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An academic or scholarly journal is a
periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial Serial may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media The presentation of works in sequential segments * Serial (literature), serialised f ...
in which
scholarship A scholarship is an award of financial aid Student financial aid in the United States is funding that is available exclusively to students attending a Higher education in the United States, post-secondary educational institution in the Unite ...
relating to a particular
academic discipline An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. The usual test for a statement of fact is ...
is published. Academic journals serve as permanent and transparent forums for the presentation, scrutiny, and discussion of research. They are usually
peer-review Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work (:wiktionary:peer#Etymology 2, peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within th ...
ed or refereed. Content typically takes the form of articles presenting
original research Research is " creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expa ...
,
review article A review article is an article Article often refers to: * Article (grammar) An article is any member of a class of dedicated words that are used with noun phrases to mark the identifiability of the referents of the noun phrases. The categor ...
s, and
book reviews __NOTOC__ A book review is a form of literary criticism in which a book is merely described (summary review) or analyzed based on content, style, and merit. A book review may be a primary source, opinion piece, summary review or scholarly review ...
. The purpose of an academic journal, according to
Henry Oldenburg Henry Oldenburg by Jan van Cleve (III), 1668 Henry Oldenburg (also Henry Oldenbourg) Fellow of the Royal Society, FRS (c. 1619 as Heinrich Oldenburg – 5 September 1677) was a German theologian known as a diplomat, a natural philosopher and one ...

Henry Oldenburg
(the first editor of ''
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society ''Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society'' is a scientific journal In academic publishing Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and o ...
''), is to give researchers a venue to "impart their knowledge to one another, and contribute what they can to the Grand design of improving natural knowledge, and perfecting all Philosophical Arts, and Sciences." The term ''academic journal'' applies to scholarly publications in all fields; this article discusses the aspects common to all academic field journals.
Scientific journal In , a scientific journal is a intended to further the progress of , usually by reporting new . Content Articles in scientific journals are mostly written by active scientists such as students, researchers and professors instead of profession ...
s and journals of the
quantitative
quantitative
social sciences Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biol ...

social sciences
vary in form and function from journals of the
humanities Humanities are List of academic disciplines, academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture. In the Renaissance, the term contrasted with Divinity (academic discipline), divinity and referred to what is now called classic ...

humanities
and qualitative social sciences; their specific aspects are separately discussed. The first academic journal was ''
Journal des sçavans A journal, from the Old French Old French (, , ; French language, Modern French: ) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century. Rather than a unified Dialect#Dialect or language, language, Old French was r ...
'' (January 1665), followed soon after by ''
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society ''Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society'' is a scientific journal In academic publishing Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and o ...
'' (March 1665), and ''
Mémoires de l'Académie des Sciences cover of ''Mémoires'' ''Mémoires'' (''Memories'') is an artist's book Artists' books (or book arts or book objects) are works of art that utilize the form of the book. They are often published in small editions, though they are sometimes prod ...
'' (1666). The first fully
peer-review Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work (:wiktionary:peer#Etymology 2, peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within th ...
ed journal was ''
Medical Essays and Observations Medicine is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is no generally agreed definition of what ...
'' (1733).


History

The idea of a published journal with the purpose of "
etting Etting (, Lorraine Franconian Lorraine Franconian (Lorraine Franconian: ''Plàtt'' or ''lottrìnger Plàtt''; french: francique lorrain or ''platt lorrain''; german: Lothringisch) is an ambiguous designation for dialects of West Central Germ ...
people know what is happening in the
Republic of LettersThe Republic of Letters (''Respublica literaria'') is the long-distance intellectual community in the late 17th and 18th centuries in Europe and the Americas. It fostered communication among the intellectuals of the Age of Enlightenment The A ...
" was first conceived by
François Eudes de Mézeray Mézeray by Louis-Joseph Daumas, Cour Napoléon of the Palais du Louvre">Cour_Napoléon.html" ;"title="Louis-Joseph Daumas, Cour Napoléon">Louis-Joseph Daumas, Cour Napoléon of the Palais du Louvre François Eudes de Mézeray (1610 – 10 Jul ...

