HOME
TheInfoList



Yan'an (; ) is a
prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning">Yangxin County, Hubei">Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still from the Huangshi main urban area. ...
in the
ShanbeiShaanbei () or Northern Shaanxi is the portion of China's Shaanxi province north of the Huanglong Mountain and the Meridian Ridge (the so-called "Guanzhong north mountains"), and is both a geographic as well as a cultural area. It makes up the south ...
region of
Shaanxi Shaanxi (, ; alternately Shensi) is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China. Officially part of Northwest China, it borders the province-level divisions of Shanxi (NE, E), Henan (E), Hubei (SE), Chongqing (S), Sichuan (SW), G ...
province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman ''provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roman Empire's territorial possessions outside ...
, China, bordering
Shanxi Shanxi (; formerly romanised as Shansi) is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the North China region. The capital and largest city of the province is Taiyuan, while its next most populated prefecture-level ...
to the east and
Gansu Gansu (; alternately romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked province in Northwest China. Its capital and largest city is Lanzhou, in the southeast part of the province. The seventh-largest administrative district by area at , Gansu lies between the ...
to the west. It administers several counties, including Zhidan (formerly Bao'an), which served as the headquarters of the
Chinese Communist The Communist Party of China (CPC), commonly known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and sole governing political party of the People's Republic of China (PRC). The CCP leads eight other legally permitted subordinate minor p ...
s before the city of Yan'an proper took that role. Yan'an was near the endpoint of the
Long March The Long March (, lit. ''Long Expedition'') was a military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China, the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang (KMT or Chinese Nationalist P ...
, and became the center of the
Chinese Communist revolution The Chinese Communist Revolution, known in the mainland China as the War of Liberation (), was the conflict, led by the Communist Party of China and Chairman Mao Zedong, that resulted in the proclamation of the People's Republic of China, on 1 O ...
from late 1935 to early 1947. Chinese communists celebrate Yan'an as the birthplace of the revolution.


Administrative divisions


History

Yan'an was populated at least as early as the
Xia Dynasty The Xia dynasty is the first dynasty in traditional Chinese historiography. According to tradition, the Xia dynasty was established by the legendary Yu the Great, after Shun, the last of the Five Emperors, gave the throne to him. In the traditi ...
. During the
Spring and Autumn Period The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BCE (or according to some authorities until 403 BCE) which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou period. The period's name derives fro ...
, the area was inhabited by the Beidi people. During the Western Wei the area was organized under the name Yanzhou (). The
Sui Dynasty The Sui dynasty (, ) was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance. The Sui unified the Northern and Southern dynasties and reinstalled the rule of ethnic Han in the entirety of China proper, along with sinicization of for ...

Sui Dynasty
established a military base in Yan'an. The area became an important defensive outpost for the subsequent
Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum between 690 and 705. It was preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. His ...
. Yanzhou was a location of strategic military importance for the Chinese empire and Tanguts of the
Western Xia The Western Xia or Xi Xia (; also known as the Tangut Empire, and known as ''Mi-nyak''Stein (1972), pp. 70–71. to Tibetans and Tanguts) was an empire which existed from 1038 to 1227 in what are now the northwestern Chinese provinces of ...
Dynasty. It was once successfully defended by the
Song Dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song following his usurpation of the throne of the Later Zhou, ending the Five Dynasties and ...
era Chinese scientist, statesman, and general
Shen Kuo Shen Kuo (; 1031–1095) or Shen Gua, courtesy name Cunzhong (存中) and pseudonym Mengqi (now usually given as Mengxi) Weng (夢溪翁),Yao (2003), 544. was a Chinese polymathic scientist and statesman of the Song dynasty (960–1279). Excellin ...
. However, it was eventually taken over by the Tanguts in 1082 once Shen's defensive victories were marginalized and sacrificed by the new Chancellor Cai Que (who handed the city over to the Tanguts as terms of a peace treaty). In 1089, under the Song Dynasty, Yanzhou was renamed to Yan'an, and was promoted to a fu (). Yan'an and the whole of
Shaanxi Shaanxi (, ; alternately Shensi) is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China. Officially part of Northwest China, it borders the province-level divisions of Shanxi (NE, E), Henan (E), Hubei (SE), Chongqing (S), Sichuan (SW), G ...
were taken over by the
Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; ) are an East Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and to China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. They also live as minorities in other regions of China (e.g. Xinjiang), as well as ...

Mongol
s in the late 1220s, only after their leader
Genghis Khan ''Chinggis Khaan''͡ʃiŋgis xa:nbr>Mongol script: ''Chinggis Qa(gh)an/ Chinggis Khagan'' , birth_name = Temüjin ; xng, Temüjin, script=Latn; ., name=Temujin , successor = Ögedei Khan , spouse = , issue = , house = Borjigin , dynasty = Geng ...

