should be used. After the forest site has been assessed, the area must be prepared for planting. Preparation can involve a variety of mechanical or chemical methods, such as chopping, mounding, bedding,
herbicides Herbicides (, ), also commonly known as weedkillers, are substances used to control unwanted plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, conv ...
, and
prescribed burning mounted on an All-terrain vehicle, ATV. The device spits flaming fuel oil from the side, instantly igniting the leaf litter. , United States, in preparation for spring planting , Japan A controlled or prescribed burn, also known as hazard r ...
. Once the site is prepared, planting can take place. One method for planting is direct seeding, which involves sowing seeds directly into the forest floor. Another is seedling planting, which is similar to direct seeding except that seedlings already have an established root system. Afforestation by cutting is an option for tree species that can reproduce asexually, where a piece of a tree stem, branch, root, or leaves can be planted onto the forest floor and sprout successfully. Sometimes special tools, such as a tree planting bar, are used to make planting of trees easier and faster.''''


A key benefit to planting trees: Forests attract rain

Afforestation boasts many climate-related benefits. Several new studies suggest that forests attract rain, which may explain why drought is occurring more frequently in certain parts of the world such as western Africa, where trees are more sparse. A new study by Carol Rasmussen, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory gives the first observational evidence that the southern Amazon rainforest triggers its own rainy season using water vapor from plant leaves, which then forms clouds above it. These findings help explain why
deforestation deforestation in 1750-2004 (net loss) showing anthropogenic modification of remaining forest. File:MODIS (2020-08-01).jpg, 300px, Dry seasons, exacerbated by climate change, and the use of slash-and-burn methods for clearing tropical forest ...

deforestation
in this region is linked with reduced rainfall. A study by Douglas Sheil and Daniel Murdiyarso hypothesizes that forest cover plays a much greater role in determining rainfall than previously recognized. It explains how forested regions generate large-scale flows in atmospheric water vapor and further underscores the benefit of afforestation in currently barren regions of the world.


Countries and regions


Australia

In
Adelaide Adelaide ( ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constituent state, state, province, or other administrative region, usually ...

Adelaide
,
South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of , it is the fourth-largest of Austral ...

South Australia
(a city of 1.3 million as of June 2016), Premier
Mike Rann Michael David Rann, , (born 5 January 1953) is an Australian former politician who was the 44th Premier of South Australia from 2002 to 2011. He was later Australian High Commissioner to the United Kingdom from 2013 to 2014, and List of Austral ...

Mike Rann
(2002 to 2011) launched an urban forest initiative in 2003 to plant 3 million native trees and shrubs by 2014 on 300 project sites across the metro area. Thousands of Adelaide citizens have participated in community planting days on sites including parks, reserves, transport corridors, schools, water courses and coastline. Only native trees were planted to ensure genetic integrity. He said the project aimed to beautify and cool the city and make it more livable, improve air and water quality, and reduce Adelaide's greenhouse gas emissions by 600,000 tonnes of CO2 a year.


Canada

In 2003, the government of
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
created a four-year project called the Forest 2020 Plantation Development and Assessment Initiative, which involved planting 6000 ha of fast-growing forests on non-forested lands countrywide. These plantations were used to analyze how afforestation can help to increase
carbon sequestration Carbon sequestration or carbon dioxide removal File:Tree planting closeup.jpg, Planting trees is a means of carbon dioxide removal. Carbon dioxide removal (CDR), also known as greenhouse gas removal, is a process in which carbon dioxide g ...

carbon sequestration
and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while also considering the economic and investment attractiveness of afforestation. The results of the initiative showed that although there is not enough available land in Canada to completely offset the country's GHG emissions, afforestation can be useful mitigation technique for meeting GHG emission goals, especially until permanent, more advanced carbon storage technology becomes available. On December 14, 2020, Canada's Minister of Natural Resources
Seamus O'Regan Seamus Thomas Harris O'Regan (born January 18, 1971) is a Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and terr ...
announced the federal government's investment of $3.16 billion to plant two billion trees over the next 10 years. This plan aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by an estimated 12
megatonnes The tonne ( or ; symbol: t) is a Metric_units#Mass, metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms. It is also referred to as a metric ton. It is equivalent to approximately international avoirdupois pound, pounds; , and 0.984 long tons ...
by 2050.


