Xining (; ), Chinese postal romanization, alternatively known as Sining, is the Capital (political), capital of Qinghai province in western China and the largest city on the Tibetan Plateau. As of the 2020 census, it had 2,467,965 inhabitants (2,208,708 as of 2010), of whom 1,954,795 lived in the built-up (or metro) area made of 5 urban districts. The city was a commercial hub along the Northern Silk Road's Hexi Corridor for over 2000 years, and was a stronghold of the Han dynasty, Han, Sui dynasty, Sui, Tang dynasty, Tang, and Song dynasty, Song dynasties' resistance against nomadic attacks from the west. Although long a part of Gansu province, Xining was added to Qinghai in 1928. Xining holds sites of religious significance to Muslims and Buddhists, including the Dongguan Mosque and Ta'er Monastery. The city lies in the Huangshui River valley, and owing to its high altitude, has a cool climate on the borderline between Semi-arid climate#Cold semi-arid climates, cool semi-arid and dry winter humid continental climate, humid continental. It is Qinghai–Tibet railway, connected by rail to Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region, Tibet and Lanzhou-Xinjiang High-Speed Railway, connected by high-speed rail to Lanzhou, Gansu and Ürümqi, Xinjiang. The city is home to Qinghai University, a comprehensive university and the only Project 211 university in Xining.


Xining has a history of over 2,100 years and was a chief commercial hub on the Hexi Corridor caravan route to Tibet, handling especially timber, wool and salt in ancient times. The trade along the Hexi Corridor was part of a larger trade corridor along the Northern Silk Road, whose use was intensified in the 1st century BC after efforts by the Han dynasty to control this route. Under the Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD) a county called Linqiang was established to control the local Qiang (historical people), Qiang tribesmen. It was again a frontier county under the Sui dynasty, Sui (581–618) and Tang dynasty, Tang (618–907) dynasties; during the 7th and early 8th centuries it was a center of constant warfare with Tuyuhun and Tibetan Empire, Tibet. In 763, it was overrun by the Tibetans and while under Tibetan control was known to the Chinese as ''Qingtang cheng'' (). Recovered by the Song dynasty in 1104, it received the name Xining (meaning "peace in the west") and has been the seat of a prefecture or superior prefecture under that name since that time. In the late 16th century, the Kumbum Monastery was founded some to the southeast, establishing Xining as an important religious center for the Gelug School of Buddhists. A major 1927 Gulang earthquake, earthquake occurred May 22, 1927, measuring at a Moment magnitude scale, magnitude of 7.6. It was one of the deadliest earthquakes in China with a total count of over 40,000 deaths. It also caused large land fractures. Xining was the extraterritorial capital of the Koko Nor territory and remained in Gansu until 1928, when it became the provincial capital of the newly established independent province of Qinghai. Xining was subjected to aerial bombardment by Japanese warplanes in 1941 during the Second-Sino Japanese War. The bombing spurred all ethnicities in Qinghai, including the local Qinghai Mongols and Qinghai Tibetans, against the Japanese. The Salar Muslim General Han Youwen directed the defense of the city of Xining during air raids by Japanese planes. Xining was given municipal status in 1945. Under the rule of Governor Ma Bufang, Xining, like the rest of Qinghai, underwent industrialization and modernization. In 1947 the USA sold Ma Bufang a piped water (sewage) system which was installed in Xining. Ma Bufang also promoted education. He made businessmen methodically clean up Xining by serving as insect exterminators, killing flies and neatly throwing them away. Since the late 1950s, when the Liujia Gorge Dam and hydroelectric project came into operation in neighboring Gansu province, Xining has been linked by a high-tension electrical grid to both Liujia and Lanzhou. It also uses local coal from mines at Datongxian to the north. A modern woollen mill was installed at Xining before 1957. The city also has a leather industry and is a market for salt from the Qaidam region. During the late 1950s medium-sized iron and steelworks were built there, supplying metal to Lanzhou. Construction of a highway to the mineral-rich Qaidam basin, and completion in 1959 a link to the Chinese rail network via Lanzhou in Gansu province, has spurred industrial development. This effort was part of a plan of the central government to rapidly exploit oil and pasturage in the Xining area beginning in the 1950s.

