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The Sibe or Xibo (, 20px, ; ), are an East Asian ethnic group living mostly in
Xinjiang Xinjiang, SASM/GNC: ''Xinjang''; zh, c=, p=Xīnjiāng; alternately romanized as Sinkiang; officially Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) is an autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomo ...
,
Jilin Jilin (; alternately romanized as Kirin or Chilin) is one of the three provinces of Northeast China. Its capital and largest city is Changchun. Jilin borders North Korea North Korea (Korean language, Korean: /, McCune–Re ...
and Shenyang in
Liaoning Liaoning (), is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Ro ...
. The Sibe form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by China.


Nomenclature

The Sibe are known by several variations of their name. The self-appellation of the Sibe people is pronounced ''Śivə'', the official Chinese term is ''Xibo'', in Russian literature the terms Сибинцы (sibintsy) and Шибинцы (shibintsy) are used, while in English works the name ''Sibe'' has been established, which corresponds to the written form.


History

According to the Russian scholar Elena P. Lebedeva, the Sibe people originated as a southern, Tungusic-speaking offshoot of the ancient Shiwei people. They lived in small town-like settlements, a portion of them
nomad A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation which regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups include hunter-gatherers, pastoral nomads (owning livestock), and tink ...
ic, in the Songyuan and Qiqihar areas of what is now Jilin. When the Buyeo kingdom was conquered by the
Xianbei The Xianbei (; ) were an ancient nomadic people that once resided in the eastern Eurasian steppes in what is today Mongolia Mongolia (, Mongolian language, Mongolian: , Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: ') is a landlocked coun ...
in 286, the southern Shiwei started practicing agriculture. Some historians have theorized that the Xianbei were the direct progenitors of the Sibe, a theory described as politically motivated. Pamela Kyle Crossley writes the Xianbei might have undergone a
language shift Language shift, also known as language transfer or language replacement or language assimilation, is the process whereby a speech community shifts to a different language, usually over an extended period of time. Often, languages that are perceiv ...
from an earlier Turkic or proto-Mongolian language to a Tungusic one. However, the name "Sibe" was not used in historical records during Xianbei times. The Han,
Cao Wei Wei (220–266), also known as Cao Wei or Former Wei, was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280). With its capital initially located at Xuchang, and thereafter Luoyang, the s ...
and
Jin dynasty (265–420) Jin is a toneless pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin Chinese in mainland China, Taiwan (ROC), and Singapore. It is often used to teach Standar ...
at times controlled the Sibe until the advent of the Göktürks, who accorded the Sibe lower status than did the Chinese dynasties. At the height of their territorial dispersion, the Sibe lived in an area bounded by
Jilin Jilin (; alternately romanized as Kirin or Chilin) is one of the three provinces of Northeast China. Its capital and largest city is Changchun. Jilin borders North Korea North Korea (Korean language, Korean: /, McCune–Re ...
to the east, Hulunbuir to the west, the Nen River to the north and the Liao River to the south. After the fall of the Liao dynasty, the Sibe became vassals of the Khorchin Mongols who moved to the Nen River, Nen and Songhua River, Songhua river valleys in 1438 after the Khorchin were defeated by the Oirats. Nurhaci, the founder of the Manchu people, routed the Sibe during the battle of Gure in 1593 on his way to founding the Qing dynasty of China. From that point, the Qing contracted the Sibe for Logistics, logistical support against the Russian Empire's expansionism on China's northern border. Crossley claims that the Sibe were so "well known to Russians moving toward the Pacific" that the Russians named Siberia after them. In 1692, the Khorchin dedicated the Sibe, the Gūwalca and the Daur people, Daur to the Kangxi Emperor in exchange for silver. The Sibe were incorporated into the Eight Banners and were stationed in Qiqihar and other cities in Northeast China. In 1700, some 20,000 Qiqihar Sibes were resettled in Hohhot (modern Inner Mongolia); 36,000 Songyuan Sibes were resettled in Shenyang,
Liaoning Liaoning (), is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Ro ...
. The relocation of the Sibe from Qiqihar is believed by Gorelova to be linked to the Qing's complete annihilation of the Manchu clan Hoifan (Hoifa) in 1697 and the Manchu tribe Ula in 1703 after they revolted against the Qing. According to Jerry Norman (sinologist), Jerry Norman, after a revolt by the Qiqihar Sibes in 1764, the Qianlong Emperor ordered an 800-man military escort to transfer 18,000 Sibe to the Ili (river), Ili River of Dzungaria. In Ili, the Xinjiang Sibe built Gompa, Buddhist monasteries and cultivated vegetables, tobacco and Poppy, poppies. The Sibe population declined after the Qing used them to suppress the Dungan Revolt (1862–1877), Dungan Revolt (1862–77) by the Hui people, Hui and to fight against the Russian occupation of Ili during the revolt. The scarcity of provisions in Ili became such that the Governor at last saw himself obliged to dismiss his last auxiliaries, the Thagor Kalmuks. In the meantime both Solons and Sibos were being attacked and plundered and were obliged to make peace with the insurgents, so that only Ili, Khorgos, Losigun and Suidun, remained in the hands of the Mantchus. Ili was now entirely surrounded and it was resolved to reduce it by famine. The situation there was indeed frightful; all the provisions had been exhausted and the only food was horses, dogs and cats. Typhus so raged that from 50 to 100 men died daily. During the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China (1912–49), many northeastern Sibe joined anti-Japanese volunteer armies, while northwestern Sibe fought against the Kuomintang during the Ili Rebellion. After the Chinese Communist Revolution in 1949 established the People's Republic of China (PRC), large-scale educational and hygiene campaigns increased Sibe literacy and resulted in the eradication of Qapqal disease (a form of type A botulism). In 1954, the PRC established the Qapqal Xibe Autonomous County to replace Ningxi County in Xinjiang, in the group's area of highest ethnic concentration.