China

A law
promulgated Promulgation is the formal proclamation or the declaration that a new statutory A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembl ...
in 1981 requires that every school student over the age of 11 plants at least one tree per year. As a result, China has the highest afforestation rate of any country or region in the world, with 47,000 square kilometers of afforestation in 2008. However, the forest area per capita is still far lower than the international average. According to
Carbon Brief Carbon Brief is a UK-based website designed to "improve the understanding of climate change, both in terms of the science and the policy response". Leo Hickman is the director and editor for Carbon Brief. Founding Carbon Brief is funded by the E ...
, China planted the largest amount of new forest out of any country between 1990 and 2015, facilitated by the country's
Grain for Green China initiated its "Grain for Green" program in 1999 as an ambitious conservation program designed to mitigate and prevent flooding and soil erosion. It is an example of Payment for ecosystem services which is helping to solve Environmental issues ...
program started in 1999, by investing more than $100 billion in afforestation programs and planting more than 35 billion trees across 12 provinces. By 2015, the amount of planted forest in China covered 79 million
hectares The hectare (; SI symbol: ha) is a non-SI metric unit of area Area is the quantity Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude, which illustrate discontinuity and continuity. Quantities can be compared in terms o ...

hectares
. From 2011–2016, the city
Dongying Dongying (), a prefecture-level city A prefectural-level municipality (), prefectural-level city or prefectural city is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of Chi ...

Dongying
in
Shandong Shandong (; alternately romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subn ...

Shandong
province forested over 13,800 hectares of
saline soil Soil salinity is the salt Salt is a mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure th ...
through the Shandong Ecological Afforestation Project, which was launched with support from the
World Bank The World Bank is an international financial institution An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that has been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence is subject to international law. Its o ...
. In 2017, the Saihanba Afforestation Community won the UN
Champions of the Earth The United Nations Environment Programme The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is responsible for coordinating responses to environmental issues within the United Nations system. It was established by Maurice Strong Maurice Frederick St ...
Award in the Inspiration and Action category for "transforming degraded land into a lush paradise".


Europe

Europe has deforested the majority of its historical forests. The
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
(EU) has paid farmers for afforestation since 1990, offering grants to turn
farmland Agricultural land is typically land ''devoted to'' agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching televis ...

farmland
into forest and payments for the management of forest. An EU program, running between 2000 and 2006, afforested more than 1,000 square kilometres of land (precise statistics not yet available). Another such program began in 2007. Europe's forests are growing by 8,000 square kilometres a year thanks to these programmes. According to
Food and Agriculture Organization The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture; it, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura is a specialized agency ...
statistics,
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
had the third fastest afforestation rate in Europe in the 1990-2005 period, after Iceland and Ireland. In those years, a total of 44,360 square kilometers were afforested, and the total forest cover rose from 13.5 to 17.9 million hectares. In 1990, forests covered 26.6% of the Spanish territory. As of 2007, that figure had risen to 36.6%. Spain today has the fifth largest forest area in the European Union. In January 2013 the
UK government ga, Rialtas na Ríochta Aontaithe sco, Govrenment o the Unitit Kinrick , image = HM Government logo.svg , image_size=220px, date_established = , state = United Kingdom , address = 10 Downing Street, London , leader_title = Prime Minister ...
set a target of 12% woodland cover in
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
by 2060, up from the then 10%. In
Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the Wales–England border, east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It ...

Wales
the National Assembly for Wales has set a target of 19% woodland cover, up from 15%. Government-backed initiatives such as the
Woodland Carbon Code The Woodland Carbon Code is the UK standard for afforestation projects for climate change mitigation. It provides independent verification and validation and assurance about the levels of carbon sequestration from managed woodland and their contribu ...
are intended to support this objective by encouraging corporations and landowners to create new woodland to offset their carbon emissions. Charitable groups such as Trees for Life (Scotland) also contribute to afforestation and reforestation efforts in the UK.