Geography and climate

Xining is located in the eastern part of Qinghai Province and lies on the Huangshui River. It has a total area of . Xining is located on the eastern edge of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau and the upper reaches of the Huangshui River. It is the political, economic, and cultural center of Qinghai Province with an average altitude of about . Human activity in the region can be traced to 2,100 years ago. During the Han dynasty, Western and Eastern Han dynasties, owing to its developing agriculture, Xining was paid noticed due to its economic and military significance. As well as being an important hinge between the Central Plains and the western part of China in ancient times, Xining was an important link in the Silk Road. It continues to be an important rail and road link to the hinterlands of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. Xining has also been dubbed the Summer Resort Capital of China owing to its cool summer, with a borderline Semi-arid climate#Cold semi-arid climate, cold semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification, Köppen ''BSk'')/dry winter humid continental climate (''Dwb''). Conditions are influenced by the aridity and high altitude. Nights are cold or cool throughout the year, and the diurnal temperature variation often reaches or exceeds . The monthly 24-hour average temperatures ranges from in January to in July; the annual mean is , still making it one of the warmest locations in Qinghai due to the low elevation by provincial standards. Rainfall falls mainly from May to September, and the area is often dry and sunny: with monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 53 percent in September to 69 percent in November and January, the city receives 2,676 hours of bright sunshine per year. Extreme temperatures have ranged from to . Snow cover is very sparse due to the dry winters.

River management

In 2007, the World Bank lent US$1 billion to aid river treatment in Xining, including Sanxian County's anti-flooding project, with an added US$1 billion to support infrastructure. Qinghai has invested large amounts in the treatment of Huangshui Main River and Nanchuan River, totalling . However, a treatment on a river course and 10 flash flood relief channels remain pending due to lack of equipment. In Sanxian County, a long river course and 80 flash flood relief channels need treatment.

Air quality

According to a 2011 World Health Organization (based on Chinese statistics), Xining has the second worst air pollution, air quality (annual mean PM10 ug/m3 of 141) among eleven western China cities, and is worse than Beijing (121).


The Gross domestic product, GDP per capita was 49,200 RMB (US$7,897) in 2015. Its main industries are wool spinning and textiles, fur, meat, milk, salt, and light processing industries.

Economic and Technological Development Zones

* Xining Economic & Technological Development Zone Xining Economic & Technological Development Zone XETDZ) was approved as state-level development zone in July 2000. It has a planned area of . XETDZ lies in the east of Xining, away from downtown. The XETDZ is the first of its kind at the national level on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. It is established to fulfill the nation's strategy of developing the west. XETDZ enjoys a convenient transportation system, connected by the Xining–Lanzhou expressway and run through by two main roads, the broadest roads of the city. It is away from the railway station, from Xining Airport. It focuses on the development of following industries: chemicals based on salt lake resources, nonferrous metals, and petroleum and natural gas processing; special medicine, foods and bio-chemicals using local plateau animals and plants; new products involving ecological and environmental protection, high technology, new materials as well as information technology; and services such as logistics, banking, real estate, tourism, hotel, catering, agency and international trade.



According to the Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China, 2010 Census, the prefecture-level city of Xining has a population of 2,208,708 inhabitants, 229,508 persons more than in 2000 (and the demographic growth for the period 2000–2010 was of 1.1 percent per year). At present, four districts, three counties and a national economic and technological development zone are under the administration of the local government. With a population of more than two million, Xining is the first city on the upper reaches of the Yellow River to achieve a population in the millions.

