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Xerox Holdings Corporation (; also known simply as Xerox) is an American corporation that sells print and
digital document An electronic document is any electronic media content (other than computer program A computer program is a collection of instructions that can be executed by a computer to perform a specific task. A computer program is usually written by a ...
products and services in more than 160 countries. Xerox is headquartered in
Norwalk, Connecticut , image_map = Fairfield County Connecticut incorporated and unincorporated areas Norwalk highlighted.svg , mapsize = 230px , map_caption = Location in Fairfield County, Connecticut, Fairfield County and ...
(having moved from
Stamford, Connecticut Stamford () is a city in the U.S. state of Connecticut. It is the second-most populous city in Fairfield County, Connecticut, Fairfield County and Connecticut (behind Bridgeport, Connecticut, Bridgeport). With a population of 135,470, the city ...
, in October 2007), though it is incorporated in
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...
with its largest population of employees based around
Rochester, New York Rochester () is a City (New York), city in the U.S. state of New York (state), New York, the county seat, seat of Monroe County, New York, Monroe County, and the fourth-most populous in the state after New York City, Buffalo, New York, Buffalo, ...

Rochester, New York
, the area in which the company was founded. The company purchased
Affiliated Computer Services Affiliated Computer Services Inc. (ACS) was a company that provided information technology services as well as business process outsourcing Outsourcing is an agreement in which one company hires another company to be responsible for a planned or ...
for $6.4 billion in early 2010. As a large developed company, it is consistently placed in the list of
Fortune 500 The ''Fortune'' 500 is an annual list compiled and published by ''Fortune Fortune may refer to: General * Fortuna or Fortune, the Roman goddess of luck * Luck, a chance happening, or that which happens beyond a person's controls * Wealth, an ab ...
companies. On December 31, 2016, Xerox separated its business process service operations, essentially those operations acquired with the purchase of Affiliated Computer Services, into a new publicly traded company,
Conduent Conduent Inc. is an American business services provider company headquartered in Florham Park, New Jersey, Florham Park, New Jersey. It was formed in 2017 as a Divestment, divestiture from Xerox. The company offers digital platforms for business ...
. Xerox focuses on its document technology and document outsourcing business, and traded on the
NYSE The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE, nicknamed "The Big Board") is an American stock exchange A stock exchange, securities exchange, or bourse is an Exchange (organized market), exchange where stockbrokers and stock trader, traders can buy and ...

NYSE
from 1961 to 2021, and the
Nasdaq The Nasdaq Stock Market () is an American stock exchange A stock exchange, securities exchange, or bourse is an Exchange (organized market), exchange where stockbrokers and stock trader, traders can buy and sell security (finance), secur ...
since 2021. Researchers at Xerox and its
Palo Alto Research Center PARC (Palo Alto Research Center; formerly Xerox PARC) is a research and development company in Palo Alto, California. Formed in 1969, the company was originally a division of Xerox, and was tasked with creating computer technology-related produc ...
invented several important elements of
personal computing File:Crystal Project computer.png, upright=0.9, An artist's depiction of a 2000s-era desktop-style personal computer, which includes a metal case with the computing components, a display monitor and a keyboard (mouse not shown) A personal com ...
, such as the
desktop metaphor In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and softwa ...
GUI#REDIRECT graphical user interface The graphical user interface (GUI "UI" by itself is still usually pronounced . or ) is a form of user interface that allows User (computing), users to Human–computer interaction, interact with electronic devic ...
, the
computer mouse A computer mouse (plural mice, sometimes mouses) is a hand-held pointing device A pointing device is an input interface (specifically a human interface device) that allows a User (computing)#End-user, user to input Three-dimensional sp ...

computer mouse
and
desktop computing A desktop computer is a personal computer designed for regular use at a single location on or near a desk or table due to its size and Mains electricity, power requirements. The most common configuration has a computer case, case that houses the po ...
. The concepts were adopted by Apple and later
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multination ...

Microsoft
.


