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The Zuni ( zun, A:shiwi; formerly spelled ''Zuñi'') are
Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigenous peoples in Canada, the indigenous p ...
Pueblo people The Puebloans or Pueblo peoples, are Native Americans in the Southwestern United States who share common agricultural, material, and religious practices. Pueblo, which means "village" in Spanish, was a term originating with the Colonial Spanis ...
s native to the
Zuni River The Zuni (Zuñi) River is a tributary of the Little Colorado River The Little Colorado River () is a tributary of the Colorado River in the U.S. state of Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak) is a state in the ...
valley. Today, the Zuni are a
Federally recognized tribe This is a list of federally recognized tribes in the contiguous United States of America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, ...
and most live in the Pueblo of Zuni on the Zuni River, a tributary of the
Little Colorado River The Little Colorado River () is a tributary of the Colorado River The Colorado River ( es, Río Colorado) is one of the principal rivers (along with the Rio Grande) in the Southwestern United States and northern Mexico. The river drains a ...
, in western
New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, Nuevo Mexicano) , seat = Santa Fe , LargestCity = Albuquerque , LargestMetro = Greater Albuquerque , OfficialLang = None , Languages = English English usually refer ...

New Mexico
,
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
. The Pueblo of Zuni is south of
Gallup, New Mexico Zuni: ''Kalabwaki'' , settlement_type = City A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia' ...

Gallup, New Mexico
. The Zuni tribe lived in multi level adobe houses. In addition to the reservation, the tribe owns trust lands in
Catron County, New Mexico Catron County is a List of counties in New Mexico, county in the U.S. state of New Mexico. As of the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census, the population was 3,725, making it New Mexico's third-least populous county. Its county seat is Reserve ...
, and
Apache County, Arizona Apache County is located in the northeast corner of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United ...
. The Zuni call their homeland ''Halona Idiwan’a ''or Middle Place. The word ''Zuni'' is believed to derive from the Western Keres language (
Acoma
Acoma
) word ''sɨ̂‧ni'', or a cognate thereof.


History

Archaeology suggests that the Zuni have been farmers in their present location for 3,000 to 4,000 years. It is now thought that the Ancestral Zuni people have inhabited the
Zuni River The Zuni (Zuñi) River is a tributary of the Little Colorado River The Little Colorado River () is a tributary of the Colorado River in the U.S. state of Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak) is a state in the ...
valley since the last millennium B.C., when they began using
irrigation Irrigation is the agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in seden ...

irrigation
to farm
maize Maize ( ; ''Zea mays'' subsp. ''mays'', from es, maíz after tnq, mahiz), also known as corn (North American North America is a continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be ...

maize
on at least household-sized plots. Zuni culture was preceded by Mogollon and
Ancestral Pueblo peoples The Ancestral Puebloans were an ancient Native American culture that spanned the present-day Four Corners region of the United States, comprising southeastern Utah Utah ( , ) is a state in the Mountain West region of the United State ...
cultures, who lived in the deserts of New Mexico,
Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state, state in the Southwestern United States, Southwestern region of the United States. It is also usually considered part of the Mountain States, Mountain states. It is th ...

Arizona
,
Utah Utah ( , ) is a U.S. state, state in the Mountain states, Mountain West subregion of the Western United States. Utah is a landlocked U.S. state bordered to its east by Colorado, to its northeast by Wyoming, to its north by Idaho, to its so ...

Utah
, and southern
Colorado Colorado (, other variants) is a state in the Mountain West The Mountain West Conference (MW) is one of the collegiate athletic conferences affiliated with the National Collegiate Athletic Association The National Collegiate Athletic ...

Colorado
for over two millennia. White Mound was one such settlement of pit houses, farming, and storerooms, built around 700
A.D. The terms (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modification of the , r ...

