HOME

TheInfoList




In eighteenth and nineteenth century
German philosophy German philosophy, here taken to mean either (1) philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of ...
, ''Zeitgeist'' () ("spirit of the age") is an invisible agent or force dominating the characteristics of a given epoch in
world history World history or global history as a field of historiography, historical study examines history from a global perspective. It emerged centuries ago; leading practitioners have included Voltaire (1694–1778), Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Hegel ...
. Now, the term is usually associated with Georg W. F. Hegel, contrasting with Hegel's use of ''
Volksgeist ''Geist'' () is a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German l ...
'' "national spirit" and ''
Weltgeist ''Geist'' () is a German noun with a degree of importance in German philosophy German philosophy, here taken to mean either (1) philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about rea ...
'' "world-spirit". Its coinage and popularization precedes Hegel, and is mostly due to
Herder A herder is a pastoral A pastoral lifestyle is that of shepherds herd A herd is a social group of certain animals of the same species, either wildness, wild or Domestication, domestic. The form of collective animal behavior associ ...

Herder
and
Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of G ...

Goethe
. Other philosophers who were associated with such concepts include
Spencer Spencer may refer to: Names *Spencer (surname) **Spencer family, British aristocratic family **List of people with surname Spencer *Spencer (given name), a given name (including a list of people with the name) Places Australia *Spencer, New Sou ...

Spencer
and
Voltaire François-Marie Arouet (; 21 November 169430 May 1778), known by his ''nom de plume A pen name, also called a ''nom de plume'' () or a literary double, is a pseudonym A pseudonym () or alias () (originally: ψευδώνυμος in Greek) is a ...

Voltaire
. Contemporary use of the term may, more pragmatically refer to a schema of fashions or fads that prescribes what is considered to be acceptable or tasteful for an era, e.g. in the field of
architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Architecture (Latin ''archi ...

architecture
.


Theory of leadership

Hegel in ''
Phenomenology of the Spirit ''The Phenomenology of Spirit'' (german: Phänomenologie des Geistes) (1807) is Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (; ; 27 August 1770 – 14 November 1831) was a German people, German philosopher and is considered one ...
'' (1807) uses both ''Weltgeist'' and ''Volksgeist'', but prefers the phrase ''Geist der Zeiten'' "spirit of the times" over the
compound Compound may refer to: Architecture and built environments * Compound (enclosure), a cluster of buildings having a shared purpose, usually inside a fence or wall ** Compound (fortification), a version of the above fortified with defensive struct ...
''Zeitgeist''. The Hegelian concept contrasts with the Great Man theory as by
Thomas Carlyle Thomas Carlyle (4 December 17955 February 1881) was a Scottish Scottish usually refers to something of, from, or related to Scotland, including: *Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family native to Sco ...

Thomas Carlyle
, which sees history as the result of the actions of heroes and geniuses, as Hegel perceived such "great men", specifically
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General o ...

Napoleon
, as the "embodiment of the world-spirit" (''Die Weltseele zu Pferde'' "the on horseback") A "zeitgeist theory of
leadership Leadership, both as a research area and as a practical skill, encompasses the ability of an individual, group or organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English; American and B ...

leadership
" has been contrasted with great man theory by Forsyth (2009).Forsyth, D. R. (2009). Group dynamics: New York: Wadsworth.
hapter 9 Hapters are short, peg-like attachments of the lower surface of lichen to the Substrate (biology), substrate on which they grow. They are distinct from Rhizine, rhizines, which are more hair-like. Hapters are characteristic of the common Saxicolous ...
/ref> In his theory, Carlyle stresses that leaders do not become leaders by fate or accident. Instead, these individuals possess characteristics of great leaders and these characteristics allow them to obtain positions of power. According to Forsyth,
Leo Tolstoy Count Lev Nikolayevich TolstoyTolstoy pronounced his first name as , which corresponds to the romanization ''Lyov''. () (; russian: link=no, Лев Николаевич Толстой,In Tolstoy's day, his name was written as in pre-reform ...