History

Xerox was founded in 1906 in Rochester, New York, as The Haloid Photographic Company.Online Fact Book: Xerox at a Glance
, xerox.com. Article retrieved December 13, 2006.
It manufactured photographic paper and equipment. In 1938,
Chester Carlson Chester Floyd Carlson (February 8, 1906 – September 19, 1968) was an American physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an Branches of science, ...
, a physicist working independently, invented a process for printing images using an electrically charged photoconductor-coated metal plate and dry powder "toner". However, it would take more than 20 years of refinement before the first automated machine to make copies was commercialized, using a document feeder, scanning light, and a
rotating drum
rotating drum
. Joseph C. Wilson, credited as the "founder of Xerox", took over Haloid from his father. He saw the promise of Carlson's invention and, in 1946, signed an agreement to develop it as a commercial product. Wilson remained as President/CEO of Xerox until 1967 and served as chairman until his death in 1971. Looking for a term to differentiate its new system, Haloid coined the term
xerography Xerography is a dry photocopying A photocopier (also known as a copier or copy machine, and formerly a Xerox Machine) is a machine that makes copies of documents and other visual images onto paper Paper is a thin sheet material produce ...
from two Greek roots meaning "dry writing". Haloid changed its name to Haloid Xerox in 1958 and then Xerox Corporation in 1961."Xerox Hopes Its New Logo Doesn't Say 'Copier'"
, NYT.com. Article retrieved January 7, 2008.
Before releasing the 914, Xerox tested the market by introducing a developed version of the prototype hand-operated equipment known as the Flat-plate 1385. The 1385 was not actually a viable copier because of its slowness of operation. As a consequence, it was sold as a platemaker for the Addressograph-Multigraph Multilith 1250 and related sheet-fed offset printing presses in the
offset lithography Offset printing is a common printing technique in which the inked image is transferred (or "offset") from a plate to a rubber blanket and then to the printing surface. When used in combination with the lithographic process, which is based on ...
market. It was little more than a high quality, commercially available plate camera mounted as a horizontal
rostrum camera 150px, A rostrum camera stand used for shooting animation. A rostrum camera is a specially designed camera A camera is an optical instrument used to capture an image An SAR radar imaging, radar image acquired by the SIR-C/X-SAR radar ...
, complete with photo-flood lighting and timer. The glass film/plate had been replaced with a selenium-coated aluminum plate. Clever electrics turned this into a quick-developing and reusable substitute for film. A skilled user could produce fast, paper and metal printing plates of a higher quality than almost any other method. Having started as a supplier to the offset lithography duplicating industry, Xerox now set its sights on capturing some of offset's market share. The 1385 was followed by the first automatic xerographic printer, the Copyflo, in 1955. The Copyflo was a large microfilm printer that could produce positive prints on roll paper from any type of microfilm negative. Following the Copyflo, the process was scaled down to produce the 1824 microfilm printer. At about half the size and weight, this still sizable machine printed onto hand-fed, cut-sheet paper which was pulled through the process by one of two gripper bars. A scaled-down version of this gripper feed system was to become the basis for the 813 desktop copier.


Xerox 914

The company came to prominence in 1959 with the introduction of the Xerox 914, "the most successful single product of all time." The 914, the first
plain paper
plain paper
photocopier A photocopier (also known as a copier or copy machine, and formerly a Genericised trade mark, Xerox Machine) is a machine that makes copies of documents and other visual images onto paper or plastic film quickly and cheaply. Most modern photocopi ...
, was developed by Carlson and John H. Dessauer; it was so popular that by the end of 1961 Xerox had almost $60 million in revenue. The product was sold by an innovative ad campaign showing that even monkeys could make copies at the touch of a button - simplicity would become the foundation of Xerox products and user interfaces. Revenues leaped to over $500 million by 1965.