A.D.
, followed by the village of Kiatuthlanna around 800 A.D., and Allantown around 1000 A.D. These Mogollon villages included
kiva A kiva is a space used by Puebloans The Puebloans or Pueblo peoples, are Native Americans in the Southwestern United States who share common agricultural, material, and religious practices. Pueblo, which means "village" in Spanish, ...

kiva
s. Likewise, Zuni ancestors were in contact with the
Anasazi The Ancestral Puebloans were an ancient Native American culture that spanned the present-day Four Corners boy on horseback in Monument Valley Monument Valley ( nv, Tsé Biiʼ Ndzisgaii, , meaning ''valley of the rocks'') is a region o ...
at
Chaco Canyon Chaco Culture National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park National Historic Site (NHS) is a designation for an officially recognized area of national historic significance in the United States. An NHS usually contain ...

Chaco Canyon
around 1100. The Zuni settlement called Village of the Great Kivas, was built around 1100, and included nine kivas. The Zuni region, however, was probably only sparsely populated by small agricultural settlements until the 12th century when the population and the size of the settlements began to increase. The large villages of Heshot Ula, Betatakin, and Kiet Siel were established by 1275. By the 13th century villages were built on top of mesas, including Atsinna on Inscription Rock. In the 14th century, the Zuni inhabited a dozen pueblos containing between 180 and 1,400 rooms, while the Anasazi abandoned larger settlements for smaller ones, or established new ones along the Rio Grande. The Zuni did move from the eastern portion of their territory to the western side, and built six new villages, Halona, Hawikuh, Kiakima, Matsaki, Kwakina, and Kechipaun. Halona was located 97 km north Zuni Salt Lake, and the Zuni traded in salt, corn and
turquoise Turquoise is an opaque Opacity or opaque may refer to: * Impediments to (especially, visible) light: ** Opacities, absorption coefficients ** Opacity (optics), property or degree of blocking the transmission of light * Metaphors derived from li ...

turquoise
. Hawikuh was claimed by Niza to be one of the
Seven Cities of Cibola #REDIRECT Seven Cities of Gold The Seven Cities of Gold, also known as the Seven Cities of Cibola (), is a myth that was popular in the 16th century. It is also featured in several works of popular culture. According to legend, the seven cities of ...
, a legendary 16th century wealthy empire.Pritzker 109 In 1539,
Moorish '' of Alfonso X, c. 1285 The term Moor is an Endonym and exonym, exonym first used by Christian Europeans to designate the Muslims, Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily and Malta during the Middle Ages. The Moors in ...

Moorish
slave
Estevanico Estevanico ("Little Stephen"; modern spelling Estebanico; –1539), also known as Esteban de Dorantes or Mustafa Azemmouri, was the first African to explore North America. Estevanico was taken captive, enslaved and sold to a Spanish nobleman in ...
led an advance party of
Fray Marcos de Niza :''For the High School in Tempe, Arizona, see Marcos de Niza High School.'' friar, Fray Marcos de Niza, or Marco da Nizza ( 25 March 1558) was an Italian missionary and Franciscan friar. He is credited with being the first European in what is now th ...
's Spanish expedition. Sponsored by
Antonio de Mendoza Antonio de Mendoza y Pacheco (, ; 1495 – July 21, 1552) was the first Viceroy of New Spain The following is a list of Viceroys of New Spain. In addition to viceroys, the following lists the highest Spanish governors of the Viceroyalty ...