Ethnic diversity

There are about 37 nationalities living here, though only the Han Chinese, Han, Hui people, Hui, Monguor people, Monguor/Tu and Tibetan people, Tibetan are numerically significant. Local traditions and customs are influenced by the Tibetans, Monguor, Muslims and Han. On 2010 Census numbers, Han Chinese represent 74.04 percent of the total population of Xining, while Hui (16.26 percent), Tibetan (5.51 percent) and Tu (2.6 percent) are the main Ethnic minorities in China, minority groups in the city.


Located in the southwest part of Xining City, the Kumbum Monastery or Ta'er Monastery is one of six famous monasteries in the Gelug (also called Yellow Hat Sect) of Tibetan Buddhism and has hundreds of monks. Having a history of over 600 years, the Dongguan Mosque, located in the Xining City Zone, is one of the most famous mosques in the northwest region of China. It has splendid and diversiform towers, walls and halls in the mosque. Another unique religious structure is the Beishan Si (North Mountain Temple), a Taoist facility. There are more than 300 Christian meeting points in Xining. The Catholic minority is pastorally served by the (pre-diocesan) Apostolic Prefecture of Xining.

Administrative divisions

The municipality oversees seven District (PRC), districts and Counties of the People's Republic of China, counties. The data here are presented in km² and in population according to 2010 Census:


Colleges and universities

* Qinghai University * Qinghai Normal University * Qinghai University for Nationalities

Private schools

Xining International Academy is an English-language international school.


Xining is situated in a fertile mountain basin in the valley of the Huangshui (river), a tributary of the Yellow River, that acts as a river port. The city lies about west of Lanzhou, the capital of Gansu province, on what was traditionally the main trade route from Northern and southern China, northern China into Tibet and the Qaidam Basin. These routes are now followed by modern highways.


Since 1959 Xining railway station, Xining station has been connected by the Lanzhou–Qinghai Railway to Rail transport in China, China's railway network. Later, this railway was extended into the Qaidam area via Haiyan County, Qinghai, Haiyan near Qinghai Lake to Golmud, and, since 2006, to Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region, Tibet. (See the Qinghai–Tibet Railway). The second major railway serving Xining is the Lanzhou–Xinjiang High-Speed Railway, opened in December 2014. When first opened, it just provided high-speed train service to Lanzhou and Urumqi (and points in between). With the opening of the Baoji–Lanzhou high-speed railway on July 9, 2017, it has been connected to the rest of the nation's high-speed rail network. Unlike many other Chinese cities, where the conventional and high-speed trains stop at different train stations, Xining railway station is served by both types of trains. Thus it can be used as a transfer point for e.g. a passenger traveling from Xinjiang to Tibet.


Xining Caojiabao International Airport serves the area with regularly scheduled passenger flights to major Chinese cities including Beijing, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Chengdu, Kunming, Xi'an, and Wuhan.


* China National Highway 214 *China National Highway 227 *China National Highway 315 *G6 Beijing–Lhasa Expressway


As the capital of Qinghai province, Xining almost boasts all varieties of local flavors. Xining's cuisine is distinct from other varieties of Chinese cities using mainly food products native to the area. Food here is substantial, but quite inexpensive. In Xining, some restaurants serve varieties of 'plateau flavor', such as Feng'er Liji (a round lamb tenderloin), Danbai Chongcao Ji (a medicine cuisine made of chicken, Chinese caterpillar fungus and eggs), Jinyu Facai (pork wrapped in flagelliform nostoc and shaped as a goldfish) among others. These dishes are often cooked by the locals at home. There are also many small restaurants offering noodles. Gan Ban is a very common noodle dish. Perhaps Mian Pian, which means "noodle leaves" is the most common noodle plate among the Qinghai people. On the streets, many Muslims sell spicy lamb brochettes. Due to the cold climate, residents of Xining are also fond of strong spirits—Xining has the reputation of being one of the heaviest regions of alcohol consumption in China.


External links

Xining Government Website
{{Authority control Xining, Amdo Cities in Qinghai Provincial capitals in China Prefecture-level divisions of Qinghai