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The accusative case ( abbreviated ) of a
noun A noun (from Latin ''nōmen'', literally ''name'') is a word that functions as the name of a specific object or set of objects, such as living creatures, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.Example nouns for: * Organism, Li ...
is the
grammatical case Grammatical case is a linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguist ...
used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. The same case is used in many languages for the objects of (some or all)
preposition Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a part of speech, class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (''in'', ''under'', ''towards'', ''before'') or mark va ...
s. It is usually combined with the nominative case (for example in
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the ...
). The English term, "accusative", derives from the Latin , which, in turn, is a translation of the Greek . The word may also mean "causative", and this may have been the Greeks' intention in this name,Douglas Harper, Online Etymology Dictionary
/ref> but the sense of the Roman translation has endured and is used in some other modern languages as the grammatical term for this case, for example in Russian (). The accusative case is typical of early
Indo-European languages The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern Indian subcontinent and the Iranian Plateau. A few of these languages, su ...
and still exists in some of them (including Armenian,
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the ...
,
Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia ...
, Greek, German, Polish, , and Serbian), in the
Finno-Ugric languages Finno-Ugric ( or ; ''Fenno-Ugric'') or Finno-Ugrian (''Fenno-Ugrian''), is a traditional grouping of all languages in the Uralic languages, Uralic language family except the Samoyedic languages. Its formerly commonly accepted status as a subfamily ...
(such as Finnish and Hungarian), in all
Turkic languages The Turkic languages are a language family of at least 35 documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Southern Europe, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Western Asia, North Asia (particularly in Siberia), and East ...
, and in
Semitic languages The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region in Afro-Eurasia which generally includes Western Asia ...

Semitic languages
(such as
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoffrey Khan, Michael P. Streck, Janet C. E.Wats ...

Arabic
). Some Balto-Finnic languages, such as Finnish, have two cases to mark objects, the accusative and the partitive case. In morphosyntactic alignment terms, both perform the accusative function, but the accusative object is Telicity, telic, while the partitive is not. Modern English language, English almost entirely lacks declension in its nouns; pronouns, however, have an oblique case as in ''them'', ''her'', ''him'' and ''whom'', which merges the accusative and dative case, dative functions, and originates in old Germanic dative forms (see Declension in English).


Example

In the sentence ''I see the car'', the noun phrase ''the car'' is the direct object of the verb "see". In English, which has mostly lost the case system, the definite article and noun – "the car" – remain in the same form regardless of the grammatical role played by the words. One can correctly use "the car" as the subject of a sentence also: "The car is parked here." In a declined language, the Morphology (linguistics), morphology of the article or noun changes in some way according to the grammatical role played by the noun in a given sentence. For example, in German, one possible translation of "the car" is . This is the form in the nominative case, used for the subject of a sentence. If this article/noun pair is used as the object of a verb, it (usually) changes to the accusative case, which entails an article shift in German – (I see the car). In German, masculine nouns change their definite article from to in the accusative case.


Latin

The accusative case in Latin has minor differences from the accusative case in Proto-Indo-European (PIE). Nouns in the accusative case () can be used: * as a object (grammar), direct object; * to indicate duration of time, e.g., , "for many years"; ''ducentos annos'', "for 200 years"; this is known as the accusative of duration of time, * to indicate direction towards which e.g., , "homewards"; , "to Rome" with no preposition needed; this is known as the accusative of place to which, and is equivalent to the lative case found in some other languages. * as the subject of an indirect statement, (e.g. , "He said that I had been cruel"; in later Latin works, such as the Vulgate, such a construction is replaced by ''quod'' and a regularly structured sentence, having the subject in the nominative, e.g., ). * with case-specific prepositions such as (through), (to/toward), and (across); * in exclamations, such as , "wretched me" (spoken by Circe to Odysseus, Ulysses in Ovid's ); *to indicate purpose, e.g., ''ad proficiscendum'', "for the purpose of departing"; ''ad effēminandōs animōs'', "for the purpose of weakening [or, effeminating] the spirit". For the accusative endings, see Latin declensions.


German

The accusative case is used for the direct object in a sentence. The masculine forms for German articles, e.g., 'the', 'a/an', 'my', etc., change in the accusative case: they always end in -en. The feminine, neutral and plural forms do not change. For example, (dog) is a masculine () word, so the article changes when used in the accusative case: *. (lit., I have a dog.) In the sentence "a dog" is in the accusative case as it is the second idea (the Object (grammar), object) of the sentence. Some German pronouns also change in the accusative case. The accusative case is also used after particular German prepositions. These include , , , , , , after which the accusative case is always used, and , , , , , , , , which can govern either the accusative or the dative. The latter prepositions take the accusative when motion or action is specified (being done into/onto the space), but take the dative when location is specified (being done in/on that space). These prepositions are also used in conjunction with certain verbs, in which case it is the verb in question which governs whether the accusative or dative should be used. Adjective endings also change in the accusative case. Another factor that determines the endings of adjectives is whether the adjective is being used after a definite article (the), after an indefinite article (a/an) or without any article before the adjective (''many'' green apples). In German, the accusative case is also used for some adverbial expressions, mostly temporal ones, as in (This evening I'm staying at home), where is marked as accusative, although not a direct object.


Russian

In Russian, accusative is used not only to display the direct object of an action, but also to indicate the destination or goal of motion. It is also used with some prepositions. The prepositions and can both take accusative in situations where they are indicating the goal of a motion. In the Grammatical gender, masculine, Russian also distinguishes between animacy, animate and inanimate nouns with regard to the accusative; only the animates carry a marker (linguistics), marker in this case. The PIE accusative case has nearly eroded in Russian, merging with the genitive or the nominative in most declensions. Only singular first-declension nouns (ending in '', '', or '') have a distinct accusative ('', '', or '').


Esperanto

Esperanto grammar involves only two cases, a nominative and an accusative. The accusative is formed by the addition of to the nominative form, and is the case used for direct objects. Other objective functions, including dative functions are achieved with prepositions, all of which normally take the nominative case. Direction of motion can be expressed either by the accusative case, by the preposition (to) with the nominative, or by affixing to the adverbial form .


Ido

In Ido language, Ido the suffix is optional, as subject-verb-object order is the norm. Note that this is sometimes done in Esperanto, especially by beginners, but it is considered grammatically incorrect.


Finnish

Traditional Finnish grammars say the accusative is the case of a total object, while the case of a partial object is the partitive case, partitive. The accusative is identical either to the nominative case, nominative or the genitive case, genitive, except for personal pronouns and the personal interrogative pronoun /, which have a special accusative form ending in . The major new Finnish grammar, , breaks with the traditional classification to limit the accusative case to the special case of the personal pronouns and /. The new grammar considers other total objects as being in the nominative or genitive case.


Semitic languages

Accusative case marking existed in Proto-Semitic, Akkadian language, Akkadian, and Ugaritic. It is preserved today only in Modern Standard Arabic and Ge'ez. Accusative in Akkadian :Nominative: (a/the man) :Accusative: (I trust a/the man) Accusative in Arabic :Nominative: (a man) :Accusative: (I ask a man) (I ask the man) The accusative case is called in Arabic () and it has many other uses in addition to marking the object of a verb.


Japanese

In Japanese, cases are marked by placing particles after nouns. The accusative case is marked with を (Romanization of Japanese, wo, pronounced ).


See also

*Nota accusativi


References


Further reading

* * {{Authority control Grammatical cases