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In
music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common elements such as (which governs and ), (and its associated concepts , , and ...

music
, an accent is an emphasis, stress, or stronger attack placed on a particular
note Note, notes, or NOTE may refer to: Music and entertainment * Musical note In music, a note is a symbol denoting a musical sound. In English usage a note is also the sound itself. Notes can represent the Pitch (music), pitch and Duration (music), ...
or set of notes, or chord, either as a result of its context or specifically indicated by an accent mark. Accents contribute to the articulation and
prosody Prosody may refer to: * Sanskrit prosody, Prosody (Sanskrit), the study of poetic meters and verse in Sanskrit and one of the six Vedangas, or limbs of Vedic studies * Prosody (Greek), the theory and practice of Greek versification * Prosody (Lati ...
of a performance of a musical phrase. Accents may be written into a score or part by a
composer A composer (Latin wikt:compono, ''compōnō''; literally "one who puts together") is a person who writes musical composition, music, especially classical music in any form, including vocal music (for a Singing, singer or choir), instrumental mus ...

composer
or added by the performer as part of his or her interpretation of a musical piece. Compared to surrounding notes: * A ''dynamic accent'' or ''stress accent'' is an emphasis using louder sound or a stronger sound, typically most pronounced on the attack of the sound. * A ''tonic accent'' is an emphasis on notes by virtue of being higher in
pitch Pitch may refer to: Acoustic frequency * Pitch (music), the perceived frequency of sound including "definite pitch" and "indefinite pitch" ** Absolute pitch or "perfect pitch" ** Pitch class, a set of all pitches that are a whole number of octaves ...
as opposed to higher in volume. * An ''agogic accent'' is an emphasis by virtue of being longer in
duration Duration may refer to: * The amount of Time#Terminology, time elapsed between two events * Duration (music) – an amount of time or a particular time interval, often cited as one of the fundamental aspects of music * Duration (philosophy) – a th ...
. Accents which do not correspond to the stressed beats of the prevailing
meter The metre ( Commonwealth spelling) or meter (American spelling Despite the various English dialects spoken from country to country and within different regions of the same country, there are only slight regional variations in English ...
are said to be
syncopated Syncopation is a musical term meaning a variety of rhythms played together to make a piece of music, making part or all of a tune or piece of music off-beat. More simply, syncopation is "a disturbance or interruption of the regular flow of rhy ...
. For example, in
common time The time signature (also known as meter signature, metre signature, or measure signature) is a notational convention used in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the U ...
, also called 4/4, the most common metre in
popular music Popular music is music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common elements such as (which governs and ), (and its ...
, the stressed beats are one and three. If accented chords or notes are played on beats two or four, this creates syncopation, as the music is emphasizing the "weak" beats of the bar. Syncopation is used in
Classical music Classical music generally refers to the formal musical tradition of the Western world The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various s, s and , depending on the context, most often consisting of the majority of , , and ...

Classical music
,
popular music Popular music is music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common elements such as (which governs and ), (and its ...
and
traditional music Folk music is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and t ...

traditional music
. However, it is more prominent in
blues Blues is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from ''musical form'' and musical style, although in ...

blues
,
jazz Jazz is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human s ...
,
funk Funk is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from ''musical form'' and musical style, although in pra ...
,
disco Disco is a genre Genre () is any form or type of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally s ...

disco
and
Latin music Latin music (Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Po ...
.


Agogic

There are four kinds of agogic accents : * Longer notated duration of a note, for example, a whole note/semibreve (four beats in common time) among quarter notes/crotchets (each of which gets one beat). * Extended duration of a note within its full-time value (without altering the tempo). For example, players of organ and harpsichord (which do not allow the use of dynamic accents) can emphasize one of a sequence of staccato quarter notes by making it less staccato (that is, making one note longer to emphasize it). * Extended duration of a note with the effect of temporarily slowing down the tempo (rubato or rallentando). * Delayed onset of a note, for example by doing a pause before starting a note.