India

23% of India is covered by forest. In 2018, the total forest and tree cover in India increased to 24.39% or 8,020. 88 km2. The forests of India are grouped into 5 major categories and 16 types based on
biophysical Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies approaches and methods traditionally used in physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), mot ...
criteria. 38% of the forest is categorized as
subtropical The subtropical zones or subtropics are geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country locat ...

subtropical
dry
deciduous In the fields of horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists are agriculturists who grow flowers, fruits and nuts, ...
and 30% as tropical moist deciduous and other smaller groups. Only local species are planted in an area. Trees bearing fruits are preferred wherever possible due to their function as a food source. In 2019, Indians Planted 220 Million trees in a Single day in the Indian state of
Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh (; , 'Northern Province') is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (new ...

Uttar Pradesh
. On Thursday, 29 August 2019, Prime Minister of India Mr.
Narendra Modi Narendra Damodardas Modi (; born 17 September 1950) is an Indian politician serving as the List of Prime Ministers of India, 14th and current prime minister of India since 2014. Modi was the List of chief ministers of Gujarat, chief minist ...

Narendra Modi
released ₹47, 436
crores A crore (; abbreviated cr), kodi, karod, karor, or koti denotes ten million (10,000,000 or 107 in scientific notation Scientific notation is a way of expressing numbers A number is a mathematical object A mathematical object is an ...
(over 6.6 Billion
USD The United States dollar (symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragma ...

USD
) to various states for compulsory afforestation activities. The funds can be used for treatment of
catchment A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water. The drainage basin includes all the surface water from surface runoff, rain runoff, snowm ...

catchment
areas, assisted natural generation, forest management, wildlife protection and management, relocation of villages from protected areas, managing human-wildlife conflicts, training and awareness generation, supply of wood saving devices and allied activities. Increasing the tree cover would help in creating additional carbon sink to meet the nation's Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent through additional forest and tree cover by the year 2030 - part of India's efforts to combat climate change. The
Maharashtra Maharashtra (; , abbr. MH or Maha, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper) ...

Maharashtra
government planted almost 20,000,000 saplings in the entire state, and will pledge to plant another 30,000,000 next year. According to The Telegraph, the Indian government has attributed $6.2 billion for tree-planting in order to increase “forestation in line with agreements made at the Paris climate change summit in 2015.” The Indian government has also passed the CAMPA ( Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority) law, which will allow about 40 thousand crores rupees (almost $6 Billion) will go to Indian states for planting trees.


Iran

Iran is considered a low forest cover region of the world with present cover approximating seven percent of the land area. This is a value reduced to an estimated six million hectares of virgin forest, which includes
oak An oak is a tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including on ...

oak
,
almond The almond (''Prunus dulcis'', syn. ''Prunus amygdalus'') is a species of tree native to Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, ...

almond
and
pistachio The pistachio (, ''Pistacia vera''), a member of the cashew family, is a small tree originating from Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from A ...

pistachio
. Due to soil substrates, it is difficult to achieve afforestation on a large scale compared to other temperate areas endowed with more fertile and less rocky and arid soil condition. According to the specific statistics of the Forests, Rangelands and Watershed Management Organization of Iran, every year, using appropriate methods and native tree species in each region, a lot of afforestation has been done, which has resulted in more natural stability.


Israel

With over 240 million planted trees,
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...

Israel
is one of only two countries that entered the 21st century with a net gain in the number of trees, due to massive afforestation efforts. Most Israeli forests are the product of a major afforestation campaign by the
Jewish National Fund Jewish National Fund ( he, קֶרֶן קַיֶּימֶת לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, ''Keren Kayemet LeYisrael'', previously , ''Ha Fund HaLeumi'') was founded in 1901 to buy and develop land in Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Palestine (region), Palestin ...
(JNF).
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'']