Genghis Khan
had died during the siege of the Western Xia capital in 1227. The city was maintained by the successive Chinese
Ming Dynasty#REDIRECT Ming dynasty {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from move {{R from other capitalisation ...
(1368–1644), as well as the
Manchu#REDIRECT Manchu people#REDIRECT Manchu people {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...

Manchu
Qing Dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The mult ...
(1644–1911). After the fall of the Qing Dynasty, the city became part of the newly created
Republic of China Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The main island of Ta ...
.


Red Capital

In December 1936, at the start of the
Second United Front The Second United Front was the alliance between the Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang, or KMT) and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) to resist the Japanese invasion during the Second Sino-Japanese War, which suspended the Chinese Civil War ...
, Yan'an was taken over by the Chinese Communists. They had arrived in the area in October 1935 after making the famous
Long March The Long March (, lit. ''Long Expedition'') was a military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China, the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang (KMT or Chinese Nationalist P ...
from
Jiangxi Jiangxi (; alternately romanized as Kiangsi or Chianghsi, Gan Chinese: ''Kongsi'', Hakka: ''Gong Si'') is a landlocked province in the east of the People's Republic of China. Its capital and largest city is Nanchang. Spanning from the banks of ...

Jiangxi
. When
Edgar Snow Edgar Parks Snow (17 July 1905 – 15 February 1972) was an American journalist known for his books and articles on Communism in China and the Chinese Communist revolution. He was the first western journalist to give a full account of the history of ...
went there in 1936, it was under
Kuomintang The Kuomintang (KMT) () is a major political party in Taiwan which originated as a revolutionary political party during the Republican Era on the Chinese mainland, where it is sometimes referred to as the Chinese Nationalist Party. Founded ...
control and a Red army siege had recently been lifted. Unknown to him at the time, there had also been contacts there between the Communists and the generals who later staged the
Xi'an Incident The Xi'an Incident () was a political crisis that took place in Xi'an, Republic of China in 1936. Chiang Kai-shek, leader of the Republic of China, was detained by his subordinates Generals Chang Hsüeh-liang (Zhang Xueliang) and Yang Hucheng, i ...
. Snow actually met Mao at Bao'an (Pao An). Having rebelled against Chiang, the local warlords decided to hand over Yan'an to the Communists, who were now allies. They pulled out and the Red Army walked in without a fight. This is described by
Agnes Smedley Agnes Smedley (February 23, 1892 – May 6, 1950) was an American journalist, writer, and activist who supported the Chinese Communist Revolution. Raised in a poverty-stricken miner's family in Missouri and Colorado, she dramatized the formation o ...
in her book Battle Hymn of China. She was in Xi'an at the time and got to Yan'an shortly after the take-over. From 1937, Yan'an became the seat of the communist government of what became known as the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Border Region. It became the center for intensive training of party members and army troops. In 1941,
Mao Zedong Mao Zedong (; pronounced , (formerly romanized as Mao Tse-tung), December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), also known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who was the founder of the People's Republic of China (PRC), which he ru ...

Mao Zedong
put special influence on a series of training programs to "correct unorthodox tendencies" and essentially mold the peasantry to the communist model. One of the first CPC programs launched was the
Yan'an Rectification Movement The Yan'an Rectification Movement (), also known as Zhengfeng or Cheng Feng, was the first ideological mass movement initiated by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), going from 1942 to 1945. The movement took place at the communist base at Yan'an, a ...
.


World War II

During the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—forming two opposing milit ...
almost all buildings, except a pagoda, were destroyed by Japanese bombing, and most inhabitants took to living in
yaodong A yaodong () or "house cave" is a particular form of earth shelter dwelling common in the Loess Plateau in China's north. They are generally carved out of a hillside or excavated horizontally from a central "sunken courtyard". The earth that surrou ...
s, artificial caves or dugouts carved into hillsides which were traditional dwellings in
Shaanxi Shaanxi (, ; alternately Shensi) is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China. Officially part of Northwest China, it borders the province-level divisions of Shanxi (NE, E), Henan (E), Hubei (SE), Chongqing (S), Sichuan (SW), G ...
. While Yan'an was the center of Chinese communist life many prominent Western journalists including
Edgar Snow Edgar Parks Snow (17 July 1905 – 15 February 1972) was an American journalist known for his books and articles on Communism in China and the Chinese Communist revolution. He was the first western journalist to give a full account of the history of ...
and
Anna Louise Strong Anna Louise Strong (November 24, 1885 – March 29, 1970) was an American journalist and activist, best known for her reporting on and support for communist movements in the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China.Archives West,Anna Louise ...
met with Mao Zedong and other important leaders for interviews. Hsiao Li and
Michael Lindsay Michael Lindsay (May 9, 1963 – August 31, 2019) was an American voice actor who worked largely in anime, credited often as Dylan Tully. His most prominent roles were Kisuke Urahara in ''Bleach'', Kankuro in ''Naruto'', Greymon and Joe Kido in ' ...
were part of the resistance movement. During the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—forming two opposing milit ...
, Yan'an played host to the United States Army Observation Group, also known as the Dixie Mission. In addition to establishing relations, the goal was to investigate the Communist Party politically and militarily, and determine if the U.S. would benefit from establishing liaison. John S. Service, of the United States Department of State, was responsible for political analysis, and Colonel David D. Barrett of the United States Army performed the military analysis. The mission explored possible plans for cooperation against the Japanese. The Americans had a presence in Yan'an from 1944 to 1947.


