HOME

TheInfoList




Ji or Jicheng was an ancient city in northern China, which has become the longest continuously inhabited section of modern
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
. Historical mention of Ji dates to the founding of the
Zhou dynasty The Zhou dynasty ( ; Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China ...
in about 1045BC. Archaeological finds in southwestern Beijing where Ji was believed to be located date to the
Spring and Autumn period #REDIRECT Spring and Autumn period#REDIRECT Spring and Autumn period The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dyna ...
(771–476BC). The city of Ji served as the capital of the ancient states of Ji and
Yan Yan may refer to: Chinese states * Yan (state) Yan (; Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, official ...
until the unification of China by the
Qin dynasty The Qin dynasty, or Ch'in dynasty in Wade–Giles Wade–Giles () is a romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of ever ...

Qin dynasty
in 221BC. Thereafter, the city was a prefectural capital for
Youzhou You Prefecture or You Province, also known by its Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependenci ...
through the
Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...

Han dynasty
,
Three Kingdoms The Three Kingdoms () from 220 to 280 AD was the tripartite division of China among the states of Cao Wei, Wei, Shu Han, Shu, and Eastern Wu, Wu. The Three Kingdoms period started with the End of the Han dynasty, end of the Han dynasty#East ...

Three Kingdoms
,
Western Jin dynasty Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska Western is a village in Saline County, Nebraska, Saline County, Nebraska, United States. The population was 235 at the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census. History Western was laid out in 1 ...
,
Sixteen Kingdoms The Sixteen Kingdoms (), less commonly the Sixteen States, was a chaotic period in Chinese history The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty ...
,
Northern Dynasties The Northern and Southern dynasties () was a period in the history of China The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also histori ...
, and
Sui dynasty The Sui dynasty (, ) was a short-lived Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance. The Sui unified the Northern and Southern dynasties and reinstalled the rule of ethnic Han Chinese, Han in the entirety of ...

Sui dynasty
. With the creation of a Jizhou during the
Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organiza ...
in what is now
Tianjin Municipality Tianjin (), alternately romanized as Tientsin, is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by nati ...
, the city of Ji took on the name Youzhou. Youzhou was one of the
Sixteen Prefectures The Sixteen Prefectures () comprise a historical region in northern China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous co ...

Sixteen Prefectures
ceded to the
Khitans The Khitan people (Khitan small script The Khitan small script () was one of two writing systems used for the now-extinct Khitan language Khitan or Kitan ( in large script or in small, ''Khitai''; , ''Qìdānyǔ''), also known as Liao, is a n ...

Khitans
during the
Five Dynasties The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–979) was an era of political upheaval and division in 10th-century Imperial China. Five states quickly succeeded one another in the Central Plain, and more than a dozen concurrent states were e ...
. The city then became the southern capital of the
Liao dynasty The Liao dynasty (; Khitan: ''Mos Jælud''; ), also known as the Khitan Empire (Khitan: ''Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur''), officially the Great Liao (), was an imperial dynasty of China that existed between 916 and 1125, ruled by the Yel ...
and then main capital of the
Jin dynasty (1115–1234) The Jin dynasty (, ; , JurchenJurchen may refer to: * Jurchen people, Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until the 17th century ** Haixi Jurchens, a grouping of the Jurchens as identified by the Chinese of the Ming Dynasty ...
. In the 13th century,
Kublai Khan Kublai (; also spelled Qubilai or Kübilai; mn, Хубилай, Khubilai ; ; 23 September  1215 – 18 February 1294), also known by his temple name as Emperor Shizu of Yuan, was the fifth khagan-Emperor of China, emperor of the Mongol Empir ...

Kublai Khan
built a new capital city for the
Yuan dynasty The Yuan dynasty (), officially the Great Yuan (; xng, , , literally "Great Yuan State"), was a successor state Successor is someone who, or something which succeeds or comes after (see success and succession) Film and TV * ''The Succ ...
adjacent to Ji to the north. The old city of Ji became a suburb to Dadu. In the Ming dynasty, the old and new cities were merged by Beijing's Ming-era city wall.


Pre-Imperial history

The city-state of Ji was inhabited by the tribe of the
Yellow Emperor The Yellow Emperor, also known as the Yellow Thearch, or by his Chinese name Huangdi (), is a deity A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena that are not subject to the laws of nature.https://w ...