François Eudes de Mézeray
in 1663. A publication titled ''Journal littéraire général'' was supposed to be published to fulfill that goal, but never was. Humanist scholar
Denis de SalloDenis de Sallo, Sieur de la Coudraye (1626May 14, 1669) was a French writer and lawyer A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney at lawAttorney at law or attorney-at-law, usually abbreviated in everyday spe ...
(under the
pseudonym A pseudonym () (originally: ψευδώνυμος in Greek) or alias () is a fictitious name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which differs from their original or true name (orthonym). This also differs from a new name tha ...
"Sieur de Hédouville") and printer Jean Cusson took Mazerai's idea, and obtained a
royal privilege A patent is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect. There are many types of intellectual property, and some countries recognize more than ...
from
King Louis XIV , house = BourbonBourbon may refer to: Food and drink * Bourbon whiskey, an American whiskey made using a corn-based mash * Bourbon barrel aged beer, a type of beer aged in bourbon barrels * Bourbon biscuit, a chocolate sandwich bis ...

King Louis XIV
on 8 August 1664 to establish the ''
Journal des sçavans A journal, from the Old French Old French (, , ; French language, Modern French: ) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century. Rather than a unified Dialect#Dialect or language, language, Old French was r ...
''. The journal's first issue was published on 5 January 1665. It was aimed at people of letters, and had four main objectives:Histoire du Journal des Savants
, p. 1-2
#review newly published major European books, #publish the
obituaries An obituary (obit Obit may refer to: *Obituary An obituary ( obit for short) is a news article that reports the recent death of a person, typically along with an account of the person's life and information about the upcoming funeral. ...
of famous people, #report on discoveries in
arts The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression of creativity Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something somehow new and somehow valuable is formed. The created item may be intangible (such as an idea, a scienti ...

arts
and
science Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is a discovery as well as an invention. ...

science
, and #report on the
proceedings In academia and librarianship, conference proceeding is a collection of academic paper Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. Most academic work is published in academic journal ar ...

proceedings
and
censure A censure is an expression of strong disapproval or harsh criticism. In parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is the accepted rules Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political Politics (from , ) ...
s of both
secular Secularity, also the secular or secularness (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through t ...

secular
and
ecclesiastical court An ecclesiastical court, also called court Christian or court spiritual, is any of certain court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized commu ...
s, as well as those of Universities both in France and outside. Soon after, the
Royal Society The Royal Society, formally The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, is a learned society and the United Kingdom's national academy of sciences. Founded on 28 November 1660, it was granted a royal charter by Charles II of ...
established
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society ''Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society'' is a scientific journal In academic publishing Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and o ...
in March 1665, and the
Académie des Sciences The French Academy of Sciences (French: ''Académie des sciences'') is a learned society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization that exists to promote an discipli ...
established the ''
Mémoires de l'Académie des Sciences cover of ''Mémoires'' ''Mémoires'' (''Memories'') is an artist's book Artists' books (or book arts or book objects) are works of art that utilize the form of the book. They are often published in small editions, though they are sometimes prod ...
'' in 1666, which more strongly focused on scientific communications. By the end of the 18th century, nearly 500 such periodicals had been published, the vast majority coming from
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the and by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the , according to population within city l ...

Germany
(304 periodicals),
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental country spanning Western Europe and Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Ame ...

France
(53), and
England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is separated from by the to the east and the to the south. The country cover ...