Antonio de Mendoza
who wanted Niza to "explain to the natives of the land that there is only one God in heaven, and the Emperor on earth to rule and govern it, whose subjects they all must become and whom they must serve." The Zuni reportedly killed Estevanico as a spy, or for being "greedy, voracious and bold". This was Spain's first contact with any of the Pueblo peoples.
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado Francisco is the Spanish and Portuguese form of the masculine given name '' Franciscus''. In Spanish, people with the name Francisco are sometimes nicknamed " Paco": San Francisco de Asís was known as Pater Comunitatis (The Community father) whe ...
expedition followed in the wake of Niza's Seven Cities of Cibola claim. Sponsored once again by Mendoza, Coronado led 230 soldiers on horseback, 70 foot soldiers, several Franciscan priests and Mexican natives. The Spanish met 600 Zuni warriors near Hawikuh in July 1540, inflicting several casualties, and capturing the village. Coronado continued to the Rio Grande, but several priests and soldiers stayed an additional 2 years. The Chamuscado and Rodríguez Expedition followed in 1581, and
Antonio de Espejo Antonio de Espejo (1540–1585) was a Spanish explorer who led an expedition into New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, Nuevo Mexicano) , seat = Santa Fe , LargestCity = Albuquerque , LargestMetro ...
in 1583.
Juan de Oñate Juan de Oñate y Salazar (; 1550–1626) was a Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Ca ...
visited Zuni territory in 1598 and 1604 looking for copper mines, but without success.
Francisco Manuel de Silva Nieto Francisco Manuel de Silva Nieto (died 1632) was Spanish governors of New Mexico, Governor of New Mexico at a time when it was a province of New Spain. Biography Captain Don Francisco Manuel de Silva Nieto left Mexico City on 4 September 1628, re ...
established a mission at
Hawikuh Hawikuh (also spelled ''Hawikku'', meaning "gum leaves" in Zuni Zuni may refer to: Peoples and languages * Zuni people The Zuni ( zun, A:shiwi; formerly spelled ''Zuñi'') are Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * ...
in 1629 with 2 Franciscan priests. They completed a church compound in 1632, and established a second mission in Halona. Shortly afterwards, the Zuni destroyed the missions, killing two priests, and then retreated to
Dowa Yalanne Dowa Yalanne ( Zuni: "Corn Mountain") is a steep mesa A mesa is an isolated, flat-topped elevation, ridge A ridge or a mountain ridge is a geographical feature consisting of a chain of mountains or hills that form a continuous elevate ...
, where they remained for the next three years. The Spanish built another mission in Halona in 1643. Before the
Pueblo Revolt The Pueblo Revolt of 1680, also known as Popé's Rebellion or Popay's Rebellion, was an uprising of most of the indigenous Pueblo people The Puebloans or Pueblo peoples, are Native Americans in the Southwestern United States who share common ...
of 1680, the Zuni lived in six villages. After the revolt, until 1692, they took refuge in a defensible position atop ''
Dowa Yalanne Dowa Yalanne ( Zuni: "Corn Mountain") is a steep mesa A mesa is an isolated, flat-topped elevation, ridge A ridge or a mountain ridge is a geographical feature consisting of a chain of mountains or hills that form a continuous elevate ...
'', a steep
mesa A mesa is an isolated, flat-topped elevation, ridge or hill, which is bounded from all sides by steep escarpments and stands distinctly above a surrounding plain. Mesas characteristically consist of flat-lying soft sedimentary rocks capped by ...

mesa
5 km (3.1 miles) southeast of the present Pueblo of Zuni; ''Dowa'' means "corn", and ''yalanne'' means "mountain". After the establishment of peace and the , the Zuni relocated to their present location, returning to the mesa top only briefly in 1703. By the end of the 17th century, only Halona was still inhabited of the original six villages. Yet, satellite villages were settled around Halona, and included Nutria, Ojo Caliente, and Pescado. Of the three Zuni missions, only the church at Halona was rebuilt after the reconquest. According to Nancy Bonvillain, "Indeed, by the late eighteenth century, Spanish authorities had given up hope of dominating the Zuni and other western Pueblo Indians, and in 1799 only seven Spanish people were recorded as living among the Zuni.". In 1821, the Franciscans ended their missionary efforts. In 1848, U.S. Army Lt. Col. Henderson P. Boyakin signed a treaty with Zuni and Navajo leaders stating the Zuni "shall be protected in the full management of all their rights of Private Property and Religion...the authorities, civil and military, of New Mexico and the United States." Observing the Zuni in the 1850s, Balduin Möllhausen noted "In all directions, fields of wheat and maize, as well as gourds and melons, bore testimony to their industry." The Zuni Reservation was created by the United States federal government in 1877, and enlarged by a second
Executive order In the United States, an executive order is a directive Directive may refer to: * Directive (European Union), a legislative act of the European Union * Directive (programming), a computer language construct that specifies how a compiler shou ...
in 1883.
Frank Hamilton Cushing Frank Hamilton Cushing (July 22, 1857 in North East Township, Erie County, Pennsylvania – April 10, 1900 in Washington, D.C.) was an American anthropologist and ethnologist. He made pioneering studies of the Zuni Indians of New Mexico by entering ...