Yellow Emperor
in the
Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynasty (), was a Chinese dynasty Dynasties in Chinese history, or Chinese dynasties, were hereditary monarchical regimes that ruled over China during much of its history. From ...

Shang dynasty
, and became one of the founding vassal states of the
Zhou dynasty The Zhou dynasty ( ; Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China ...
. According to
Sima Qian Sima Qian (; ; ) was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu B ...

Sima Qian
's ''
Records of the Grand Historian The ''Records of the Grand Historian'', also known by its Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dep ...

Records of the Grand Historian
'',
King Wu of Zhou King Wu of Zhou () was the first king King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, queen, which title is also given to the queen consort, consort of a king. *In the conte ...

King Wu of Zhou
, in the 11th year of his reign, deposed
King Zhou of Shang King Zhou (/oʊ/; ) was the pejorative posthumous name given to Di Xin of Shang (), the last king of the Shang dynasty of ancient China. He is also called Zhou Xin (; Zhòu Xīn). In Chinese, his name Zhòu (wikt:纣, 紂) also refers to a horse c ...
and conferred titles to nobles within his domain, including the rulers of the city states Ji and
Yan Yan may refer to: Chinese states * Yan (state) Yan (; Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, official ...
. According to the ''
Book of Rites The ''Book of Rites'', also known as the ''Liji'', is a collection of texts describing the social forms, administration, and ceremonial rites of the Zhou dynasty as they were understood in the Warring States period, Warring States and the early Ha ...
'',
King Wu of Zhou King Wu of Zhou () was the first king King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, queen, which title is also given to the queen consort, consort of a king. *In the conte ...