England
(34). Several of those publications, however, and in particular the German journals, tended to be short-lived (under 5 years). A.J. Meadows has estimated the proliferation of journal to reach 10,000 journals in 1950, and 71,000 in 1987. However, Michael Mabe warns that the estimates will vary depending on the definition of what exactly counts as a scholarly publication, but that the growth rate has been "remarkably consistent over time", with an average rate of 3.46% per year from 1800 to 2003. In 1733, ''
Medical Essays and Observations Medicine is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is no generally agreed definition of what ...
'' was established by the Medical Society of Edinburgh as the first fully
peer-review Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work (:wiktionary:peer#Etymology 2, peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within th ...
ed journal. Peer review was introduced as an attempt to increase the quality and pertinence of submissions. Other important events in the history of academic journals include the establishment of ''
Nature Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxy, galaxies, and all other forms of matter an ...
'' (1869) and ''
Science Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is a discovery as well as an invention. ...
'' (1880), the establishment of ''
Postmodern Culture ''Postmodern Culture'' is an electronic academic journal established in 1990. It is the result of an early experiment in electronic content delivery via the Internet. The journal publishes commentary and criticism on a wide range of concerns includi ...
'' in 1990 as the first online-only journal, the foundation of
arXiv arXiv (pronounced "archive"—the X represents the Chi (letter), Greek letter chi is an open-access repository of electronic preprints and postprints (known as e-prints) approved for posting after moderation, but not Scholarly peer review, ...
in 1991 for the dissemination of
preprint In academic publishing, a preprint is a version of a scholarly or scientific paper that precedes formal peer review and publication in a peer review, peer-reviewed scholarly or scientific journal. The preprint may be available, often as a non-typ ...
s to be discussed prior to publication in a journal, and the establishment of ''
PLOS One ''PLOS One'' (stylized ''PLOS ONE'', and formerly ''PLoS ONE'') is a peer-reviewed Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-re ...
'' in 2006 as the first
megajournalA mega journal (also mega-journal and megajournal) is a peer-reviewed Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qual ...
.


Scholarly articles

There are two kinds of article or paper submissions in
academia An academy (Attic Greek Attic Greek is the Greek language, Greek dialect of the regions of ancient Greece, ancient region of Attica, including the ''polis'' of classical Athens, Athens. Often called classical Greek, it was the prestige (sociol ...

academia
: solicited, where an individual has been invited to submit work either through direct contact or through a general submissions call, and unsolicited, where an individual submits a work for potential publication without directly being asked to do so. Upon receipt of a submitted article, editors at the journal determine whether to reject the submission outright or begin the process of
peer review Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field Field may r ...
. In the latter case, the submission becomes subject to review by outside scholars of the editor's choosing who typically remain anonymous. The number of these peer reviewers (or "referees") varies according to each journal's editorial practice – typically, no fewer than two, though sometimes three or more, experts in the subject matter of the article produce reports upon the content, style, and other factors, which inform the editors' publication decisions. Though these reports are generally confidential, some journals and publishers also practice
public peer review Open peer review is the various possible modifications of the traditional scholarly peer review process. The three most common modifications to which the term is applied are: # Open identities: Authors and reviewers are aware of each other's identi ...
. The editors either choose to reject the article, ask for a revision and resubmission, or accept the article for publication. Even accepted articles are often subjected to further (sometimes considerable) editing by journal editorial staff before they appear in print. The peer review can take from several weeks to several months.


Reviewing


Review articles

Review articles, also called "reviews of progress," are checks on the research published in journals. Some journals are devoted entirely to review articles, some contain a few in each issue, and others do not publish review articles. Such reviews often cover the research from the preceding year, some for longer or shorter terms; some are devoted to specific topics, some to general surveys. Some reviews are enumerative, listing all significant articles in a given subject; others are selective, including only what they think worthwhile. Yet others are evaluative, judging the state of progress in the subject field. Some journals are published in series, each covering a complete subject field year, or covering specific fields through several years. Unlike original research articles, review articles tend to be solicited submissions, sometimes planned years in advance. They are typically relied upon by students beginning a study in a given field, or for current awareness of those already in the field.


Book reviews

Reviews of scholarly books are checks upon the research books published by scholars; unlike articles, book reviews tend to be solicited. Journals typically have a separate book review editor determining which new books to review and by whom. If an outside scholar accepts the book review editor's request for a book review, he or she generally receives a free copy of the book from the journal in exchange for a timely review. Publishers send books to book review editors in the hope that their books will be reviewed. The length and depth of research book reviews varies much from journal to journal, as does the extent of textbook and trade book review.