North Africa

Many African countries that border the Sahara desert are cooperating with the Great Green Wall project. The $8-billion project intends to restore 100 million hectares of degraded land by 2030. Also in North Africa, the
Sahara Forest Project The Sahara Forest Project aims to provide fresh water, food and renewable energy in hot, arid regions as well as re-vegetating areas of uninhabited desert. The founding team was composed of Seawater Greenhouse Ltd, Exploration Architecture, Max Ford ...
coupled with the
Seawater greenhouse A seawater greenhouse is a greenhouse structure that enables the growth of crops and the production of fresh water in arid regions which constitute about one third of the earth's land area. This in response to the global water scarcity and peak ...
has been proposed. Some projects have also been launched in countries as
Senegal Senegal (; french: link=no, Sénégal; Wolof language, Wolof: ''Senegaal''; Arabic language, Arabic: السنغال ''As-Sinighal''), officially the Republic of Senegal (french: link=no, République du Sénégal; Wolof language, Wolof: ''Réew ...

Senegal
to revert desertification. As of 2010, African leaders are discussing the combining of national resources to increase effectiveness. In addition, other projects as the Keita Project in Niger have been launched in the past, and have been able to locally revert damage done by
desertification Desertification is a type of land degradation Land degradation is a process in which the value of the biophysical environment is affected by a combination of human-induced processes acting upon the land. It is viewed as any change or distu ...
.


United States

The United States is roughly one-third covered in forest and woodland.
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'']
Nevertheless, areas in the US were subject to significant tree planting. In the 1800s people moving westward encountered the Great Plains – land with fertile soil, a growing population and a demand for timber but with few trees to supply it. So tree planting was encouraged along homesteads.
Arbor Day Arbor Day (or Arbour in some countries) is a secular Secularity, also the secular or secularness (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally sp ...
was founded in 1872 by
Julius Sterling Morton Julius Sterling Morton (April 22, 1832 – April 27, 1902) was a Nebraska newspaper editor who served as President Grover Cleveland's United States Secretary of Agriculture, Secretary of Agriculture. He was a prominent Bourbon Democrat, taking the ...

Julius Sterling Morton
in Nebraska City, Nebraska. By the 1930s the
Dust Bowl The Dust Bowl was a period of severe dust storm A dust storm, also called a sandstorm, is a meteorological phenomenon common in arid A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent o ...
environmental disaster signified a reason for significant new tree cover. Public works programs under the New Deal saw the planting of 18,000 miles of windbreaks stretching from North Dakota to Texas to fight soil erosion (see
Great Plains Shelterbelt The Great Plains Shelterbelt was a project to create windbreaks in the Great Plains states of the United States, that began in 1934. President of the United States, President Franklin D. Roosevelt initiated the project in response to the severe du ...
).


Benefits

Afforestation helps to slow down
global warming Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been previous periods of climate change, but the current changes are more rapid than any known even ...
by reducing in the atmosphere and introducing more .'''' Trees are
carbon sinks A carbon sink is any reservoir, natural or otherwise, that accumulates and stores some carbon Carbon (from la, carbo "coal") is a with the C and 6. It is lic and —making four s available to form s. It belongs to group 14 of the p ...
that remove CO2 from the atmosphere via
photosynthesis Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert Conversion or convert may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Conversion (Doctor Who audio), "Conversion" (''Doctor Who'' audio), an episode of the audio drama ' ...

photosynthesis
and convert it into
biomass Biomass is plant or animal material used as fuel to produce electricity Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion involves a change in position ...
. Afforestation provides other environmental benefits, including increasing the soil quality and organic carbon levels in the soil, avoiding
erosion In earth science Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of natural science Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific ...

erosion
and
desertification Desertification is a type of land degradation Land degradation is a process in which the value of the biophysical environment is affected by a combination of human-induced processes acting upon the land. It is viewed as any change or distu ...
. The planting of trees in urban areas is also able to reduce air pollution via the trees' absorption and filtration of
pollutants A pollutant is a substance or energy introduced into the environment that has undesired effects, or adversely affects the usefulness of a resource. A pollutant may cause long- or short-term damage by changing the growth rate of plant or animal s ...
, including carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, and ozone, in addition to CO2.