King Wu of Zhou
was so eager to establish his legitimacy after his battle victory over the Shang that before dismounting from his chariot, he named the descendants of the Yellow Emperor to the State of Ji. The 11th year of the reign of King Wu of Zhou approximates to 1145BC. The Beijing Municipal Government designates 1045BC as the first year of the city's history. At some time in the late
Western Zhou dynasty The Western Zhou ( zh, c=, p=Xīzhōu; c. 1045 BC – 771 BC) was the first half of the Zhou dynasty The Zhou dynasty ( ; Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese Chin ...
or the early
Eastern Zhou dynasty The Eastern Zhou (; zh, c=, p=Dōngzhōu; 770–256 BC) was the second half of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China. It was divided into two periods: the Spring and Autumn period, Spring and Autumn and the Warring States period, Warring States. H ...
, the neighboring State of Yan conquered Ji and made the city its capital. The Yan state eventually became one of the seven powers of the
Warring States period The Warring States period () was an era in ancient Chinese history characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation. It followed the Spring and Autumn period#REDIRECT Spring and Autumn period The Spri ...
(476–221BC). The rulers of the Yan built several capitals and moved their seat of power in response to threats from the nomadic tribes from the north and neighboring kingdoms from the south. Ji was referred to historians as Shangdu (上都) or the "Upper Capital." Other Yan capitals include: (1) the Liulihe Site in southern
Fangshan District Fangshan District () is situated in the southwest of Beijing Beijing ( ), Chinese postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the Capital city, capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the world's List of nationa ...
of
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
, which served as the Yan capital prior to Yan’s conquest of Ji, (2) Linyi (临易) in present-day Rongcheng and Xiong Counties of
Hebei Province Hebei (; Postal romanization, alternately Hopeh) is a coastal Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, and is part of the North China region. The modern province was established in 1911 as Zhili, Chihli Provinc ...
to which the seat of Yan moved in 690sBC,(Chinese
> 燕都遗迹 >> 易都—容城南阳遗址、雄县古贤村遗址"">"走进燕国 >> 燕都遗迹 >> 易都—容城南阳遗址、雄县古贤村遗址"
Accessed 2012-12-13
(3) the ancient city of Doudian in Liangxiang of Fangshan District, known as Zhongdu (中都), or the "Middle Capital"(Chinese
> 燕都遗迹 >> 中都——窦店古城"">"走进燕国 >> 燕都遗迹 >> 中都——窦店古城"
Accessed 2012-12-13
and (4)
Xiadu The Xiadu or Lower Capital of Yan () was one of the capitals of Yan during the Warring States period The Warring States period () was an era in ancient Chinese history characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms an ...
(下都) or the "Lower Capital", a larger settlement south of Linyi, in modern-day
Yi County, Hebei Yi County or Yixian () is a County (People's Republic of China), county in Hebei province of China, administratively under the jurisdiction of the prefecture-level city of Baoding. It has an area of . History This is the site where the assassin J ...
Province, that was built in the 300sBC.(Chinese
> 燕都遗迹 >> 下都—河北易县燕下都遗址"">"走进燕国 >> 燕都遗迹 >> 下都—河北易县燕下都遗址"
Accessed 2012-12-13
By the time, the
State of Qin Qin () was an during the . Traditionally dated to 897 BC, it took its origin in a reconquest of western lands previously lost to the ; its position at the western edge of permitted expansion and development that was unavailable to its rivals in ...
invaded Yan in 226BC, the capital of Yan was back in Ji. The city of Ji is believed to be located in the southwestern part of present-day urban Beijing, just south of Guang'anmen in Xicheng and
Fengtai District Fengtai District () is a district of the municipality of Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is g ...
s.(Chinese
> 燕都遗迹 >> 上都——蓟城"">"走进燕国 >> 燕都遗迹 >> 上都——蓟城"
Accessed 2012-12-13
Historical accounts mention a "Hill of Ji" northwest of the city, which would correspond to the large mound at the White Cloud Abbey, outside Xibianmen about 4 km north of Guang’anmen. South and west of Guang’anmen, archaeologists have unearthed remnants of concentrated human habitation dating back to at least the 400sBC. In 1956, during the construction of the Yongding River viaduct, 151 ancient wells dating to the Spring and Autumn, Warring States and Han dynasty were discovered. In 1957, a rammed earth platform was found south of Guang’anmen along with tiles used for palace construction. Since then more wells and tiles have been discovered, and the wells are most densely concentrated in south of Xuanwumen and Hepingmen. Archaeologists have yet to discover remnants of city walls from the Zhou dynasty that have been found at the other four capitals. In 1974, excavations around the White Cloud Abbey uncovered remnants of city walls but three tombs from the
Eastern Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...
found underneath the walls indicate the walls post-date the tombs.(Chinese
"北京建城之始-燕蓟遗迹"
2005-09-01
The fact that the other four capitals were buried beneath farmland and the Guang’anmen area is a densely populated section of urban Beijing accounts for the greater difficulty of searching for Ji’s ruins. In 2008, city authorities in Beijing announced that archaeological efforts would accompany urban renewal constructions projects in southern Bejiing to search for more artifacts of Ji in the pre-imperial era.


Early Imperial Era


Qin dynasty

QinQin may refer to: Dynasties and states * Qin (state) (秦), a major state during the Zhou Dynasty of ancient China * Qin dynasty (秦), founded by the Qin state in 221 BC and ended in 206 BC * Daqin (大秦), ancient Chinese name for the Roman Empi ...

Qin
general Wang Jian conquered Ji in 226BC and the
First Emperor Qin Shi Huang (, ; 259–210 BCE), or Shihuangdi, was the founder of the Qin dynasty The Qin dynasty, or Ch'in dynasty in Wade–Giles Wade–Giles () is a Romanization of Chinese, romanization system for Standard Chinese, Manda ...

First Emperor
completed his unification of China in 221BC. The country was organized into 48 commanderies. Ji was the capital of the
Guangyang Commandery Guangyang Commandery ( zh, 廣陽郡), at times also Guangyang Principality ( zh, 廣陽國), was a territory of early imperial China located in modern Hebei Hebei (; alternately Hopeh) is a coastal province A province is almost always a ...
. To prevent the Warring States from regaining their power, the First Emperor ordered the walls of the old capitals be destroyed and Ji's walls were torn down in 215BC but later rebuilt. The Qin removed defensive barriers dividing the Warring States, including the southern wall of the Yan, which separated the Beijing Plain from the Central Plain, and built a national roadway network. Ji served as the junction for the roads connecting the Central Plain with Mongolia and Manchuria. The First Emperor visited Ji in 215BC and, to protect the frontier from the
Xiongnu The Xiongnu (, ) were a tribal confederation A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common action. Usually created by a treaty A treaty is a formal ...