Xeronic Computer Printer

In 1956, Haloid formed a joint venture in the UK with
Rank Organisation The Rank Organisation was a British entertainment conglomerate founded by industrialist J. Arthur Rank in April 1937. It quickly became the largest and most vertically integrated film company in the United Kingdom, owning production, distribut ...
whose Rank Precision Industries Ltd. subsidiary was charged with anglicising the US products. Rank's Precision Industries went on to develop the Xeronic computer printer and Rank Data Systems Ltd was set up to bring the product to market. It used
cathode ray tube A cathode-ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube A vacuum tube, electron tube, valve (British usage), or tube (North America), is a device that controls electric current An electric current is a stream of charged particles, such as electrons ...

cathode ray tube
s to generate the characters and forms that could be overlaid from
microfilm Microforms are scaled-down reproductions of documents, typically either films A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perception ...
images. Initially, they planned for the
Ferranti Ferranti or Ferranti International plc was a UK electrical engineering and equipment firm that operated for over a century from 1885 until it went bankrupt in 1993. The company was once a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. The firm was known f ...

Ferranti
and AEI computer companies to sell the Xeronic as an on-line peripheral, but due to interface problems, Rank switched to a magnetic tape off-line technique. In 1962, Lyons Computers Ltd. placed an order for use with their LEO III computer, and the printer was delivered in 1964. It printed 2,888 lines per minute, slower than the target of 5,000 lpm.


1960s

In the 1960s, Xerox held a dominant position in the
photocopier A photocopier (also known as a copier or copy machine, and formerly a Genericised trade mark, Xerox Machine) is a machine that makes copies of documents and other visual images onto paper or plastic film quickly and cheaply. Most modern photocopi ...
market. In 1960, a xerography research facility called the Wilson Center for Research and Technology was opened in
Webster, New York Webster is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and use The w ...
. In 1961, the company changed its name to Xerox Corporation. Xerox common stock (XRX) was listed on the
New York Stock Exchange The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE, nicknamed "The Big Board") is an American stock exchange A stock exchange, securities exchange, or bourse is an Exchange (organized market), exchange where stockbrokers and stock trader, traders can buy an ...

New York Stock Exchange
in 1961 and on the
Chicago Stock Exchange NYSE Chicago, formerly known as the Chicago Stock Exchange (CHX), is a stock exchange in Chicago, Illinois, US. The exchange is a national securities exchange and self-regulatory organization, which operates under the oversight of the U.S. Securi ...
in 1990. In 1963, Xerox introduced the Xerox 813, the first desktop plain-paper copier, realizing Carlson's vision of a copier that could fit on anyone's office desk. Ten years later, in 1973, a basic, analogue, color copier, based on the 914, followed. The 914 itself was gradually sped up to become the 420 and 720. The 813 was similarly developed into the 330 and 660 products and, eventually, also the 740 desktop microfiche printer. Xerox's first foray into duplicating, as distinct from copying, was with the Xerox 2400, introduced in 1966. The model number denoted the number of prints produced in an hour. Although not as fast as
offset printing Offset printing is a common printing technique in which the ink Ink is a gel, sol, or solution Image:SaltInWaterSolutionLiquid.jpg, Making a saline water solution by dissolving Salt, table salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) in water. The sal ...
, this machine introduced the industry's first automatic document feeder, paper slitter and perforator, and collator (sorter). This product was soon sped up by fifty percent to become the Xerox 3600 Duplicator. Meanwhile, a small lab team was borrowing 914 copiers and modifying them. The lab was developing what it called long distance xerography (LDX) to connect two copiers using the public telephone network, so that a document scanned on one machine would print out on the other. The LDX system was introduced in 1964. Many years later, this work came to fruition in the Xerox telecopiers, seminal to today's
fax machine , which was modern for fax machines at that time. which required special, relatively expensive thermal paper. Fax (short for facsimile), sometimes called telecopying or telefax (the latter short for telefacsimile), is the telephonic transmission ...

fax machine
s. The fax operation in today's multifunction copiers is true to Carlson's original vision for these devices. In 1968, C. Peter McColough, a longtime executive of Haloid and Xerox, became Xerox's CEO. The same year, the company consolidated its headquarters at Xerox Square in downtown
Rochester, New York Rochester () is a City (New York), city in the U.S. state of New York (state), New York, the county seat, seat of Monroe County, New York, Monroe County, and the fourth-most populous in the state after New York City, Buffalo, New York, Buffalo, ...

Rochester, New York
, with its 30-story
Xerox Tower Innovation Square, formerly Xerox Tower, is a skyscraper A skyscraper is a large continuously habitable building having multiple floors. Modern sources currently define skyscrapers as being at least 100 metres or 150 metres in height, though th ...

