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Zygmunt Bauman (; 19 November 1925 – 9 January 2017) was a Polish sociologist and philosopher. He was driven out of the
Polish People's Republic The Polish People's Republic ( pl, Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) was a country in Central Europe that existed from 1947 to 1989 as the predecessor of the modern Republic of Poland. With a population of approximately 37.9 million near ...
during the
1968 Polish political crisis The Polish 1968 political crisis, also known in Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , an ...
and forced to give up his
Polish citizenship Polish nationality law is based primarily on the principle of jus sanguinis. Children born to at least one Poles, Polish parent acquire Polish citizenship irrespective of place of birth. Besides other things, Polish citizenship entitled the person ...
. He emigrated to Israel; three years later he moved to the United Kingdom. He resided in England from 1971, where he studied at the
London School of Economics , mottoeng = To understand the causes of things , established = 1895 , type = Public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization ...
and became Professor of Sociology at the
University of Leeds , mottoeng = And knowledge will be increased , established = 1831 – Leeds School of Medicine The School of Medicine is the medical school of the University of Leeds, in the city of Leeds, West Yorkshire, England. The School of Medicine wa ...
, later Emeritus. Bauman was a social theorist, writing on issues as diverse as
modernity Modernity, a topic in the humanities and social sciences, is both a historical period (the modern era Human history, or world history, is the narrative of humanity Humanity most commonly refers to: * Human Humans (''Homo sapiens' ...

modernity
and the
Holocaust The Holocaust, also known as the Shoah, was the genocide Genocide is the intentional action to destroy a people—usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural syst ...

Holocaust
,
postmodern Postmodernism is an intellectual stance or mode of discourse defined by an attitude of skepticism Skepticism (American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known a ...
consumerism Consumerism is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology ...
and
liquid modernity A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric process, isochoric flow) refers to a fluid flow, flow in which the material density is constant within a fluid parc ...
.


Early life and education

Bauman was born to non-observant
Polish Jewish The history of Jews in Poland dates back at least 1,000 years. For centuries, Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is div ...
family in
Poznań Poznań is a city on the Warta, River Warta in west-central Poland, within the Greater Poland region. The city is an important cultural and business centre, and one of Poland's most populous regions with many regional customs such as Saint Jo ...

Poznań
,
Second Polish Republic The Second Polish Republic, at the time officially known as the Republic of Poland, was a country in Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Centr ...
, in 1925. In 1939, when Poland was invaded by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, his family escaped eastwards into the USSR.


Career

In the 1940s Bauman enlisted in the Soviet-controlled
First Polish Army First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number 1 (number), one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record, specifically the first instance of a particular achievement Arts and media Music * 1$T, American rapper, singer-songwriter, DJ ...
, working as a political instructor. He took part in the
Battle of Kolberg (1945) The Battle of Kolberg or Battle of Kołobrzeg (also, battle for Festung Kolberg) was the taking of the city of ''Kolberg'', now the city of Kołobrzeg, in Pomerania Pomerania ( pl, Pomorze; german: Pommern; Kashubian: ''Pòmòrskô'') i ...
and the
Battle of Berlin The Battle of Berlin, designated as the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, and also known as the Fall of Berlin, was one of the last major Offensive (military), offensives of the European theatre of World War II. ...
. In May 1945, he was awarded the Military Cross of Valour. After World War II he became one of the
Polish Army The Land Forces () are a military branch of the Polish Armed Forces. They currently contain some 62,000 active personnel and form many components of the European Union and NATO deployments around the world. Poland's recorded military history str ...
's youngest majors. According to the Polish
Institute of National Remembrance An institute is an organisational body created for a certain purpose. They are often research organisations (research institute, research institutes) created to do research on specific topics, or can also be a professional body. In some countri ...
, from 1945 to 1953 Bauman was a political officer in the
Internal Security CorpsThe Internal Security Corps ( pl, Korpus Bezpieczeństwa Wewnętrznego, KBW) was a special-purpose military formation in Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country ...
(KBW), a military intelligence formed to combat the
Ukrainian Insurgent Army The Ukrainian Insurgent Army ( ua, Українська повстанська армія, УПА, ''Ukrayins'ka Povstans'ka Armiya'', abbreviated UPA) was a Ukrainian nationalist Ukrainian nationalism is the ideology promoting the unity of ...
and the remnants of the
Polish Home Army The Home Army ( pl, Armia Krajowa, abbreviated AK; ) was the dominant resistance movement A resistance movement is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to withstand the legally established government or an oc ...
.Piotr Gontarczyk
''Towarzysz "Semjon". Nieznany życiorys Zygmunta Baumana''
"Biuletyn IPN", 6/2006. S. 74–83
From 1945 to 1948 Bauman worked for military intelligence. However, the nature and extent of his collaboration remain unknown, as well as the exact circumstances under which it was terminated. In an interview with ''
The Guardian ''The Guardian'' is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as ''The Manchester Guardian'', and changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers ''The Observer ''The Observer'' is a British newspaper published on Sun ...