Xiongnu
, had the Qin Great Wall built north of Ji and fortified
Juyong Pass Juyong Pass () is a mountain pass A mountain pass is a navigable route through a mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mount ...
. The Qin conscripted men from throughout the country to be garrisoned at the forts north of Ji. In 209BC, a group of conscripts who were delayed in their march to the north by flooding in central China and faced penalty by death, rose in
rebellion Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order. It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an established authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behavio ...
under the leadership of
Chen Sheng Chen Sheng (died 208 BC), also known as Chen She, was the leader of the Dazexiang Uprising The Chen Sheng and Wu Guang Uprising (), July-December 209 B.C., was the first uprising against Qin rule following the death of Qin Shi Huang Qi ...
and
Wu Guang Wu Guang (, died 208 BC) was a leader of the first rebellion against the Qin Dynasty The Qin dynasty, or Ch'in dynasty in Wade–Giles Wade–Giles () is a Romanization of Chinese, romanization system for Standard Chinese, Mandarin ...
. The rebellion spread to Ji, where
Han Guang Han Guang (died 206 BC) was the ruler of the Kingdom of Liaodong () of the Eighteen Kingdoms The historiographical term "Eighteen Kingdoms" ( zh, t=十八國) refers to the eighteen '' fengjian'' states created by military leader Xiang Yu ...
revived the Yan Kingdom. Han Guang sent his subordinate
Zang Tu Zang Tu (died 202 BC) was a warlord who lived during the late Qin dynasty and early Han dynasty of China. Biography Zang Tu was originally a military general serving under Han Guang, the king of the Yan (state), Yan state. Around 207 BC, when r ...
to help rebel leader
Xiang Yu Xiang Yu (, –202 BC), born Xiang Ji (), was the Hegemon-King (Chinese: 霸王, ''Bà Wáng'') of Western Chu Chu (, Hanyu Pinyin: Chǔ, Old Chinese: ''*s-r̥aʔ'') was a Zhou dynasty ancient Chinese states, vassal state. Their fir ...

Xiang Yu
, who succeeded in capturing the Qin capital at Xianyang in 207BC. Xiang Yu then divided the country into , appointing Zang Tu as the lord of Ji and Han Guang as the lord of nearby Liaodong. Han Guang refused to cede Ji to Zang Tu, who seized the city and killed Han Guang. Zang Tu then sided with
Liu Bang Emperor Gaozu of Han (256 – 1 June 195 BC), born Liu Bang () with courtesy name Ji (季), was the founder and first emperor of the Han dynasty, reigning in 202–195 BC. His temple name was "Taizu" while his posthumous name was Emper ...

Liu Bang
, the lord of Sichuan, in the war against Xiang Yu. After Liu Bang prevailed and founded the
Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...

Han dynasty
, Zang Tu was appointed the
Prince of Yan Prince or King of Yan () was a Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world ...
, and governed the
Principality of Yan Yan (燕國) was a Kings of the Han dynasty, kingdom/principality in early Imperial China. It first appeared during Chu–Han Contention, the interregnum between the Qin and Han dynasties as one of the Eighteen Kingdoms created by Xiang Yu, and wa ...
from Ji.


Han dynasty

When the Han court began to purge former supporters of Xiang Yu, Zang Tu became fearful and rebelled. Liu Bang as the personally led a campaign against Zang Tu in Ji. Zang Tu was defeated and killed in 206BC. Emperor Gaozu appointed his childhood friend
Lu Wan Lu Wan (died 194 BC) was an official and vassal king of the early Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel lea ...
as the Prince of Yan. In 195BC, he became distrustful of Lu Wan and invaded Ji. Lu Wan fled to the
Xiongnu The Xiongnu (, ) were a tribal confederation A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common action. Usually created by a treaty A treaty is a formal ...