Prestige and ranking

An
academic An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, secondary or tertiary education, tertiary higher education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership. Academia is the ...

academic
journal's prestige is established over time, and can reflect many factors, some but not all of which are expressible quantitatively. In each
academic discipline An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. The usual test for a statement of fact is ...
, there are dominant journals that receive the largest number of submissions, and therefore can be selective in choosing their content. Yet, not only the largest journals are of excellent quality. In the
natural sciences Natural science is a branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or ph ...
and in the
social sciences Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biol ...

social sciences
, the
impact factor #REDIRECT Impact factor #REDIRECT Impact factor#REDIRECT Impact factor The impact factor (IF) or journal impact factor (JIF) of an academic journal is a scientometric index calculated by Clarivate that reflects the yearly average number of citat ...
is an established proxy, measuring the number of later articles citing articles already published in the journal. There are other quantitative measures of prestige, such as the overall number of citations, how quickly articles are cited, and the average "
half-life Half-life (symbol ''t''1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half of its initial value. The term is commonly used in nuclear physics Nuclear physics is the field of physics Physics is the natural science that studies ...
" of articles.
Clarivate Analytics Clarivate is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Na ...

Clarivate Analytics
' ''
Journal Citation Reports ''Journal Citation Reports'' (''JCR'') is an annual publicationby Clarivate Analytics (previously the intellectual property of Thomson Reuters). It has been integrated with the Web of Science and is accessed from the Web of Science-Core Collectio ...
'', which among other features, computes an
impact factor #REDIRECT Impact factor #REDIRECT Impact factor#REDIRECT Impact factor The impact factor (IF) or journal impact factor (JIF) of an academic journal is a scientometric index calculated by Clarivate that reflects the yearly average number of citat ...
for academic journals, draws data for computation from the
Science Citation Index Expanded The Science Citation Index (SCI) is a citation index A citation index is a kind of bibliographic index A bibliographic index is a bibliography intended to help find a publication. Citations are usually listed by author and subject in separate ...
(for natural science journals), and from the
Social Sciences Citation Index The Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) is a commercial citation index A citation index is a kind of bibliographic index A bibliographic index is a bibliography intended to help find a publication. Citations are usually listed by author and ...
(for social science journals). Several other metrics are also used, including the
SCImago Journal Rank The SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) indicator is a measure of the scientific influence of scholarly journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a peri ...
,
CiteScoreCiteScore (CS) of an academic journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial publications that appear in a new edi ...
,
Eigenfactor The Eigenfactor score, developed by Jevin West and Carl Bergstrom Carl Theodore Bergstrom is a Mathematical and theoretical biology, theoretical and evolutionary biology, evolutionary biologist and a professor at the University of Washington in S ...
, and
Altmetrics In scholarly and scientific publishing, altmetrics are non-traditional bibliometrics Bibliometrics is the use of statistical methods to analyse books, articles and other publications. Bibliometric methods are frequently used in the field of libr ...

Altmetrics
. In the
Anglo-American Anglo-Americans are people who are English-speaking inhabitants of Anglo-America Anglo-America (also referred to as Anglo-Saxon America) most often refers to a region in the Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is ...
humanities Humanities are List of academic disciplines, academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture. In the Renaissance, the term contrasted with Divinity (academic discipline), divinity and referred to what is now called classic ...

humanities
, there is no tradition (as there is in the sciences) of giving impact-factors that could be used in establishing a journal's prestige. Recent moves have been made by the European Science Foundation (ESF) to change the situation, resulting in the publication of preliminary lists for the
ranking A ranking is a relationship between a set of items such that, for any two items, the first is either "ranked higher than", "ranked lower than" or "ranked equal to" the second. In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study o ...

ranking
of academic journals in the humanities. These rankings have been severely criticized, notably by history and sociology of science British journals that have published a common editorial entitled "Journals under Threat." Though it did not prevent ESF and some national organizations from proposing
journal ranking Journal ranking is widely used in academic circles in the evaluation of an academic journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a c ...
s, it largely prevented their use as evaluation tools. In some disciplines such as
knowledge management Knowledge management (KM) is the collection of methods relating to creating, sharing, using and managing the knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts ( descriptive knowledge), s ...