The Guardian
'', Bauman confirmed he had been a committed communist during and after World War II and had never made a secret of it. He admitted that joining the military intelligence service at age 19 was a mistake although he had a "dull" desk-job and did not remember informing on anyone. While serving in the Internal Security Corps, Bauman first studied sociology at the Warsaw Academy of Political and Social Science. In 1953, Bauman, already in the rank of major, was suddenly dishonourably discharged, after his father had approached the Israeli embassy in Warsaw with a view to emigrating to
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...

Israel
. As Bauman did not share his father's
Zionist was the founder of the Modern Zionist movement. In his 1896 pamphlet ''Der Judenstaat ''Der Judenstaat'' ( German, literally ''The Jews' State'', commonly rendered as ''The Jewish State'') is a pamphlet written by Theodor Herzl and publishe ...
tendencies and was indeed strongly anti-Zionist, his dismissal caused a severe, though temporary estrangement from his father. During the period of unemployment that followed, he completed his M.A. and in 1954 became a lecturer at the
University of Warsaw The University of Warsaw ( pl, Uniwersytet Warszawski, la, Universitas Varsoviensis), established in 1816, is the largest university A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education ...
, where he remained until 1968. While at the
London School of Economics , mottoeng = To understand the causes of things , established = 1895 , type = Public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization ...
, where his supervisor was Robert McKenzie, he prepared a comprehensive study on the British socialist movement, his first major book. Published originally in Polish in 1959, a revised edition appeared in English in 1972. Bauman went on to publish other books, including ''Socjologia na co dzień'' ("Everyday Sociology", 1964), which reached a large popular audience in Poland and later formed the foundation for the English-language text-book ''Thinking Sociologically'' (1990). Initially, Bauman remained close to orthodox
Marxist Marxism is a method of socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how modern society, societies soci ...
doctrine, but, influenced by
Georg Simmel Georg Simmel (; ; 1 March 1858 – 26 September 1918) was a German sociologist, philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about ...

Georg Simmel
and
Antonio Gramsci Antonio Francesco Gramsci (, ; ; 22 January 1891 – 27 April 1937) was an Italian Marxism, Marxist philosopher, journalist, linguist, writer and politician. He wrote on philosophy, political theory, sociology, history and linguistics. He was a ...
, he became increasingly critical of Poland's Communist government. Owing to this he was never awarded a
professorship Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an academic rank at universities A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various aca ...
even after he completed his
habilitation Habilitation is the procedure to achieve the highest university degree in many European countries in which the candidate fulfills certain criteria set by the university which require excellence in research, teaching, and further education. Its qu ...
but, after his former teacher, , was made vice-director of
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
's Department for Social Sciences in Paris in 1962, Bauman did in fact inherit Hochfeld's chair. Faced with increasing political pressure connected with a political purge led by , the Chief of the Polish Communist Security Police, Bauman renounced his membership of the governing
Polish United Workers' Party The Polish United Workers' Party ( pl, Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza; ), commonly abbreviated to PZPR, was the communist party which ruled the Polish People's Republic as a one-party state from 1948 to 1990. Ideologically, it was based ...
in January 1968. The March 1968 events culminated in a purge that drove many remaining Communist Poles of Jewish descent out of the country, including those intellectuals who had fallen from grace with the
communist Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...
government. Bauman, who had lost his chair at the
University of Warsaw The University of Warsaw ( pl, Uniwersytet Warszawski, la, Universitas Varsoviensis), established in 1816, is the largest university A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education ...
, was among them. He had to give up Polish citizenship to be allowed to leave the country. From 1968- 1970 he went to Israel to teach at
Tel Aviv University Tel Aviv University (TAU) ( he, אוּנִיבֶרְסִיטַת תֵּל אָבִיב, ''Universitat Tel Aviv'') is a public research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educatio ...
. Thereafter he accepted the chair of sociology at the University of Leeds, where he intermittently also served as head of the department. After his appointment, he published almost exclusively in English, his third language, and his reputation grew. From the late 1990s, Bauman exerted a considerable influence on the
anti- Anti- is an American record label founded in 1999 as a sister label to Epitaph Records, Epitaph. While Epitaph's focus has mostly been on punk rock, Anti-'s roster includes Country music, country (Merle Haggard), Hip hop music, hip hop (Sage Fra ...
or
alter-globalization Alter-globalization (also known as alternative globalization or alter-mundialization—from the French alter-Mundialization, mondialisation—and overlapping with the global justice movement) is a social movement whose proponents support global c ...
movement. In a 2011 interview in the Polish weekly, "
Polityka ''Polityka'' (, ''Politics'') is a centre-left weekly newsmagazine Image:Couverture-3-magazine-2512.JPG, ''2512 (magazine), 2512'', a monthly news magazine published in Réunion. A news magazine is a typed, printed, and published magazine, rad ...
", Bauman criticised Zionism and Israel, saying Israel was not interested in peace and that it was "taking advantage of the Holocaust to legitimize unconscionable acts". He compared the
Israeli West Bank barrier The Israeli West Bank barrier or wall or fence is a separation barrier in the West Bank The West Bank ( ar, الضفة الغربية '; he, הגדה המערבית ' or ') is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of W ...