Xiongnu
in the steppes. To tighten control of the region, the Emperor Gaozu sent his son Liu Jian to Ji as the Prince of Yan. After Liu Jian died in 181BC, Gaozu's widow, the
Empress Lü Zhi An emperor (from la, imperator The Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning ...
controlled the Han court, and made her nephew Lü Tong as the Prince of Yan. When Empress Lü Zhi's regency ended in 179BC, Liu Ze became the Prince of Yan and his family ruled Ji for three generations. In 117BC,
Emperor Wu of Han Emperor Wu of Han (30 June 156 – 29 March 87BC), formally enshrined as Emperor Wu the Filial Filial may refer to: * Filial church, a Roman Catholic church to which is annexed the cure of souls, but which remains dependent on another church ...

Emperor Wu of Han
appointed his son Liu Dan as the Prince of Yan. Liu Dan held the title for 38 years. In 106BC, Emperor Wu of Han organized the
Western Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...
into 13 province-sized prefectures, each administered by a ''cishi'' (刺史) or inspector. The city of Ji was the prefectural seat for Youzhou, which governed roughly the same territory as the
State of Yan Yan (; Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese. The earliest examples of Chinese are divinatory inscriptions on oracle ...
during the
Warring States period The Warring States period () was an era in ancient Chinese history characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation. It followed the Spring and Autumn period#REDIRECT Spring and Autumn period The Spri ...
. Youzhou was composed of the Shanggu, Zhuo, Guangyang, Bohai, Yuyang, Right Beiping, Liaoxi, Liaodong,
Xuantu Xuantu Commandery (; ko, 현도군) was a commandery In the Middle Ages, a commandery (rarely commandry) was the smallest administrative division of the European landed estate, landed properties of a Military order (religious society), military ...
and
Lelang Lelang Commandery was a commandery of the Han Dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. ...
Commanderies. After Emperor Wu died, Liu Dan conspired with the Empress Gaichang and
Sang Hongyang Sang Hongyang (Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous ...

Sang Hongyang
to subvert the throne. When the plot was foiled, Liu Dan was forced to commit suicide in 80BC and the Principality of Yan was converted to
Guangyang Commandery Guangyang Commandery ( zh, 廣陽郡), at times also Guangyang Principality ( zh, 廣陽國), was a territory of early imperial China located in modern Hebei Hebei (; alternately Hopeh) is a coastal province A province is almost always a ...
. In 73BC, Liu Jian's son, Liu Jian was appointed the Prince of Guangyang and the Guangyang Commandery became the Guangyang Principality. Liu Jian's tomb is now
Dabaotai Western Han Dynasty Mausoleum The Beijing Dabaotai Western Han Dynasty Mausoleum (Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies ...
in
Fengtai District Fengtai District () is a district of the municipality of Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is g ...
of Beijing. His grandson Liu Jia was ousted from the principality after
Wang Mang Wang Mang () (c. 45 – 6 October 23 AD), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultura ...

Wang Mang
's seized the Han throne. During the Wang Mang interregnum, Guangyang Principality became the Guangyou Principality. During the
Eastern Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...
, Youzhou was as one of 12 prefectures and contained a dozen subordinate commanderies, including the Guangyang Commandery. In AD24, Liu Xiu moved Youzhou's prefectural seat from Ji County (in modern-day Tianjin) to the city of Ji. In AD96, the city of Ji served as the seat of both the Guangyang Commandery and Youzhou. Near the end of the Eastern Han dynasty, the commander of Fanyang was
Liu YanLiu Yan may refer to: * Liu Yan (Xin dynasty) (died 23 AD), rebel leader against the Xin dynasty * Liu Yan (Han dynasty warlord) (died 194), Eastern Han nobleman and warlord * Liu Yan (Shu Han) (died 234), general of Shu Han during the Three Kingdom ...
, better known as the governor of Yizhou Province a few years later. After Liu Yan's reposting, Liu Yu became the commander of Yizhou. His subordinate,
Gongsun Zan Gongsun Zan () (died March 199), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sphere, inclu ...
, eventually attacked Youzhou and killed Liu Yu, becoming the commander of Fanyang.


Wei, Jin and Northern dynasties

During the
Three Kingdoms The Three Kingdoms () from 220 to 280 AD was the tripartite division of China among the states of Cao Wei, Wei, Shu Han, Shu, and Eastern Wu, Wu. The Three Kingdoms period started with the End of the Han dynasty, end of the Han dynasty#East ...