Culture

Historical religions of the Sibe included shamanism and Buddhism. Customary Sibe attire included short buttoned jackets and trousers for men and close-fitting, long and lace-trimmed gowns for women. Arranged marriage was common and women had low social status, including no right to inherit property. Nowadays almost all the Sibe wear Western clothing and the traditional clothing is worn by elders during festivals. Traditionally, the Sibe were divided into ''hala'', male-led clans consisting of people who shared the same surname. Until modern times, the dwellings of the Sibe housed up to three different generations from the same family, since it was believed that while the father was alive no son could break the family clan by leaving the house. The Sibe in Northeast China speak Mandarin Chinese as their first language. In Xinjiang, descendants of the Qing dynasty military garrison speak the Xibe language, a Southern Tungusic languages, Tungusic language that underwent morphophonological changes and the adoption of loanwords from Xinjiang languages including Mandarin Chinese, Russian language, Russian, Uyghur language, Uyghur and Kazakh language, Kazakh. The different ethnicities of Northern Xinjiang have shared music culture and adopted elements from each other's music.Harris 2004
p. 194.


Notable individuals

*Tong Liya () – actress


References


Bibliography

* *Wu Yuanfeng, Zhao Zhiqiang. 1981. "Sibezu xiqian gaishu" [A general account of the westward migration of the Sibe]. ''Minzu yanjiu'' 2:22–29. *Ramsey, S. Robert. 1987. ''The Languages of China''. Princeton University Press, Princeton New Jersey *''C. G. Mannerheimin Valokuvia Aasian-Matkalta 1906–1908 (Photographs By C. G. Mannerheim From His Journey Across Asia 1906–1908)'', (Otava, Keuruu: 1990) . Contains photographs of Sibe and other ethnic groups. * *


External links


Video on Sibe culture (in Chinese)Sibe Culture (in Eng and Chinese)The Sibe in the Early 20th Century
by David Brophy, ANU {{Authority control Sibe people, Tungusic peoples Ethnic groups officially recognized by China