Israeli West Bank barrier
to the walls of the
Warsaw Ghetto Warsaw Ghetto (german: Warschauer Ghetto, officially , "Jewish Residential District in Warsaw"; pl, getto warszawskie) was the largest of the Nazi ghettos during World War II. It was established in November 1940 by the Nazi Germany, German author ...

Warsaw Ghetto
where hundreds of thousands of Jews died in the Holocaust. The Israeli ambassador to Warsaw, Zvi Bar, called Bauman's comments "half truths" and "groundless generalizations." Bauman was a supporter of the
Campaign for the Establishment of a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly The Campaign for a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly (CUNPA) is a global network of more than 300 non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and 1,500 current and former parliamentarians from around 150 countries devoted to establishing a United N ...
, an organisation which advocates for democratic reform in the United Nations, and the creation of a more accountable international political system.


Family

Bauman was married to writer Janina Bauman, née Lewinson; 18 August 1926 – 29 December 2009. They had three daughters, painter Lydia Bauman, architect Irena Bauman, and professor Anna Sfard, a leading theorist of education at the University of Haifa. His grandson
Michael Sfard Michael Sfard ( he, מיכאל ספרד; born 1972), is a lawyer and political activist specializing in international human rights law and the laws of war. He has served as counsel in various cases on these topics in Israel. Sfard has represented a ...
is a prominent civil rights lawyer and author in Israel. Zygmunt Bauman died in Leeds on 9 January 2017.


Work

Bauman's published work extends to 57 books and well over a hundred articles. Most of these address a number of common themes, among which are
globalisation Globalization, or globalisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a of the , originally spoken by the inhabitants of . It is named after the , one of the ancient that migrated from , a peninsu ...
,
modernity Modernity, a topic in the humanities and social sciences, is both a historical period (the modern era Human history, or world history, is the narrative of humanity Humanity most commonly refers to: * Human Humans (''Homo sapiens' ...

modernity
and
postmodernity Postmodernity (post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is the economic or cultural state or condition of society which is said to exist ''after'' modernity. Some schools of thought hold that modernity ended in the late 20th century – in the ...
,
consumerism Consumerism is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology ...
, and
morality Morality (from ) is the differentiation of intention Intentions are mental states in which the agent commits themselves to a course of action. Having the plan to visit the zoo tomorrow is an example of an intention. The action plan is the '' ...

morality
.


Early work

Bauman's earliest publication in English is a study of the British
labour movement The labour movement or labor movement consists of two main wings: the trade union movement (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a l ...
and its relationship to class and
social stratification Social stratification refers to a society's categorization Categorization is the human ability and activity of recognizing shared features or similarities between the elements of the experience Experience refers to conscious , an English ...
, originally published in Poland in 1960. He continued to publish on the subject of class and social conflict until the early 1980s. His last book was on the subject of ''Memories of Class''. Whilst his later books do not address issues of class directly, he continued to describe himself as a
socialist Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the Cognition, cognitive pr ...
, and he never rejected
Marxism Marxism is a method of socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how modern society, societies soci ...
entirely. The Neo-Marxist theorist
Antonio Gramsci Antonio Francesco Gramsci (, ; ; 22 January 1891 – 27 April 1937) was an Italian Marxism, Marxist philosopher, journalist, linguist, writer and politician. He wrote on philosophy, political theory, sociology, history and linguistics. He was a ...
in particular remained one of his most profound influences, along with
Neo-Kantian In late modern continental philosophy Continental philosophy is a set of 19th- and 20th-century philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, existence, knowledge ...
sociologist and
philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mi ...

philosopher
Georg Simmel Georg Simmel (; ; 1 March 1858 – 26 September 1918) was a German sociologist, philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about ...

Georg Simmel
.


Modernity and rationality

In the late 1980s and early 1990s Bauman published a number of books that dealt with the relationship between modernity, bureaucracy, rationality and social exclusion. Bauman, following
Freud Sigmund Freud ( , ; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist Neurology (from el, νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia ''-logy'' is a suffix in the English l ...