Criticism

The use of afforestation as a strategy to conserve forest
biomes A biome is a collection of plants Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert Conversion or convert may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Conversion (D ...
is seen as a menace to the conservation of natural
grassland Grasslands are areas where the vegetation Vegetation is an assemblage of species and the they provide. It is a general term, without specific reference to particular , life forms, structure, extent, or any other specific or geographic ...

grassland
and
savanna A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland A woodland () is, in the broad sense, land covered with trees, or in a narrow sense, synonymous with wood (or in the U.S., the ''plurale tantum'' woods), a low-density forest forming open habitats ...

savanna
biomes, as the ideal would be the
reforestation Reforestation (occasionally, reafforestation) is the natural or intentional restocking of existing forests and woodlands (forestation) that have been depleted, usually through deforestation, but also after clearcutting. Reforestation can be ...
of areas where forest occurs naturally. Afforestation can negatively affect
biodiversity Biodiversity is the biological variety and Genetic variability, variability of life, life on Earth. Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the Genetics, genetic, species, and ecosystem level. Terrestrial biodiversity is usually greater near ...

biodiversity
through increasing fragmentation and
edge effects In ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical environment. Ecology considers organisms ...
for the habitat remaining outside the planted area. New forest
plantations A plantation is an agricultural estate, generally centered on a plantation houseA plantation house is the main house of a plantation A plantation is a large-scale estate, generally centered on a plantation house, meant for farming that spe ...

plantations
can introduce generalist predators that would otherwise not be found in open habitat into the covered area, which could detrimentally increase predation rates on the native species of the area. Questions have also been raised in the scientific community regarding how global afforestation could affect the surface
albedo Albedo (prounounced ; la, albedo, meaning 'whiteness') is the measure of the diffuse reflection Diffuse reflection is the reflectionReflection or reflexion may refer to: Philosophy * Self-reflection Science * Reflection (physics), a comm ...

albedo
of Earth. The
canopy Canopy may refer to: Plants * Canopy (biology), aboveground portion of plant community or crop (including forests) * Canopy (grape), aboveground portion of grapevine Religion and ceremonies * Baldachin or canopy of state, typically placed over a ...
cover of mature trees could make the surface albedo darker, which causes more heat to be absorbed, potentially raising the temperature of the planet.


See also

*
Agroforestry Agroforestry is a land use Land use involves the management and modification of natural environment or wilderness Wilderness or wildlands (usually in the plural), are natural environments on Earth that have not been significantly modified ...

Agroforestry
*
Agricultural robot An agricultural robot is a robot deployed for agriculture, agricultural purposes. The main area of application of robots in agriculture today is at the harvesting (agriculture), harvesting stage. Emerging applications of robots or Drone (robotics ...
s *
Buffer strip A buffer strip is an area of land maintained in permanent vegetation Vegetation is an assemblage of plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transforma ...
* CarbonFix Standard *
Deforestation deforestation in 1750-2004 (net loss) showing anthropogenic modification of remaining forest. File:MODIS (2020-08-01).jpg, 300px, Dry seasons, exacerbated by climate change, and the use of slash-and-burn methods for clearing tropical forest ...