knowledge management
/
intellectual capitalIntellectual capital is the result of mental processes that form a set of intangible objects that can be used in economic activity and bring income to its owner (organization), covering the competencies of its people (human capital), the value relati ...
, the lack of a well-established journal ranking system is perceived by academics as "a major obstacle on the way to tenure, promotion and achievement recognition". Conversely, a significant number of scientists and organizations consider the pursuit of
impact factor #REDIRECT Impact factor #REDIRECT Impact factor#REDIRECT Impact factor The impact factor (IF) or journal impact factor (JIF) of an academic journal is a scientometric index calculated by Clarivate that reflects the yearly average number of citat ...
calculations as inimical to the goals of science, and have signed the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment to limit its use. The categorization of journal prestige in some subjects has been attempted, typically using letters to rank their academic world importance. Three categories of techniques have developed to assess journal quality and create journal rankings: * stated preference; * revealed preference; and * publication power approaches


Costs

Many academic journals are
subsidized A subsidy or government incentive is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy. Although commonly extended from the government, the term ...

subsidized
by universities or professional organizations, and do not exist to make a profit. However, they often accept advertising, page and image charges from authors to pay for production costs. On the other hand, some journals are produced by commercial publishers who do make a profit by charging subscriptions to individuals and libraries. They may also sell all of their journals in discipline-specific collections or a variety of other packages. Journal editors tend to have other professional responsibilities, most often as teaching professors. In the case of the largest journals, there are paid staff assisting in the editing. The production of the journals is almost always done by publisher-paid staff. Humanities and social science academic journals are usually subsidized by universities or professional organization. The cost and value proposition of subscription to academic journals is being continuously re-assessed by institutions worldwide. In the context of the big deal cancellations by several library systems in the world, data analysis tools like
Unpaywall Journals Our Research, formerly known as ImpactStory, is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a ...
are used by libraries to estimate the specific cost and value of the various options: libraries can avoid subscriptions for materials already served by instant
open access Open access (OA) is a set of principles and a range of practices through which research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis o ...

open access
via
open archiveAn open-access repository or open archive is a digital platform that holds research output and provides free, immediate and permanent access to research results for anyone to use, download and distribute. To facilitate open access Open access (O ...
s like PubMed Central.


New developments

The
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

Internet
has revolutionized the production of, and access to, academic journals, with their contents available online via services subscribed to by
academic libraries University Library Leiden, the Netherlands, in 1694. La nouvelle bibliothèque, from ''Les delices de Leide, une des célèbres villes de l'Europe'', Leiden: P. van der Aa, 1712 An academic library is a library that is attached to a higher educ ...
. Individual articles are subject-indexed in databases such as
Google Scholar Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine A search engine is a software system A software system is a system of intercommunicating software component, components based on forming part of a computer system (a combination of Compu ...
. Some of the smallest, most specialized journals are prepared in-house, by an academic department, and published only online – such form of publication has sometimes been in the blog format though some, like the
open access Open access (OA) is a set of principles and a range of practices through which research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis o ...

open access
journal
Internet Archaeology ''Internet Archaeology'' is an academic journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which Scholarly method, scholarship relating to a particular list of academic disciplines, academic discipline is published. Academic j ...
, use the medium to embed searchable datasets, 3D models, and interactive mapping. Currently, there is a movement in higher education encouraging
open access Open access (OA) is a set of principles and a range of practices through which research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis o ...

open access
, either via self archiving, whereby the author deposits a paper in a disciplinary or
institutional repository An institutional repository is an archive for collecting, preserving, and disseminating digital copies of the intellectual output of an institution, particularly a research institution. An institutional repository can be viewed as "a set of servic ...
where it can be searched for and read, or via publishing it in a free
open access journal Open access (OA) is a set of principles and a range of practices through which research outputs are distributed online, free of cost or other access barriers. With open access strictly defined (according to the 2001 definition), or Gratis versu ...
, which does not charge for
subscriptions The subscription business model is a business model in which a customer must pay a recurring price at regular intervals for access to a Product (business), product. The model was pioneered by publishers of books and periodicals in the 17th century ...
, being either subsidized or financed by a publication fee. Given the goal of sharing scientific research to speed advances, open access has affected science journals more than humanities journals. Commercial publishers are experimenting with open access models, but are trying to protect their subscription revenues. The much lower entry cost of on-line publishing has also raised concerns of an increase in publication of "junk" journals with lower publishing standards. These journals, often with names chosen as similar to well-established publications, solicit articles via e-mail and then charge the author to publish an article, often with no sign of actual review.
Jeffrey Beall Jeffrey Beall is an American librarian and library scientist, best known for drawing attention to " predatory open access publishing", a term he coined, and for creating what is now widely known as Beall's list, a list of potentially predatory ...