Freud
, came to view European modernity as a trade off: European society, he argued, had agreed to forego a level of freedom to receive the benefits of increased individual security. Bauman argued that modernity, in what he later came to term its 'solid' form, involved removing unknowns and uncertainties. It involved control over nature, hierarchical bureaucracy, rules and regulations, control and categorisation — all of which attempted to remove gradually personal insecurities, making the chaotic aspects of human life appear well-ordered and familiar. Later in a number of books Bauman began to develop the position that such order-making never manages to achieve the desired results. When life becomes organised into familiar and manageable categories, he argued, there are always social groups who cannot be administered, who cannot be separated out and controlled. In his book ''Modernity and Ambivalence'' Bauman began to theorise about such indeterminate persons in terms of an allegorical figure he called, 'the stranger.' Drawing upon Georg Simmel's sociology and the philosophy of
Jacques Derrida Jacques Derrida (; ; born Jackie Élie Derrida; See also . July 15, 1930 – October 9, 2004), born in Algeria ) , image_map = Algeria (centered orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Algiers ...
, Bauman came to write of the stranger as the person who is present yet unfamiliar, society's ''undecidable''. In ''Modernity and Ambivalence'' Bauman attempted to give an account of the different approaches modern society adopts toward the stranger. He argued that, on the one hand, in a consumer-oriented economy the strange and the unfamiliar is always enticing; in different styles of food, different fashions and in tourism it is possible to experience the allure of what is unfamiliar. Yet this strange-ness also has a more negative side. The stranger, because he cannot be controlled or ordered, is always the object of fear; he is the potential mugger, the person outside of society's borders who is a constant threat. Bauman's most famous book, ''Modernity and the Holocaust'', is an attempt to give a full account of the dangers of those kinds of fears. Drawing upon
Hannah Arendt Hannah Arendt (, also , ; 14 October 1906 – 4 December 1975) was a German-born American political theorist. Her many books and articles have had a lasting influence on political theory and philosophy. Arendt is widely considered one of ...
and
Theodor Adorno Theodor is a masculine given name. It is a German form of TheodoreTheodore may refer to: Places * Theodore, Alabama, United States * Theodore, Australian Capital Territory * Theodore, Queensland, a town in the Shire of Banana, Australia * Th ...
's books on totalitarianism and the Enlightenment, Bauman developed the argument that the Holocaust should not simply be considered to be an event in Jewish history, nor a regression to pre-modern barbarism. Rather, he argued, the Holocaust should be seen as deeply connected to modernity and its order-making efforts. Procedural rationality, the division of labour into smaller and smaller tasks, the taxonomic categorisation of different species, and the tendency to view obedience to rules as morally good, all played their role in the Holocaust coming to pass. He argued that for this reason modern societies have not fully grasped the lessons of the Holocaust; it tends to be viewed—to use Bauman's metaphor—like a picture hanging on the wall, offering few lessons. In Bauman's analysis the Jews became 'strangers' ''par excellence'' in Europe. The
Final Solution The Final Solution (german: Endlösung, ) or the Final Solution to the Jewish Question (german: Endlösung der Judenfrage, ) was a Nazi Nazism ( ), officially National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus, ), is the ideology An i ...
was pictured by him as an extreme example of the attempt made by society to excise the uncomfortable and indeterminate elements that exist within it. Bauman, like the philosopher
Giorgio Agamben Giorgio Agamben (; ; born 22 April 1942) is an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Roman ...
, contended that the same processes of exclusion that were at work in the Holocaust could, and to an extent do, still come into play today.


Postmodernity and consumerism

In the mid-to-late 1990s, Bauman began to explore ''postmodernity'' and ''consumerism''. He posited that a shift had taken place in modern society in the latter half of the 20th century. It had changed from a society of producers into a society of consumers. According to Bauman, this change reversed Freud's "modern" tradeoff—i.e., security was given up in exchange for more freedom, freedom to purchase, consume, and enjoy life. In his books in the 1990s Bauman wrote of this as being a shift from "modernity" to "post-modernity". Since the turn of the millennium, his books have tried to avoid the confusion surrounding the term "postmodernity" by using the metaphors of "liquid" and "solid" modernity. In his books on modern consumerism, Bauman still writes of the same uncertainties that he portrayed in his writings on "solid" modernity; but in these books he writes of fears becoming more diffuse and harder to pin down. Indeed, they are, to use the title of one of his books, "liquid fears" – fears about
paedophilia Pedophilia (American and British English spelling differences, alternatively spelt paedophilia) is a psychiatric disorder in which an adult or older adolescent experiences a primary or exclusive sexual attraction to prepubescent children. Altho ...
, for instance, which are amorphous and have no easily identifiable reference. Bauman is credited with coining the term
allosemitism Allosemitism is a neologism used to encompass both philo-Semitic and antisemitic Antisemitism (also spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים I ...
to encompass both philo-Semitic and
anti-Semitic Antisemitism (also spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews. A person who holds such positions is called an antisemite. Antisemitism is generally considered to be a form of racism. A ...
attitudes towards Jews as the
other Other often refers to: * Other (philosophy) In phenomenology Phenomenology may refer to: * Empirical research, when used to describe measurement methods in some sciences * An empirical relationship or phenomenological model * Phenomenology (ar ...
. Bauman reportedly predicted the negative political effect that social media have on voter's choice by denouncing them as 'trap' where people only "see reflections of their own face".


Art: a liquid element?