Three Kingdoms
, the Kingdom of Wei controlled ten of the Han Dynasty's prefectures including Youzhou and its capital Ji. The Wei Kingdom reorganized and decentralized the governance of commanderies under Youzhou. Guangyang Commandery became the State of Yan (燕国), which had four counties: Ji County, Changping, Jundu and Guangyang County, and was governed from the city of Ji.
Fanyang Commandery Zhuo Commandery ( zh, 涿郡) or Fanyang Commandery ( zh, 范陽郡) was a commandery In the Middle Ages, a commandery (rarely commandry) was the smallest administrative division of the European landed estate, landed properties of a Military order ...
was governed from Zhuo County.
Yuyang Commandery Yuyang Commandery ( zh, 漁陽郡) was a commandery In the Middle Ages, a commandery (rarely commandry) was the smallest administrative division of the European landed estate, landed properties of a Military order (religious society), military orde ...
was governed from Yuyuang (in modern-day
Huairou District Huairou District () is situated in northern Beijing Beijing ( ), Chinese postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the Capital city, capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the world's List of national capitals ...
of Beijing), Shanggu Commandery was governed from Juyong (in modern-day
Yanqing County Yanqing District (), formerly known as Yanqing County before 2015, is a district A district is a type of that, in some countries, is managed by the . Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning s or , sever ...
of Beijing).(Chines
"北方军事重镇-汉唐经略东北的基地-民族大融合的魏晋十六国北朝时期" Beijing Municipal Administration of Cultural Heritage
2005-09-01
The Wei court instituted offices in Youzhou to manage relations with the
Wuhuan The Wuhuan (, <
Eastern Han Chinese Eastern Han Chinese or Later Han Chinese is the sta ...
and
Xianbei The Xianbei (; ) were a Proto-Mongolic Proto-Mongolic is the hypothetical ancestor language of the modern Mongolic languages. It is very close to the Middle Mongol language, the language spoken at the time of Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empir ...
. To help sustain the troops garrisoned in Youzhou, the governor in AD250 built the Lilingyan, an irrigation system that greatly improved agricultural output in the plains around Ji.(Chinese
魏晋十六国时期的幽州城, 北京城市历史地理
2005-12-30
Ji was demoted to a county seat in the
Western Jin dynasty Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska Western is a village in Saline County, Nebraska, Saline County, Nebraska, United States. The population was 235 at the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census. History Western was laid out in 1 ...
(晋), which made neighboring
Zhuo County Zhuozhou (), is a county-level city A county-level municipality (), county-level city or county city, formerly known as prefecture-controlled city (1949–1970: ; 1970–1983: ), is a county-level administrative division of the P ...
, in present-day
Hebei Province Hebei (; Postal romanization, alternately Hopeh) is a coastal Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, and is part of the North China region. The modern province was established in 1911 as Zhili, Chihli Provinc ...
, the prefectural capital of Youzhou. In the early 4th century, the Western Jin dynasty was overthrown by steppe peoples who had settled in northern China and established in a series of mostly short-lived kingdoms. During the so-called
Sixteen Kingdoms The Sixteen Kingdoms (), less commonly the Sixteen States, was a chaotic period in Chinese history The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty ...
period, the city of Ji was successively controlled by the Di-led
Former Qin The Former Qin, also called Fu Qin (苻秦) (351–394) was a dynastic state of the Sixteen Kingdoms The Sixteen Kingdoms (), less commonly the Sixteen States, was a chaotic period in Chinese history The earliest known written r ...
, the Jie-led
Later Zhao The Later Zhao (; 319–351) was a dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the university press ...
, the
Xianbei The Xianbei (; ) were a Proto-Mongolic Proto-Mongolic is the hypothetical ancestor language of the modern Mongolic languages. It is very close to the Middle Mongol language, the language spoken at the time of Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empir ...
-led
Former Yan The Former Yan (; 337–370) was a dynastic state ruled by the Xianbei The Xianbei (; ) were a Proto-Mongolic Proto-Mongolic is the hypothetical ancestor language of the modern Mongolic languages. It is very close to the Middle Mongol lang ...
and
Later Yan The Later Yan (; 384 – 407 or 409) was a dynastic state ruled by the Xianbei The Xianbei (; ) were a Proto-Mongolic Proto-Mongolic is the hypothetical ancestor language of the modern Mongolic languages. It is very close to the Middle Mon ...
. In 319 AD,
Shi Le Shi Le (274–333), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sphere, including China, Japan, ...
, the founder of the
Later Zhao The Later Zhao (; 319–351) was a dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the university press ...
Kingdom, captured Ji from
Duan Pidi Duan Pidi (died 321) was a Duan-Xianbei The Xianbei (; ) were an ancient nomadic people that once resided in the eastern Eurasian steppes in what is today Mongolia Mongolia (, Mongolian language, Mongolian: , Mongolian script, T ...
, a Xianbei chieftain nominally loyal to the Jin Dynasty. In 349,
Ran Min Ran Min (; died 352), also known as Shi Min (石閔), posthumously Posthumous ('after death') may refer to: * Posthumous (album), ''Posthumous'' (album), by Warne Marsh, 1987 * Posthumous (EP), ''Posthumous'' (EP), by The Banner, 2001 * Posthu ...
, an ethnic Han general seized control of this kingdom, which he renamed
Ran Wei Ran Min (; died 352), also known as Shi Min (石閔), posthumously honored by Former Yan as Heavenly King Wudao of (Ran) Wei ((冉)魏武悼天王), courtesy name Yongzeng (永曾), nickname Jinu (棘奴), was a military leader during the era ...