Frank Hamilton Cushing
, an
anthropologist An anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology Anthropology is the of ity, concerned with , , , and , in both the present and past, including . studies patterns of behaviour, while studies cultural meaning, including ...

anthropologist
associated with the
Smithsonian Institution The Smithsonian Institution ( ), or simply, the Smithsonian, is a group of museums and education and research centers, the largest such complex in the world, created by the U.S. government "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge". Founded ...

Smithsonian Institution
, lived with the Zuni from 1879 to 1884. He was one of the first non-native participant-observers and ethnologists at Zuni. In 1979, however, it was reported that some members of the Pueblo consider he had wrongfully documented the Zuni way of life, exploiting them by photographing and revealing sacred traditions and ceremonies. A controversy during the early 2000s was associated with Zuni opposition to the development of a
coal mine Coal mining is the process of extracting coal Coal is a combustible , Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Officia ...

coal mine
near the , a site sacred to the Zuni and under Zuni control. The mine would have extracted water from the
aquifer An aquifer is an underground layer of water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a ). It is vital ...

aquifer
below the lake and would also have involved construction between the lake and the Zuni. The plan was abandoned in 2003 after several lawsuits. File:We-Wa, a Zuni berdache, weaving - NARA - 523796 (cropped).jpg,
We'Wha We'wha (1849–1896, various spellings) was a Zuni people, Zuni Native Americans in the United States, Native American from New Mexico, a notable fiber artist, weaver and potter. As the most famous ''lhamana'' on record, We'wha served as a cultur ...
(1849–1896), a celebrated Zuni
Two-spirit Two-Spirit (also two spirit or, occasionally, twospirited) is a modern, , umbrella term In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of l ...
weaver at work on a backstrap loom, photo: , c. 1871-1907 File:Image taken from page 14 of 'Report of an expedition down the Zuni and Colorado Rivers by Captain L. Sitgreaves (11042155095) (cropped).jpg, Image of
Zuni Pueblo Zuni Pueblo (also Zuñi Pueblo, Zuni language, Zuni: ''Halona Idiwan’a meaning Middle Place. Zuni people are referred to as a:shiwi) is a census-designated place (CDP) in McKinley County, New Mexico, McKinley County, New Mexico, United States. ...
created during the U.S. Army
Corps of Topographical Engineers The U.S. Army Corps of Topographical Engineers was a branch of the United States Army The United States Army (USA) is the land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is sit ...
's 1851 expedition to Arizona which was led by Captain Sitgreaves File:Lutakawi.jpg, Lutakawi, Zuni Governor, photographed before 1925 by Edward S. Curtis File:Zuni Pueblo2.jpg, Zuni
pueblo In the Southwestern United States The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural list of regions of the United States, region of the United States that generally inc ...

pueblo
middle court, in 1879 File:Littlecoloradomap.png, Zuni River, Zuni Pueblo, New Mexico. The Zuni people have inhabited the
Zuni River The Zuni (Zuñi) River is a tributary of the Little Colorado River The Little Colorado River () is a tributary of the Colorado River in the U.S. state of Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak) is a state in the ...
valley since the last millennium BCE File:Ancient Pueblo Town of Zuni, Western New Mexico (cropped).jpg, Zuni men and the ancient Pueblo Town of Zuni, c. 1868 File:Edward S. Curtis Collection People 082.jpg, Two Zuni girls, photographed by Edward S. Curtis, c. 1926


Culture

The Zuni traditionally speak the
Zuni language Zuni (also formerly Zuñi, endonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. It ...
, a
language isolate Language isolates are languages that cannot be classified into larger language families with any other languages. Korean language, Korean and Basque language, Basque are two of the most commonly cited language isolates, but there are many others. ...
that has no known relationship to any other Native American language. Linguists believe that the Zuni have maintained the integrity of their language for 6,000-to-7,000 years. The Zuni do, however, share a number of words from
Keresan Keresan (), also Keres (), is a Indigenous languages of the Americas, Native American language, spoken by the Keres people, Keres Pueblo people in New Mexico. Depending on the analysis, Keresan is considered a small language family or a language ...
,
Hopi The Hopi are a Native Americans in the United States, Native American tribe who primarily live on the Hopi Reservation in northeastern Arizona. As of the United States Census, 2010, 2010 census, there are 19,338 Hopi in the United States. The Ho ...