One of Bauman works focuses on the concept of art as influenced by the liquidity of appreciation. The author puts forward the idea that "we desire and seek a realization that usually consists of a constant ''becoming'', in a permanent disposition of ''becoming''". In essence, our aim is not the object of our longing but the action of longing itself, and the worst peril is reaching complete satisfaction. In this framework, Bauman explores how art can position itself in a world where the fleeting is the dominant paradigm. Art is substantially something that contributes to giving immortality to virtually anything: hence the philosopher wonders, "can art transform the ephemeral into an eternal matter?". Bauman concludes that the current reality is characterized by individuals who do not have time nor space to relate with the everlasting, with absolute and established values. Art and the relation of people with them, both in creating it and in participating in it, is dramatically changing. Citing
Hannah Arendt Hannah Arendt (, also , ; 14 October 1906 – 4 December 1975) was a German-born American political theorist. Her many books and articles have had a lasting influence on political theory and philosophy. Arendt is widely considered one of ...
, he asserts that "an object is cultural if it persists; its temporary aspect, its permanence, is opposite to the functional ..culture sees itself threatened when all the objects in the world, those produced today and those of the past, are exclusively considered from the point of view of utility for the social process of survival". Withal, the concept of culture and art can only find a sense in the liquid society if it abandons its traditional understanding and adopts the deconstructive approach.


Awards and honours

Bauman was awarded the
European Amalfi Prize for Sociology and Social Sciences The European Amalfi Prize for Sociology and Social Sciences ''(Premio Europeo Amalfi per la Sociologia e le Scienze Sociali)'' is a prestigious Italy, Italian award in the social sciences. Established in 1987 on the initiative of the Section for Soc ...
in 1992 and the Theodor W. Adorno Award of the city of
Frankfurt Frankfurt, officially Frankfurt am Main (; Hessian dialects, Hessian: , "Franks, Frank ford (crossing), ford on the Main (river), Main"; french: Francfort-sur-le-Main), is the most populous city in the States of Germany, German state of Hess ...

Frankfurt
in 1998. He was awarded in 2010, jointly with
Alain Touraine Alain Touraine (; born 3 August 1925) is a France, French sociology, sociologist. He is research director at the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, where he founded the ''Centre d'étude des mouvements sociaux''. Touraine was an imp ...

Alain Touraine
, the
Princess of Asturias Award The Princess of Asturias Awards ( es, Premios Princesa de Asturias, links=no, ast, Premios Princesa d'Asturies, links=no), formerly the Prince of Asturias Awards from 1981 to 2014 ( es, Premios Príncipe de Asturias, links=no), are a series of a ...
for Communication and the Humanities. The University of Leeds established 'The Bauman Institute' within its School of Sociology and Social Policy in his honour in September 2010. The University of Lower Silesia, a small private higher education institution in Lower Silesia,
Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , and has a largely Temperate climate, temperate seasonal cli ...

Poland
, planned to award Bauman an honorary doctorate in October 2013. However, as a reaction to a major anti-communist and what Bauman supporters allege "anti-semitic" uproar against him, he eventually rejected the award. In 2015 the
University of Salento The University of Salento ( it, Università del Salento, called until 2007 ''Università degli Studi di Lecce'') is a university A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, terti ...
awarded Bauman an honorary degree in Modern Languages, Literature and Literary Translation.


Criticisms

In 2014, Peter Walsh, a PhD candidate at the
University of Cambridge , mottoeng = Literal: From here, light and sacred draughts. Non literal: From this place, we gain enlightenment and precious knowledge. , established = , other_name = The Chancellor, Masters and Scholars of ...
, accused Bauman of plagiarism from several websites, including Wikipedia, in his book ''Does the Richness of the Few Benefit Us All?'' (2013). In this book Bauman is said to have copied verbatim paragraphs from Wikipedia articles on
Slow Food #REDIRECT Slow Food Slow Food is an organization that promotes local food and traditional cooking. It was founded by Carlo Petrini in Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a ...
and
steady-state economy A steady-state economy is an economy made up of a constant stock of physical wealth (capital) and a constant population size. In effect, such an economy does not grow in the course of time. The term usually refers to the national economy of ...
, along with their bibliography, without attributing sources, authors or the fact that they were copied from Wikipedia. He did use a paragraph from the article on the
golden handshake A golden handshake is a clause In language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions be ...
, but this citation was properly attributed to Wikipedia. In a response, Bauman suggested that "obedience" to "technical" rules was unnecessary, and that he "never once failed to acknowledge the authorship of the ideas or concepts that I deployed, or that inspired the ones I coined". In a detailed critique of Walsh and co-author David Lehmann, cultural critics Brad Evans and Henry A. Giroux concluded: "This charge against Bauman is truly despicable. It's a reactionary ideological critique dressed up as the celebration of method and a back-door defence of sterile empiricism and culture of positivism. This is a discourse that enshrines data, correlations, and performance, while eschewing matters of substance, social problems, and power."