Ran Wei
in 350. But before he could capture Ji, the city was taken by the Murong Xianbei, led by Prince
Murong Jun Murong Jun (; 319–360), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sphere, including China ...
who swept down from
Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its populatio ...

Manchuria
. Murong Jun then defeated Ran Min and extinguished the Ran Wei. In 352, he declared himself emperor and made the city, the capital of the
Former Yan The Former Yan (; 337–370) was a dynastic state ruled by the Xianbei The Xianbei (; ) were a Proto-Mongolic Proto-Mongolic is the hypothetical ancestor language of the modern Mongolic languages. It is very close to the Middle Mongol lang ...
Kingdom.(Chinese
"北京城市行政区划述略" 《北京地方志》
Accessed 2012-12-19
Five years later, the Former Yan's capital was moved further south to Ye in southern Hebei. In 369-70, the
Former Qin The Former Qin, also called Fu Qin (苻秦) (351–394) was a dynastic state of the Sixteen Kingdoms The Sixteen Kingdoms (), less commonly the Sixteen States, was a chaotic period in Chinese history The earliest known written r ...
, led by Fu Jian, a Di (Five Barbarians), Di, defeated the Former Yan and briefly unified northern China. But after losing the Battle of Feishui in 383, the Former Qin's control crumbled as the
Later Yan The Later Yan (; 384 – 407 or 409) was a dynastic state ruled by the Xianbei The Xianbei (; ) were a Proto-Mongolic Proto-Mongolic is the hypothetical ancestor language of the modern Mongolic languages. It is very close to the Middle Mon ...
, Northern Wei and other kingdoms broke away. In 385, the Northern Yan, under Murong Chui and seized Ji from the Former Qin. At around 398, the Former Yan governor of Ji, Gao Hu, surrendered to the Northern Wei, led by the Tuoba clan of the Xianbei, who established the first of the Northern dynasties. Ji became the prefecture capital of Youzhou. This designation continued through the remainder of the Northern dynasties, Eastern Wei, Northern Qi and Northern Zhou.


Sui and Tang dynasties

During the
Sui dynasty The Sui dynasty (, ) was a short-lived Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance. The Sui unified the Northern and Southern dynasties and reinstalled the rule of ethnic Han Chinese, Han in the entirety of ...