Hopi
, and
Pima Pima or PIMA may refer to: Places * Pima, Arizona, a town in Graham County * Pima County, Arizona * Pima Canyon, in the Santa Catalina Mountains * Pima, Burkina Faso, a village * Pima Villages, historical villages of the Pima people Other

* Pi ...
pertaining to religion. The Zuni continue to practice their traditional religion with its regular
ceremonies A ceremony (, ) is a unified ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, actions, or objects, performed according to a set sequence. Rituals may be prescribed by the traditions of a community, including a religious ...

ceremonies
and dances, and an independent and unique belief system. The Zuni were and are a traditional people who live by
irrigated agriculture Irrigation is the agricultural Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, ...
and raising livestock. Gradually the Zuni farmed less and turned to
sheep Sheep (''Ovis aries'') are quadrupedal, ruminant mammals typically kept as livestock. Like all ruminants, sheep are members of the order (biology), order Artiodactyla, the even-toed ungulates. Although the name ''sheep'' applies to many species ...

sheep
and
cattle Cattle, taurine cattle, Eurasian cattle, or European cattle (''Bos taurus'' or ''Bos primigenius taurus'') are large domestication, domesticated Cloven hoof, cloven-hooved herbivores. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae ...

cattle
herding Herding is the act of bringing individual animals together into a group (herd), maintaining the group, and moving the group from place to place—or any combination of those. Herding can refer either to the process of animals forming herds in ...

herding
as a means of economic development. Their success as a desert agri-economy is due to careful management and conservation of resources, as well as a complex system of community support. Many contemporary Zuni also rely on the sale of traditional arts and
craft A craft or trade is a pastime or an occupation that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled work. In a historical sense, particularly the Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself wit ...
s. Some Zuni still live in the old-style Pueblos, while others live in modern houses. Their location is relatively isolated, but they welcome respectful tourists. The Zuni Tribal Fair and
rodeo Rodeo () is a competitive equestrian sport The word equestrian is a reference to Equestrianism, horseback riding, derived from Latin ' and ', "horse". Horseback riding (or Riding in British English) Notable examples of this are: *List of eques ...
is held the third weekend in August. The Zuni also participate in the Gallup Inter-Tribal Ceremonial, usually held in early or mid-August. The A:shiwi A:wan Museum and Heritage Center is a tribal museum that showcases Zuni history, culture, and arts.


Ethnobotany

The Zuni utilize many local plants in their culture. For an extensive list, see the main article, "
Zuni ethnobotany :''See also Navajo ethnobotany and Native American ethnobotany.'' This is a list of plants and how they are used in Zuni people, Zuni culture. A *''Abronia fragrans'' (snowball sand-verbena), fresh flowers eaten for stomachaches.#Camazine, Camaz ...
". Zuni have developed knowledge of local plants that are used for medical practices and religious rites.


Pottery

Traditionally, Zuni women made
pottery Pottery is the process and the products of forming vessels and other objects with clay Clay is a type of fine-grained natural soil Surface-water- gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland.">Northern_Ireland.html" ;"title="g ...

pottery
for storing food and water. They used symbols of their clans for designs.
Clay Clay is a type of fine-grained natural soil Surface-water- gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland.">Northern_Ireland.html" ;"title="glacial till, Northern Ireland">glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of organic m ...