Bibliography


Warsaw period

* 1957: ''Zagadnienia centralizmu demokratycznego w pracach Lenina'' uestions of Democratic Centralism in Lenin's Works Warszawa: Książka i Wiedza. * 1959: ''Socjalizm brytyjski: Źródła, filozofia, doktryna polityczna'' ritish Socialism: Sources, Philosophy, Political Doctrine Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe. * 1960: ''Klasa, ruch, elita: Studium socjologiczne dziejów angielskiego ruchu robotniczego'' [Class, Movement, Elite: A Sociological Study on the History of the British Labour Movement]. Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe. * 1960: ''Z dziejów demokratycznego ideału'' [From the History of the Democratic Ideal]. Warszawa: Iskry. * 1960: ''Kariera: cztery szkice socjologiczne'' [Career: Four Sociological Sketches]. Warszawa: Iskry. * 1961: ''Z zagadnień współczesnej socjologii amerykańskiej'' [Questions of Modern American Sociology]. Warszawa: Książka i Wiedza. * 1962 (with Szymon Chodak, Juliusz Strojnowski, Jakub Banaszkiewicz): ''Systemy partyjne współczesnego kapitalizmu'' [The Party Systems of Modern Capitalism]. Warsaw: Książka i Wiedza. * 1962: ''Spoleczeństwo, w ktorym żyjemy'' [The Society we inhabit]. Warsaw: Książka i Wiedza. * 1962: ''Zarys socjologii. Zagadnienia i pojęcia'' [Outline of Sociology. Questions and Concepts]. Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe. * 1963: ''Idee, ideały, ideologie'' [Ideas, Ideals, Ideologies]. Warszawa: Iskry. * 1964: ''Zarys marksistowskiej teorii spoleczeństwa'' [ An Outline of the Marxist Theory of Society]. Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe. * 1964: ''Socjologia na co dzień'' [Everyday Sociology]. Warszawa: Iskry. * 1965: ''Wizje ludzkiego świata. Studia nad społeczną genezą i funkcją socjologii'' [Visions of a Human World: Studies on the genesis of society and the function of sociology]. Warszawa: Książka i Wiedza. * 1966: ''Kultura i społeczeństwo. Preliminaria'' [Culture and Society, Preliminaries]. Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe. * 2017: ''Szkice z teorii kultury'' [Essays in cultural theory]. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar. [First edition of a manuscript originally completed in 1967]