Jeffrey Beall
, a research librarian at the
University of Colorado The University of Colorado (CU) is a system of public universities A university () is an of (or ) and which awards s in several . Universities typically offer both and programs in different schools or faculties of learning. The word ...
, has compiled a list of what he considers to be "potential, possible, or probable predatory scholarly open-access publishers"; the list numbered over 300 journals as of April 2013, but he estimates that there may be thousands. The
OMICS Publishing Group OMICS Publishing Group is a predatory publisher of open access academic journals. It started publishing its first journal in 2008. By 2015, it claimed over 700 journals, although about half of them were defunct. Its subsidiaries include iMedPu ...
, which publishes a number of the journals on this list, has threatened to sue Beall. Some academic journals use the registered report format, which aims to counteract issues such as
data dredging Data dredging (or data fishing, data snooping, data butchery), also known as significance chasing, significance questing, selective inference, and ''p''-hacking is the misuse of data analysis Data analysis is a process of inspecting, Data clean ...
and hypothesizing after the results are known. For example, ''
Nature Human Behaviour ''Nature Human Behaviour'' is a monthly multidisciplinary online-only peer-review Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-r ...
'' has adopted the registered report format, as it "shift the emphasis from the results of research to the questions that guide the research and the methods used to answer them". The ''
European Journal of Personality The ''European Journal of Personality'' (EJP) is the official bimonthly academic journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a cat ...
'' defines this format: "In a registered report, authors create a study proposal that includes theoretical and empirical background, research questions/hypotheses, and pilot data (if available). Upon submission, this proposal will then be reviewed prior to data collection, and if accepted, the paper resulting from this peer-reviewed procedure will be published, regardless of the study outcomes."


Lists of Academic Journals

Wikipedia has many
Lists of Academic Journals The following is a partial list of lists of academic journals. Lists of journals By topic By country * List of 18th-century British periodicals 180px, Front page of '' The Gentleman's Magazine'', May 1759 This list of 18th-century B ...
by discipline, such as
List of African Studies Journals This is a list of articles about academic journals related to the field of African Studies A * ''Abasebenzi'' * ''ACBF Newsletter'' * ''Acta Germanica'' * ''Africa (journal), Africa'' * ''Africa & Asia: Göteborg Working Papers on Asian and Afric ...
and
List of Forestry JournalsThis list includes representative academic An academy ( Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary or tertiary higher learning, research, or honorary membership. Academia is the worldwide gr ...
. The largest database providing detailed information about journals is Ulrichs Global Serials Directory. Other databases providing detailed information about journals are the Modern Language Association Directory of Periodicals and Genamics JournalSeek. Journal hosting websites like
Project MUSE Project MUSE, a non-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, public or social benefit, in cont ...
,
JSTOR JSTOR (; short for ''Journal Storage'') is a digital library founded in 1995 in New York City. Originally containing digitized Digitization
,
Pubmed PubMed is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE bibliographic database, database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes ...

Pubmed
, Ingenta Web of Science, and Informaworld also provide journal lists. Some sites evaluate journals, providing information such as how long a journal takes to review articles and what types of articles it publishes.


See also


Notes


References


Further reading

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External links

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ERIH 'Initial' lists
European Science Foundation
JournalSeek – A Searchable Database of Online Scholarly JournalsMaster Journal List
(Thomson Reuters) – a list of selected, and notable academic journals in the arts, humanities, sciences, and social sciences.
Links to electronic journalsJURN directory of Arts & Humanities ejournals
an

''Academic Writing''. Dennis G. Jerz. Seton Hill University. 2001.
Peer reviewed articles
San Diego State University.
Directory of Open Access Journals
{{Portal bar, Science Academic journals, Academic publishing Scholarly communication Peer review