Clay
for the pottery is sourced locally. Prior to its extraction, the women give thanks to the Earth Mother ('' Awidelin Tsitda'') according to ritual. The clay is ground, sifted, mixed with water, rolled into a coil, shaped into a vessel or other design, and scraped smooth with a scraper. A thin layer of finer clay, called slip, is applied to the surface for extra smoothness and color. The vessel is polished with a stone after it dries. It is painted with home-made organic dyes, using a traditional
yucca ''Yucca'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscr ...

yucca
brush. The shape and painted images depend on the intended purpose of the pottery. To fire the pottery, the Zuni used animal dung in traditional
kiln , Wrecclesham Wrecclesham is a village on the southern outskirts of the large town of Farnham Farnham is a market town in Surrey, England, within the Borough of Waverley Borough Council, Waverley.OS Explorer map 145:Guildford and Farnham ...

kiln
s. Today, Zuni potters might use electric kilns. While the firing was usually a community enterprise, silence or communication in low voices was considered essential in order to maintain the original "voice" of the "being" of the clay, and the purpose of the end product.Morrell, Virginia
"The Zuni Way ."
''Smithsonian Magazine.'' April 2007 (retrieved 13 Feb 2011)
Sales of pottery and traditional arts provide a major source of income for many Zuni people today. An artisan may be the sole financial support for her immediate family as well as others. Many women make pottery or, more rarely, clothing or baskets. Brown, black and red ornamentation can be found on traditional Zuni pots that are first covered with white slip. Common motifs are spiral scrolls edged with triangles, deer, as well as frogs, dragonflies and other symbols associated with rain and water. In addition to pots, Zuni produce owl figurines that are covered with white slip and painted with black and red motifs before firing.


Carving and silversmithing

Zuni also make
fetishes A fetish (derived from the French language, French ''fétiche''; which comes from the Portuguese language, Portuguese ''feitiço''; and this in turn from Latin ''facticius'', "artificial" and ''facere'', "to make") is an object believed to have s ...
and
necklace A necklace is an article of jewellery Jewellery or jewelry consists of decorative items worn for personal adornment 150px, The principal adornment of these girls from the Bundu tribe in Sierra Leone is the adornment of bodies and faces wit ...

necklace
s for the purpose of rituals and trade, and more recently for sale to collectors. The Zuni are known for their fine
lapidary Lapidary (from the Latin ) is the practice of shaping Rock (geology), stone, minerals, or gemstones into decorative items such as cabochons, engraved gems (including cameo (carving), cameos), and faceted designs. A person who practices lapidary ...
work. Zuni jewelers set hand-cut turquoise and other stones in silver. Today jewelry-making thrives as an art form among the Zuni. Many Zuni have become master stone-cutters. Techniques used include
mosaic A mosaic is a pattern or image made of small regular or irregular pieces of colored stone, glass or ceramic, held in place by plaster/mortar, and covering a surface. Mosaics are often used as floor and wall decoration, and were particularly pop ...

mosaic
and channel inlay to create intricate designs and unique patterns. Two specialties of Zuni jewelers are
needlepoint Needlepoint is a type of canvas work, a form of counted thread embroidery in which yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibre Fiber or fibre (from la, fibra, links=no) is a natural Nature, in the broadest sense ...
and
petit point Tent stitch is a small, diagonal needlepoint stitch that crosses over the intersection of one horizontal (weft) and one vertical (warp) thread of needlepoint canvas forming a slanted stitch at a 45-degree angle. It is also known as needlepoint sti ...
. In making needlepoint, small, slightly oval-shaped stones with pointed ends are set in silver bezels, close to one another and side by side to create a pattern. The technique is normally used with
turquoise Turquoise is an opaque Opacity or opaque may refer to: * Impediments to (especially, visible) light: ** Opacities, absorption coefficients ** Opacity (optics), property or degree of blocking the transmission of light * Metaphors derived from li ...

turquoise
, sometimes with
coral Corals are marine invertebrates Marine invertebrates are the invertebrates that live in marine habitats. Invertebrate is a blanket term that includes all animals apart from the vertebrate members of the chordate phylum. Invertebrates lack a ver ...
and occasionally with other stones in creating necklaces, bracelets, earrings and rings. Petit point is made in the same fashion as needlepoint, except that one end of each stone is pointed, and the other end is rounded.