Sui dynasty
, Youzhou became Zhuojun or Zhuo Commandery and Ji remained the capital of the commandery. Emperor Yang of Sui mobilized more than million men and women to build the Grand Canal (China), Grand Canal to Zhuojun, to carry men and materiale for his Goguryeo–Sui War, campaigns against Goguryeo. Outside of Ji, the Linshuo Palace was built in 609 to accommodate the emperor during his trips and to and from Korea. The brutal reign of Emperor Yang brought rebellions against the Sui dynasty. One of these, led by Dou Jiande rose from Zhuojun and besieged Ji in 620 but was defeated by Luo Yi, a Sui general who joined Emperor Gaozu of Tang, Li Yuan's insurrection against the Sui. Li Yuan founded the
Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organiza ...
. During the
Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organiza ...
(618–907 CE) and Later Jin (Five Dynasties), Later Jin (936–947 CE), Fanyang was an important military garrison and a commercial hub. To the north of the city lay the military region of Yingzhou (营州) with Daizhou (代州) to the west. The Tang dynasty reduced the size of a prefecture, as a unit of administration History of the administrative divisions of China, administrative division, from a province to a commandery and renamed Zhuojun back to Youzhou, which was one of over 300 Tang Prefectures. With the creation of a separate prefecture called Jizhou (蓟州) in present-day Tianjin in 730, the name Ji was transplanted from Beijing to Tianjin, where a Ji County, Tianjin, Ji County (蓟县) still exists today. In Beijing, the city of Ji gradually became known as Youzhou. The seat of the government of Youzhou remained in place but took on slightly different names. In 616, the government was called Youzhou Zongguanfu (幽州总管府); in 622, Youzhou Dazongguanfu (幽州大总管府); in 624, Youzhou Dadudufu (幽州大都督府) and in 626, Youzhou Dudufu (幽州都督府). In 645, Tang Emperor Taizong of Tang, Emperor Taizong launched Goguryeo–Tang War, another war against Goguryeo using Ji as the base of forward operating base. He was defeated badly and retreated to the city, and built the Fayuan Temple in the western suburbs to commemorate the war dead. From 710, the head of the government in Youzhou became a '' jiedushi'', a military regional commander. In 742, Youzhou was renamed Fanyang Commandery (范阳郡). In 759, during the An–Shi Rebellion, Shi Siming declared himself emperor of the Yan (An–Shi), Great Yan dynasty and made Fanyang, Yanjing (燕京) or “the Yan Capital.” After the rebellion was suppressed, the seat of government became Youzhou Lulong Dudufu (幽州卢龙都督府). The
Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organiza ...
Goguryeo general Gao Juren ordered a mass slaughter of Sogdian people, Sogdian Caucasians identifying them through their big noses and lances were used to impale Caucasian children when he stormed Beijing (Fanyang) from An Lushan when he An_Lushan_Rebellion#Implosion_of_Yan_Dynasty_and_end_of_the_rebellion, defeated An Lushan's rebels.


Liao dynasty

Under the
Liao dynasty The Liao dynasty (; Khitan: ''Mos Jælud''; ), also known as the Khitan Empire (Khitan: ''Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur''), officially the Great Liao (), was an imperial dynasty of China that existed between 916 and 1125, ruled by the Yel ...
(907–1125), the city was renamed Nanjing (南京) and was the southern capital of Liao. It was also called Yanjing. In the following Jin dynasty (1115–1234), Jin dynasty (1115–1234), the city was called Zhongdu (中都), the central capital of the Jin. After the Mongol Empire, Mongols took the city, it was renamed Yanjing. After the Mongols razed it, a new city called Dadu was built adjacent to the former Jin capital which was the capital of the
Yuan dynasty The Yuan dynasty (), officially the Great Yuan (; xng, , , literally "Great Yuan State"), was a successor state Successor is someone who, or something which succeeds or comes after (see success and succession) Film and TV * ''The Succ ...
(1279–1368).


Modern significance

In 2002, the then-Xuanwu District, Beijing, Xuanwu District government erected a commemorative pillar in Binhe Park along the western 2nd Ring Road, just south of the Tianning Temple (Beijing), Tianning Temple to mark the location of Jicheng and its importance to the history of Beijing. In 2009, the Beijing Administration for Cultural Heritage made the study and discovery of Ji during the Western Zhou, Spring and Autumn, Warring States, Qin and Han eras a priority in the city's archaeological work.(Chinese
后奥运时期首都文博工作的发展分析与探讨 北京文博
2009-08-31


See also

* History of Beijing


References


Citations


Sources

* Ancient Chinese capitals History of Beijing Yan (state) {{coord, 39.894262, N, 116.382425, E, source:dewiki_region:CN-11_type:adm2nd, format=dms, display=title