Leeds period

* 1972: ''Between Class and Elite. The Evolution of the British Labour Movement. A Sociological Study''. Manchester: Manchester University Press (Polish original 1960) * 1973: ''Culture as Praxis.'' London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. * 1976: ''Socialism: The Active Utopia''. New York: Holmes and Meier Publishers. * 1976: ''Towards a Critical Sociology: An Essay on Common-Sense and Emancipation''. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. * 1978: ''Hermeneutics and Social Science: Approaches to Understanding''. London: Hutchinson. * 1982: ''Memories of Class: The Pre-History and After-Life of Class''. London/Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul. * c. 1985 ''Stalin and the Peasant Revolution: A Case Study in the Dialectics of Master and Slave''. Leeds: University of Leeds Department of Sociology. * 1987: ''Legislators and Interpreters: On Modernity, Post-Modernity, Intellectuals''. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. * 1988: ''Freedom''. Philadelphia: Open University Press. * 1989: ''Modernity and the Holocaust''. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press 1989. * 1990: ''Paradoxes of Assimilation''. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers. * 1990: ''Thinking Sociologically. An Introduction for Everyone''. Cambridge, Mass.: Basil Blackwell. * 1991: ''Modernity and Ambivalence''. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. * 1992: ''Intimations of Postmodernity''. London, New York: Routhledge. * 1992: ''Mortality, Immortality and Other Life Strategies''. Cambridge: Polity (publisher), Polity. * 1993: ''Postmodern Ethics.'' Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell. * 1994: ''Dwa szkice o moralności ponowoczesnej'' [Two sketches on postmodern morality]. Warszawa: IK. * 1995: ''Life in Fragments. Essays in Postmodern Morality''. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell. * 1996: ''Alone Again – Ethics After Certainty.'' London: Demos. * 1997: ''Postmodernity and its Discontents''. New York: New York University Press. * 1995: ''Ciało i przemoc w obliczu ponowoczesności'' [Body and Violence in the Face of Postmodernity]. Toruń: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika. * 1997: (with Roman Kubicki, Anna Zeidler-Janiszewska) ''Humanista w ponowoczesnym świecie – rozmowy o sztuce życia, nauce, życiu sztuki i innych sprawach'' [A Humanist in the Postmodern World – Conversations on the Art of Life, Science, the Life of Art and Other Matters]. Warszawa: Zysk i S-ka. * 1998: ''Work, Consumerism and the New Poor''. Philadelphia: McGraw-Hill Education, Open University Press. * 1998: ''Globalization: The Human Consequences''. New York: Columbia University Press. * 1999: ''In Search of Politics''. Cambridge: Polity (publisher), Polity. * 2000: ''Liquid Modernity''. Cambridge: Polity (publisher), Polity * (2000 [ed. by Peter Beilharz]: ''The Bauman Reader''. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. ) * 2001: ''Community. Seeking Safety in an Insecure World''. Cambridge: Polity (publisher), Polity. * 2001: ''The Individualized Society.'' Cambridge: Polity (publisher), Polity. * 2001 (with Keith Tester): ''Conversations with Zygmunt Bauman''. Cambridge: Polity (publisher), Polity. * 2001 (with Tim May (sociologist), Tim May): ''Thinking Sociologically'', 2nd edition. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. * 2002: ''Society Under Siege.'' Cambridge: Polity (publisher), Polity. * 2003: ''Liquid Love (book), Liquid Love: On the Frailty of Human Bonds'', Cambridge: Polity (publisher), Polity. * 2003: ''City of Fears, City of Hopes''. London: Goldsmith's College. * 2004: ''Wasted Lives. Modernity and its Outcasts.'' Cambridge: Polity. * 2004: ''Europe: An Unfinished Adventure''. Cambridge: Polity. * 2004: ''Identity: Conversations with Benedetto Vecchi''. Cambridge: Polity (publisher), Polity. * 2005: ''Liquid Life''. Cambridge: Polity. * 2006: ''Liquid Fear''. Cambridge: Polity. * 2006: ''Liquid Times: Living in an Age of Uncertainty''. Cambridge: Polity (publisher), Polity. * 2006: ''Moralność w niestabilnym świecie'' [Morality in an instable World]. Poznań: Księgarnia św. Wojciecha. * 2007: ''Consuming Life''. Cambridge: Polity. * 2008: ''Does Ethics Have a Chance in a World of Consumers?'' Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. * 2008: ''The Art of Life''. Cambridge: Polity. * 2009: ''Living on Borrowed Time: Conversations with Citlali Rovirosa-Madrazo''. Cambridge: Polity. * 2009: (with Roman Kubicki, Anna Zeidler-Janiszewska) ''Życie w kontekstach. Rozmowy o tym, co za nami i o tym, co przed nami.'' [Life in contexts. Conversations about what lies behind us and what lies ahead of us.] Warszawa: WAiP. * 2010: ''44 Letters from the Liquid Modern World''. Cambridge: Polity. * 2011: ''Collateral Damage: Social Inequalities in a Global Age''. Cambridge: Polity. * 2011: ''Culture in a Liquid Modern World''. Cambridge: Polity. * 2012: ''This is Not a Diary''. Cambridge: Polity. * 2012: (with David Lyon (sociologist), David Lyon) ''Liquid Surveillance: A Conversation''. Cambridge: Polity. * 2013: (with Leonidas Donskis) ''Moral Blindness: The Loss of Sensitivity in Liquid Modernity.'' Cambridge: Polity. * 2013: (with Stanisław Obirek) ''O bogu i człowieku. Rozmowy''. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie. ** translated as ''Of God and Man''. Cambridge: Polity. * 2013: (with Michael Hviid Jacobsen and Keith Tester) ''What use is sociology? Conversations with Michael Hviid Jacobsen and Keith Tester''. Cambridge: Polity. * 2013: ''Does the Richness of the Few Benefit Us All?'' Cambridge: Polity. * 2014: (with Carlo Bordoni) ''State of Crisis''. Cambridge: Polity. * 2015: (with Rein Raud) ''Practices of Selfhood''. Cambridge: Polity. * 2015: (with Irena Bauman, Jerzy Kociatkiewicz, and Monika Kostera) ''Management in a Liquid Modern World''. Cambridge: Polity. * 2015: (with Stanisław Obirek) ''Of God and Man,'' Cambridge: Polity Press.. * 2015: (with Stanisław Obirek) ''On the World and Ourselves'', Cambridge: Polity. . * 2016: (with Leonidas Donskis) ''Liquid Evil''. Cambridge: Polity. * 2016: (with Ezio Mauro) ''Babel''. Cambridge: Polity. * 2016: ''Strangers at Our Door''. Cambridge: Polity. * 2017: ''Retrotopia''. Cambridge: Polity. * 2017: (with Thomas Leoncini) ''Nati Liquidi''. Sperling & Kupfler. * 2017: ''Zygmunt Bauman. Das Vertraute unvertraut machen''. Ein Gespräch mit Peter Haffner, Hoffmann und Campe, Hamburg 2017, * 2017: ''A Chronicle of Crisis: 2011–2016''. Social Europe Editions.