Religion

Religion is central to Zuni life. Their traditional religious beliefs are centered on the three most powerful of their
deities A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entities that are not subject to the . This term is attributed to , such as s, s, , and . It also includes claimed abilities embodied in or provided by suc ...

deities
: Earth Mother, Sun Father, and Moonlight-Giving Mother. The religion is
katsina Katsina is a Local Government Area A local government area (LGA) is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivi ...
-based, and ceremonies occur during
winter solstice The winter solstice, also called the hibernal solstice, occurs when either of Earth's geographical pole, poles reaches its maximum axial tilt, tilt away from the Sun. This happens twice yearly, once in each hemisphere (Northern Hemisphere, Nort ...

winter solstice
, summer, harvest, and again in winter. Priesthood includes three priests (north, above and below), and Pekwin (the above priest) determines the religious calendar. A religious society is associated with each of the six kivas, and each boy is initiated into one of these societies.


Shalako

Shalako is a series of ceremonial dances that take place throughout the night on or around the
winter solstice The winter solstice, also called the hibernal solstice, occurs when either of Earth's geographical pole, poles reaches its maximum axial tilt, tilt away from the Sun. This happens twice yearly, once in each hemisphere (Northern Hemisphere, Nort ...

winter solstice
. They are closed to non-native individuals unless there is a personal invitation by a tribal member. The ceremony also blesses the houses that were built during the year. The blessing takes the form of singing that accompanies six dancers who are dressed in Shalako outfits. These outfits can be as high as eight feet; the dancers wearing them represent "couriers of the rain deities come to bless new homes". The dancers move from house to house throughout the night; at dawn Saiyatasha performs a final prayer and the ceremony is complete.


In popular culture

In the novel ''
Brave New World ''Brave New World'' is a dystopian A dystopia (from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark Age ...

Brave New World
'', a Zuni native named John Savage comes to grip with sexual realities in the New State and how they differ from his own culture.


Gallery

File:Edward S. Curtis Collection People 071.jpg, Zuni Girl, photographed by Edward S. Curtis File:CEX D303 Zuñis in typical modern costume.jpg, Zuñis in typical modern costume, 1896 File:Zuni vases.jpg, Zuni water vases File:Zuni pottery (2).jpg, Zuni pottery File:Zuni paint and condiment cups.jpg, Zuni paint and condiment cups File:Zuni ladles of clay.jpg, Zuni ceramic ladles File:Zuni bird effigies.jpg, Zuni bird effigies File:Clay baskets of the Zuni.jpg, Zuni clay baskets File:Animal effigies of the Zuni.jpg, Zuni animal effigies File:Zuni sashes.jpg, Zuni woven sashes


Notable Zuni people

*
Emily Pinto Emily Pinto (born circa 1878), also called Emily Pablito, was an American painter Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, after application to a substr ...
, painter *
We'wha We'wha (1849–1896, various spellings) was a Zuni people, Zuni Native Americans in the United States, Native American from New Mexico, a notable fiber artist, weaver and potter. As the most famous ''lhamana'' on record, We'wha served as a cultur ...
, weaver


See also

* Zuni Reservation *
Zuni language Zuni (also formerly Zuñi, endonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. It ...
*
Zuni mythology Zuni mythology is the oral history, cosmology, and religion of the Zuni people. The Zuni are a Pueblo people located in New Mexico. Their religion is integrated into their daily lives and respects ancestors, nature, and animals.
*
Zuniceratops ''Zuniceratops'' ('Zuni-horned face') was a ceratopsian dinosaur from the mid Turonian of the Late Cretaceous Period (geology), Period of what is now New Mexico, United States. It lived about 10 million years earlier than the more familiar h ...

Zuniceratops
*
Zuni Pueblo, New Mexico Zuni Pueblo (also Zuñi Pueblo, Zuni language, Zuni: ''Halona Idiwan’a meaning Middle Place. Zuni people are referred to as a:shiwi) is a census-designated place (CDP) in McKinley County, New Mexico, McKinley County, New Mexico, United States. ...


Citations


General references

* Adair, John
''The Navajo and Pueblo Silversmiths''
Norman: University Oklahoma Press, 1989. . * Cushing, Frank Hamilton. Jesse Green, ed. ''Zuni: Selected Writings of Frank Hamilton Cushing''. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1978. . * Pritzker, Barry M. ''A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture, and Peoples.'' Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. . * Wade, Edwin L. "The Ethnic Art Market in the American Southwest, 1880-1980." George, W. Stocking, Jr., ed. ''Objects and Others: Essays on Museums and Material Culture (History of Anthropology)''. Vol. 3. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1988. .