Leo Tolstoy
disagreed with Carlyle's perspective, instead believing that leadership, like other things, was a product of the "zeitgeist", the social circumstances at the time. Great man theory and zeitgeist theory may be included in two main areas of thought in
psychology Psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. ...

psychology
. For instance, great man theory is very similar to the trait approach. Trait researchers are interested in identifying the various personality traits that underline human behaviors such as conformity, leadership, or other social behaviors. Thus, they agree that leadership is primarily a quality of an individual and that some people are pre-dispositioned to be a leader whereas others are born to follow these leaders. In contrast, Situationism (psychology), situationist researchers believe that social behavior is a product of society. That is, social influence is what determines human behaviors. Therefore, Situationism (psychology), situationism is of the same opinion as zeitgeist theory—leaders are created from the social environment and are molded from the situation. The concept of zeitgeist also relates to the sociological tradition that stems from Émile Durkheim and recently developed into social capital theory as exemplified by the work of Patrick Hunout. These two perspectives have been combined to create what is known as the ''interactional'' approach to
leadership Leadership, both as a research area and as a practical skill, encompasses the ability of an individual, group or organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English; American and B ...

leadership
. This approach asserts that leadership is developed through the mixing of personality traits and the situation. Further, this approach was expressed by social psychologist, Kurt Lewin, by the equation B = f(P, E) where behavior (B) is a function (f) of the person (P) and the environment (E).


In self-help and business models

Executives, venture capitalists, journalists, and authors have argued that the idea of a zeitgeist is useful in understanding the emergence of industries, simultaneous invention, and evaluating the relative value of innovations. Malcolm Gladwell argued in his book, ''Outliers (book), Outliers'', that entrepreneurs who succeeded often share similar characteristics—early personal or significant exposure to knowledge and skills in the early stages of a nascent industry. He proposed that the timing of involvement in an industry, and often in sports as well, affected the probability of success. In Silicon Valley, a number of people (Peter Thiel, Alistair Davidson, Mac Levchin, Nicholas G. Carr, Vinod Khosla) have argued that much innovation has been shaped by easy access to the Internet, open source software, component technologies for both hardware and software (e.g., software libraries, software as a service), and the ability to reach narrow markets across a global market. Peter Thiel has commented: "There is so much incrementalism now." In a zeitgeist market, the number of new entrants is high, differentiation in high value products (the strongest predictor of new product success) is more difficult to achieve, and business models emphasizing service and solution over product and process, will enhance success. Examples include innovation in product experience, legal rights and bundling, privacy rights, and agency (where businesses act on behalf of customers).


Aesthetic fashion

Hegel believed that art reflected, by its very nature, the culture of the time in which it is created. Culture and art are inextricable because an individual artist is a product of his or her time and therefore brings that culture to any given work of art. Furthermore, he believed that in the modern world it was impossible to produce classical art, which he believed represented a "free and ethical culture", which depended more on the Aesthetics, philosophy of art and Art#Theory, theory of art, rather than a reflection of the social construct, or ''Zeitgeist'' in which a given artist lives. This use of ''zeitgeist'' is taken in the sense of intellectual or aesthetic fashion or fad. Research from Experimental aesthetics, empirical aesthetics investigated the relation between zeitgeist as temporal context and the evaluation of Creativity, creative works. In a study of the musical originality of 15,618 classical Theme (music), music themes, the importance of objective characteristics and zeitgeist for popularity was examined. Both the musical originality of a theme relative to its contemporary works (the zeitgeist), as well as its "absolute" originality influenced in similar Effect size, magnitude the popularity of a theme. Similarly, objective features and temporal context both influenced the evaluation of linguistic originality.


See also

*''Geist'' *''Geisteswissenschaft'' *''
Volksgeist ''Geist'' () is a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German l ...
'' "national spirit" *''
Weltgeist ''Geist'' () is a German noun with a degree of importance in German philosophy German philosophy, here taken to mean either (1) philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about rea ...
'' "world-spirit" *Invisible hand *Historical epoch *Paradigm *Sociocultural system *World history


References


External links


Christian Adolph Klotz
in: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon, 4. Aufl., 1888, Vol. 9, Page 859 * {{Authority control Concepts in the philosophy of history German words and phrases