Deforestation
*
Deforestation and climate change Deforestation deforestation in 1750-2004 (net loss) showing anthropogenic modification of remaining forest. File:MODIS (2020-08-01).jpg, 300px, Dry seasons, exacerbated by climate change, and the use of slash-and-burn methods for clea ...
*
Desertification Desertification is a type of land degradation Land degradation is a process in which the value of the biophysical environment is affected by a combination of human-induced processes acting upon the land. It is viewed as any change or distu ...
*
Forest dynamics Forest dynamics describes the underlying physical and biological forces that shape and change a forest A forest is an area of land dominated by tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or tr ...
*
Forestry Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, planting, using, conserving and repairing forest A forest is an area of land dominated by tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, ste ...
*
Great Plains Shelterbelt The Great Plains Shelterbelt was a project to create windbreaks in the Great Plains states of the United States, that began in 1934. President of the United States, President Franklin D. Roosevelt initiated the project in response to the severe du ...
*
Groasis Waterboxx The Groasis Waterboxx is a device designed to help in growing tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the defi ...
*
International Year of Forests The year 2011 was declared the International Year of Forests by the United Nations to raise awareness and strengthen the sustainable forest management, sustainable management, conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests for ...
* Japanese afforestation * One Earth Climate Model *
Reforestation Reforestation (occasionally, reafforestation) is the natural or intentional restocking of existing forests and woodlands (forestation) that have been depleted, usually through deforestation, but also after clearcutting. Reforestation can be ...
*
Sand fence File:St. Clair, Dunedin, New Zealand, June 2009.jpg, A local landmark in Dunedin, New Zealand — the St. Clair Beach posts are the remains of a series of sandbreaks, originally linked by boards to catch the blown sand. A sand fence or sandbreak, si ...
*
Seawater greenhouse A seawater greenhouse is a greenhouse structure that enables the growth of crops and the production of fresh water in arid regions which constitute about one third of the earth's land area. This in response to the global water scarcity and peak ...
*
Silviculture Silviculture is the practice of controlling the growth, composition/structure, and quality of forest A forest is an area of land dominated by tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk ...
*
Tubestock Tubestock is the plural term for young plants which have been grown to the point where they are ready for either planting out in the field or potting on to larger pot sizes. Smaller, shallower pots (approx. 50mm in diameter x 80mm deep) are usually ...
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Windbreak A windbreak (shelterbelt) is a planting Sowing is the process of planting. An area or object that has had seeds planted in it will be described as a sowed area. Plants which are usually sown Among the major field crops, oats, wheat ...
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The Man Who Planted Trees ''The Man Who Planted Trees'' (French title: ''L'homme qui plantait des arbres'') is a short story published in 1953 by French author Jean Giono Jean Giono (30 March 1895 – 8 October 1970) was a French author who wrote works of fiction mostly s ...
'' * Proforestation


Sources


References


Notes


Bibliography

* Buendia C, Batalla RJ, Sabater S, Palau A, Marce R. (2016). Runoff Trends Driven by Climate and Afforestation in a Pyrenean Basin. Land Degradation & Development. * Buendia C, Bussi G, Tuset J, Vericat D, Sabater S, Palau A, Batalla RJ. (2016). Effects of afforestation on runoff and sediment load in an upland Mediterranean catchment. Science of the Total Environment. * Cattaneo, Andrea (2002) ''Balancing Agricultural Development and Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon'', Int Food Policy Res Inst IFPRI, 146 pages * Heil, Gerrit W.,
Bart Muys Bart Muys (born 1963) is a Belgian professor of forest ecology and forest management at the KU Leuven. His research focuses on the ecosystem functioning of tree diversity, the ecology of forest restoration and the evaluation of sustainability in f ...

Bart Muys
and Karin Hansen (2007) ''Environmental Effects of Afforestation in North-Western Europe'', Springer, 320 pages * Halldorsson G., Oddsdottir, ES and Sigurdsson BD (2008) ''AFFORNORD Effects of Afforestation on Ecosystems, Landscape and Rural Development'', TemaNord 2008:562, 120 pages * Halldorsson G., Oddsdottir, ES and Eggertsson O (2007) ''Effects of Afforestation on Ecosystems, Landscape and Rural Development. Proceedings of the AFFORNORD conference, Reykholt, Iceland, June 18–22, 2005'', TemaNord 2007:508, 343pages * McBeath, Gerald A., and Tse-Kang Leng (2006) ''Governance of Biodiversity Conservation in China and Taiwan'', Edward Elgar Publishing, 242 pages * Stanturf, John A. and Palle Madsen (2004) ''Restoration of Boreal and Temperate Forests'', CRC Press, 569 pages * Wilson, E. O. (2002) ''The Future of Life'', Vintage


External links


Raunet Michel and Naudin Krishna, 2006. Combating desertification through direct seeding mulch-based cropping systems (DMC). Les dossiers thématiques du CSFD. Issue 4. 40 pp.
{{Authority control Deforestation Desert greening Forest ecology Habitat management equipment and methods Reforestation