Further reading

* . ''Zuni Mythology''. 2 vols. Columbia University Contributions to Anthropology, no. 21. New York: Columbia University Press, 1935. AMS Press reprint, 1969. * Bunzel, Ruth L.
Introduction to Zuni Ceremonialism
. (1932a); "Zuni Origin Myths". (1932b); "Zuni Ritual Poetry". (1932c). In Forty-Seventh Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology. pp. 467–835. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1932. Reprint, ''Zuni Ceremonialism: Three Studies''. Introduction by Nancy Pareto. University of New Mexico Press, 1992. * Bunzel, Ruth L. ''Zuni Texts''. Publications of the American Ethnological Society, 15. New York: G.E. Steckert & Co., 1933 * Cushing, Frank Hamilton, Barton Wright, ''The Mythic World of the Zuni''
University of New Mexico Press
1992, hardcover, * Herrick, Dennis. (2018) ''Esteban: The African Slave Who Explored America''
University of New Mexico Press
hardcover, * Davis, Nancy Yaw. (2000). ''The Zuni enigma''. Norton. * Eggan, Fred and T.N. Pandey. "Zuni History, 1855–1970". ''
Handbook of North American Indians The ''Handbook of North American Indians'' is a series of edited scholarly and reference volumes in Native American studies Native American studies (also known as American Indian, Indigenous American, Aboriginal Aborigine, aborigine or aborigin ...
, Southwest''. Vol.9. Ed. By Alfonso Ortiz. Pp. 474–481. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1979. * Hart, E. Richard, 2000. "Zuni Claims: An Expert Witness’ Reflections," ''American Indian Culture and Research Journal,'' 24(1): 163–171. * Hart, E. Richard, ed. ''Zuni and the Courts: A Struggle for Sovereign Land Rights.'' Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1995. . * Kroeber, Alfred L. (1984). ''Zuni kin and clan''. AMS Press. * Newman, Stanley S. ''Zuni Dictionary''. Indiana University Research Center, Publication Six. Bloomington: Indiana University, 1967. . * Roberts, John. "The Zuni". ''In Variations in Value Orientations''. Ed. by F.R. Kluckhorn and F.L. Strodbeck. pp. 285–316. Evanston, IL and Elmsford, NY: Row, Peterson, 1961. * Smith, Watson and John Roberts. ''Zuni Law: A Field of Values''. Papers of the Peabody Museum of the American Archaeology and Ethnology, Vol. 43. Cambridge, MA: Peabody Museum, 1954. * Tedlock, Barbara
''The Beautiful and the Dangerous: Dialogues with the Zuni Indians''
New York: Penguin Books, 1992.


External links


Pueblo of Zuni official website

A:shiwi A:wan Museum and Heritage Center
at Zuni
Pueblo of Zuni official Artist’s Art Walk website




Access Genealogy
''The Religious Life of the Zuñi Child''
by (Mrs.) Tilly E. (Matilda Coxe EStevenson), from
Project Gutenberg Project Gutenberg (PG) is a volunteer Volunteering is a voluntary act of an individual or group freely giving time and labour for community service. Many volunteers are specifically trained in the areas they work, such as medicine, educati ...

Pueblo tribe (Zuni is Pueblo)




15 July 2008 * ttp://digital.lib.msu.edu/projects/cookbooks/html/books/book_74.cfm ''Zuni Breadstuff''by
Frank Hamilton Cushing Frank Hamilton Cushing (July 22, 1857 in North East Township, Erie County, Pennsylvania – April 10, 1900 in Washington, D.C.) was an American anthropologist and ethnologist. He made pioneering studies of the Zuni Indians of New Mexico by entering ...

Frank Hamilton Cushing
, from Michigan State University Libraries – The Historic American Cookbook Project {{DEFAULTSORT:Zuni people Zuni tribe, Federally recognized tribes in the United States Native American tribes in Arizona Native American tribes in New Mexico Puebloan peoples