See also

* Leszek Kołakowski


References


Further reading

* 1995: Richard Kilminster, Ian Varcoe (eds.), ''Culture, Modernity and Revolution: Essays in Honour of Zygmunt Bauman.'' London: Routledge; * 2000: Peter Beilharz, ''Zygmunt Bauman: Dialectic of Modernity''. London: Sage; * 2000: Dennis Smith, ''Zygmunt Bauman: Prophet of Postmodernity (Key Contemporary Thinkers)''. Cambridge: Polity (publisher), Polity; * 2004: Keith Tester, ''The Social Thought of Zygmunt Bauman''. Palgrave MacMillan; * 2005: Tony Blackshaw, ''Zygmunt Bauman (Key Sociologists)''. London/New York: Routledge; * 2006: Keith Tester, Michael Hviid Jacobsen, ''Bauman Before Postmodernity: Invitation, Conversations and Annotated Bibliography 1953–1989''. Aalborg: Aalborg University Press; * 2007: Keith Tester, Michael Hviid Jacobsen, Sophia Marshman, ''Bauman Beyond Postmodernity: Conversations, Critiques and Annotated Bibliography 1989–2005''. Aalborg: Aalborg University Press; * 2007: Anthony Elliott (ed.), ''The Contemporary Bauman''. London: Routledge; * 2008: Michael Hviid Jacobsen, Poul Poder (eds.), ''The Sociology of Zygmunt Bauman: Challenges and Critique''. London: Ashgate; . * 2008: Mark Davis, ''Freedom and Consumerism: A Critique of Zygmunt Bauman's Sociology''. Aldershot: Ashgate; . * 2010: Mark Davis, Keith Tester (eds), ''Bauman's Challenge: Sociological Issues for the 21st Century''. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan; * 2013: Pierre-Antoine Chardel, ''Zygmunt Bauman. Les illusions perdues de la modernité''. Paris: CNRS Editions; * 2013: Shaun Best, ''Zygmunt Bauman: Why Good People Do Bad Things''. Farnham: Ashgate; * 2013: Mark Davis (ed.), ''Liquid Sociology: Metaphor in Zygmunt Bauman's Analysis of Modernity.'' Farnham: Ashgate; * 2013: Paulo Fernando da Silva,
Conceito de ética na contemporaneidade segundo Bauman
'. São Paulo: Cultura Acadêmica; * 2016: Michael Hviid Jacobsen (Ed), "Beyond Bauman: Critical Engagements and Creative Excursions"? London: Routledge; (hardback); 978-1-315-56917-8 (ebook) * 2016: Tony Blackshaw (Ed)," The New Bauman Reader: Thinking Sociologically in Liquid Modern Times", Manchester: Manchester University Press; (hardback); 978-1-7849-9403-7 (paperback) * 2016: Carlo Bordoni (Ed), "Zygmunt Bauman. With an original contribution", in ''Revue Internationale de Philosophie'', n. 3, vol. 70, * 2017: Ali Rattansi, "Bauman and Contemporary Sociology: A Critical Analysis", Manchester: Manchester University Press (in press, to be published Spring 2017). * 2017: Sociedade, Linguagem e Modernidade Líquida. Interview By Leo Peruzzo; in Journal Diálogo Educacional, n. 6, vol. 47. * 2020: Shaun Best, Zygmunt Bauman on Education in Liquid Modernity, London, Routledge, * 2020: Shaun Best, The Emerald Guide to Zygmunt Bauman (Emerald Guides to Social Thought), Bingley, Emerald Publishing Limited * 2020: Izabela Wagner, ''Bauman: A Biography''. Cambridge: Polity; * 2020: Sheila Fitzpatrick, "Whatever Made Him" (review of Izabela Wagner, ''Bauman: A Biography'', Polity, June 2020, , 510 pp.), ''London Review of Books'', vol. 42, no. 17 (10 September 2020), pp. 9–11. "[This biography's] leitmotif is the dichotomy between Bauman's Polish and Jewish identities, the first being the one he chose, the second the one fixed on him by others, in particular other Poles. [p. 9.] [F]or all the difficulties and uprootings of his life, he not only stubbornly refused the role of victim but also managed to achieve the rare status – rare at least in interesting biographies – of being a happy man." (p. 11.)


External links


Sociologist Zygmunt Bauman dies
hotrecentnews.com
Inhumanity is part of human nature
salon.eu.sk
Free full-text download of ''Alone Again – Ethics After Certainty'' (1996) from the official publisher Demos (PDF)

"The Global Factory of Wasted Humans" – filmed conference of Z. Bauman (2003)
archivesaudiovisuelles.fr
Bauman interview (2011)
vimeo.com
Video: The Ambiance of Uncertainty – Interview on Reset – Dialogues on Civilizations
resetdoc.org
Zygmunt Bauman: Behind the World's 'crisis of humanity'
youtube.com (23 July 2016) {{DEFAULTSORT:Bauman, Zygmunt 1925 births 2017 deaths 20th-century Polish philosophers 21st-century Polish philosophers Academics of the University of Leeds Alumni of the London School of Economics Anti-consumerists British people of Polish-Jewish descent Continental philosophers Critics of postmodernism Historians of Nazism Historians of the Holocaust Jewish philosophers Jewish sociologists Modernity Moral philosophers Military personnel from Poznań Polish emigrants to the United Kingdom Polish military personnel of World War II Polish People's Army personnel Polish sociologists Polish United Workers' Party members Polish Workers' Party politicians Postmodern writers Recipients of the Cross of Valour (Poland) Recipients of the Gold Medal for Merit to Culture – Gloria Artis University of Warsaw alumni University of Warsaw faculty Writers about globalization Polish agnostics