Marks

In
music notation Music is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelli ...

music notation
, an accent mark indicates a louder
dynamic Dynamics (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million ...
and a stronger attack to apply to a single note or an articulation mark. : From left to right, the meanings of these articulation marks are explained below: * The most common symbol is the horizontal wedge, the first symbol in the diagram above. This is the symbol that most musicians mean when they say ''accent mark''. It indicates that the marked note should have an emphasized beginning and then taper off rather quickly. Though it is usually simply referred to as an accent. In jazz articulation, it is stated as "dah". * The vertical wedge, shown second, signifies that a note should be played ''
marcato Marcato (short form: Marc.; Italian for ''marked'') is a musical instruction indicating a Musical note, note, chord (music), chord, or passage is to be played louder or more forcefully than the surrounding music. The instruction may involve the wo ...

marcato
'' (Italian for "marked"). It is generally accepted to be as loud as an accent mark and as short as a
staccato Staccato (; Italian for "detached") is a form of musical articulation. In modern notation, it signifies a note of shortened duration, separated from the note that may follow by silence. It has been described by theorists and has appeared in music ...

staccato
. Martellato, Italian for "hammered", is another name for the marcato symbol used primarily by orchestral string musicians as it refers to the specific bowing technique used to create marcato. In jazz articulation, marcato is typically stated as "daht" yet the performing musician may interpret the duration of the note differently depending on what style of jazz they are playing. * The dot, shown third, signifies that a note should be played ''
staccato Staccato (; Italian for "detached") is a form of musical articulation. In modern notation, it signifies a note of shortened duration, separated from the note that may follow by silence. It has been described by theorists and has appeared in music ...

staccato
''. It indicates that the last part of a note should be silenced to create separation between it and the following note. For example, a written quarter note should be played as an eighth note followed by an eighth rest. The duration of a staccato note may be about half as long as the
note value In music notation, a note value indicates the relative duration of a note, using the texture or shape of the ''notehead Natural harmonics on the cello notated first as sounded (more common), then as fingered (easier to sightread). In musi ...
would indicate, although the
tempo In musical terminology This is a list of musical terms that are likely to be encountered in printed scores, music reviews, and program notes. Most of the terms are Italian (see also Italian musical terms used in English Many musical terms ...

tempo
and performers' taste varies this quite a bit. In jazz articulation, it is stated as "dit". * The ''
staccatissimo Staccato (; Italian for "detached") is a form of Articulation (music), musical articulation. In modern notation, it signifies a note of shortened duration, separated from the note that may follow by silence. It has been described by theorists and ...

staccatissimo
'' mark, shown fourth, is usually interpreted as shorter than the staccato, but composers up to the time of
Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 17565 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical periodClassical period may refer to: *Classical Greece, speci ...

Mozart
used these symbols interchangeably. A staccatissimo crotchet (quarter note) would be correctly played in traditional art music as a lightly articulated semi-quaver (sixteenth note) followed by rests which fill the remainder of the beat. * Finally, the ''
tenuto In musical notation Music notation or musical notation is any system used to visually represent aurally perceived music played with instrument (music), instruments or singing, sung by the human voice through the use of written, printed, or ...

tenuto
'' mark, shown fifth above, generally means that a note or chord is to be played at full length. In jazz articulation, it is stated as "doo". Even when these symbols are absent, experienced musicians will introduce the appropriate gesture according to the
style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable. It is a sub-cla ...
of the music. Mark McGrain writes about articulation on page 156 in his book ''Music Notation: Theory and Technique for Music Notation''. The marcato accent in the third mark shown is also known as the forzato accent. The notation commonly known as just an accent is also known as the sforzando accent. "Neither of these accents alter the durational value of the note or voicing they attend." Another way to indicate accented notes (notes to emphasize or play louder compared to surrounding notes) is with ''sforzando'', ''sforzato'', ''forzando'' or ''forzato'' (abbreviated , , or ) ("forcing" or "forced"). By default, in the music notation program
Sibelius Jean Sibelius ( ; ; born Johan Julius Christian Sibelius, 8 December 186520 September 1957), was a Finnish composer and violinist of the late Romantic and early-modern periods. He is widely recognized as his country's greatest composer and, t ...
, accents boost the dynamic by 50%.Spreadbury, Daniel; Eastwood, Michael; Finn, Ben; and Finn, Jonathan (March 2008). "Sibelius 5 Reference", p.284. Edition 5.2.


See also

*
List of ornaments Ornaments are a decorative embellishment to music, either to a melody A melody (from Greek language, Greek μελῳδία, ''melōidía'', "singing, chanting"), also tune, voice or line, is a Linearity#Music, linear succession of musical t ...
* Sforzando


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Accent (Music) Articulations Rhythm and meter ca:Accent (música) fr:Accent (musique)