Later history

Yan'an was briefly captured in the Battle of Yan'an by the Kuomintang forces in the Chinese Civil War. The Communist leadership learned of a planned attack in advance and decided to pull out. From then until their capture of Beijing they were usually based somewhere else, often with a mobile headquarters. In May 1950, under the China, People's Republic of China, Yan'an was re-organized as Yan'an District, and was further re-organized as a special district () in October. Yan'an was later established as an area (). On November 5, 1996, Yan'an Area was revoked and established as a
prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning">Yangxin County, Hubei">Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still from the Huangshi main urban area. ...
.


Geography and climate

Yan'an is located in northern Shaanxi on the south-central part of the Loess Plateau, with latitude spanning 35°21′–37°31′ N and longitude 107°41′–110°31′ E. It borders Yulin, Shaanxi, Yulin to the north, Xianyang, Tongchuan, and Weinan of the Guanzhong to the south, Linfen and Lüliang (
Shanxi Shanxi (; formerly romanised as Shansi) is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the North China region. The capital and largest city of the province is Taiyuan, while its next most populated prefecture-level ...
) to the east, and Qingyang (
Gansu Gansu (; alternately romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked province in Northwest China. Its capital and largest city is Lanzhou, in the southeast part of the province. The seventh-largest administrative district by area at , Gansu lies between the ...
) to the west. Elevations generally increase from southeast to northwest, and the average elevation is over . Yan'an has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification ''Dwb'') that borders on a Semi-arid climate#Cold Semi-arid climates, steppe climate (Köppen ''BSk''), with cold, dry, and moderately long winters, and hot, somewhat humid summers. Spring and autumn are short transition seasons in between. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from in January to in July, and the annual mean is . The area receives of precipitation, 47% of which falls in July and August. Yan’an averages around 300 days of sunshine per year.


Economy

In 2018, the city's statistics bureau reported the city's GDP stood at 155.891 billion yuan, a 9.1% increase from the previous year. The city's GDP per capita was reported 68,940 yuan, an increase of 8.9% from the previous year. The following table shows the composition of the city's economy:


Agriculture

As of 2018, the city's agricultural output was worth 24.112 billion yuan, a 2.9% increase from the previous year at constant prices. Of this, planting accounted for 20.139 billion yuan, animal husbandry accounted for 2.631 billion yuan, fishing accounted for 69 million yuan, and agricultural services accounted for 0.593 billion yuan.


Industry

As of 2018, the city's industrial output was worth 87.074 billion yuan, a 10.4% increase from the previous year at constant prices. Of this, the petroleum industry alone accounted for 54.419 billion yuan of output. In addition to oil and natural gas, major industries in the city include coal mining, power generation, and cigarette production.


Petroleum Industry

In 2018, 15,292,400 tons of crude oil were extracted from the city. Of this, 8,565,800 tons were extracted by Shaanxi Yanchang Petroleum, Yanchang Petroleum, and the remaining 6,726,600 tons were extracted as part of China National Petroleum Corporation, CNPC's Changqing oil field, Changqing Oil Field. The Changqing Oil Field, part of the wider Ordos basin, one of China's main petroleum-producing regions, has been home to oil extraction since the early 1970s.


Transportation

*Yan'an Nanniwan Airport *G2211 Changyan Expressway *G65 Baotou–Maoming Expressway *China National Highway 210


Education

The city is home to 251 standard primary schools and 112 standard secondary schools, enrolling 218,100 and 129,900 students, respectively. The city also has 556 kindergartens, enrolling 119,500 students. The city also has 5 special education schools, serving 372 disabled students.


Notable Educational Institutions

* *China Yan'an Executive Leadership Academy


See also

*
Yan'an Rectification Movement The Yan'an Rectification Movement (), also known as Zhengfeng or Cheng Feng, was the first ideological mass movement initiated by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), going from 1942 to 1945. The movement took place at the communist base at Yan'an, a ...
*Yan'an Talks on Literature and Art *2693 Yan'an


References


External links


Official website of Yan'an GovernmentYan'an (China) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia
{{Authority control Yan'an, Cities in Shaanxi