Xerox Tower
. Xerox embarked on a series of acquisitions. It purchased
University Microfilms International ProQuest LLC was an Ann Arbor, Michigan Ann Arbor is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyc ...
in 1962, Electro-Optical Systems in 1963, and R. R. Bowker in 1967. In 1969, Xerox acquired
Scientific Data SystemsScientific Data Systems (SDS), was an United States, American computer company founded in September 1961 by Max Palevsky and Robert Beck, veterans of Packard Bell Corporation and Bendix Corporation, Bendix, along with eleven other computer scientists ...
(SDS), which it renamed the Xerox Data Systems (XDS) division and which produced the
Sigma Sigma (uppercase Letter case is the distinction between the Letter (alphabet), letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minuscule'') in the written represent ...
line and its successor XDS 5xx series of
mainframe computer A mainframe computer, informally called a mainframe or big iron, is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform gener ...
s in the 1960s and 1970s. Xerox sold XDS to
Honeywell Honeywell International Inc. is an American public company, publicly traded, multinational corporation, multinational conglomerate (company), conglomerate corporation headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina. It primarily operates in four are ...

Honeywell
in 1975. File:Xerox Tower.JPG,
Xerox Tower Innovation Square, formerly Xerox Tower, is a skyscraper A skyscraper is a large continuously habitable building having multiple floors. Modern sources currently define skyscrapers as being at least 100 metres or 150 metres in height, though th ...

Xerox Tower
in
Rochester, New York Rochester () is a City (New York), city in the U.S. state of New York (state), New York, the county seat, seat of Monroe County, New York, Monroe County, and the fourth-most populous in the state after New York City, Buffalo, New York, Buffalo, ...

Rochester, New York
, served as headquarters from 1968 to 1969. File:Xeroxheadquarters.jpg,
Stamford, Connecticut Stamford () is a city in the U.S. state of Connecticut. It is the second-most populous city in Fairfield County, Connecticut, Fairfield County and Connecticut (behind Bridgeport, Connecticut, Bridgeport). With a population of 135,470, the city ...
served as headquarters from 1969 to 2007. File:Xerox Henrietta facility.JPG, Former manufacturing facility in
Henrietta, New York Henrietta is a Administrative divisions of New York#Town, town in Monroe County, New York, Monroe County, New York (state), New York, United States and a suburb of Rochester, New York, Rochester. The population of Henrietta is 42,581, according to ...
, constructed in the 1960s and sold to Harris RF Communications in 2010 File:XeroxTower-DLighting.jpg, Xerox Canada Head Office at North American Life Centre (Xerox Tower), North York, Ontario File:XeroxTrainingCenter2.jpg, Xerox Training Center


1970s

Archie McCardell Archie R. McCardell (August 29, 1926 – July 10, 2008) was an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of Am ...
was named president of the company in 1971. During his tenure, Xerox introduced the Xerox 6500, its first color copier. During McCardell's reign at Xerox, the company announced record
revenue In accounting Accounting or Accountancy is the measurement ' Measurement is the number, numerical quantification (science), quantification of the variable and attribute (research), attributes of an object or event, which can be used to comp ...
s,
earnings Earnings are the net benefits of a corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the State (polity), state to act as a single entity (a legal entity recognized by private and public law ...
and profits in 1973, 1974, and 1975. John Carrol became a backer, later spreading the company throughout North America. In the mid-1970s, Xerox introduced the "Xerox 9200 Duplicating System". Originally designed to be sold to print shops to increase their productivity, it was twice a fast as the 3600 duplicator at two impressions per second (7200 per hour). It was followed by the 9400, which did auto-duplexing, and then by the 9500, which was which added variable zoom reduction and electronic lightness/darkness control. In a 1975
Super Bowl commercial Super Bowl commercials, colloquially known as Super Bowl ads, are high-profile television commercials A television advertisement (also called a television commercial, commercial, advert, TV advert or simply an ad) is a span of television progr ...
for the 9200, Xerox debuted an advertising campaign featuring "Brother Dominic", a monk who used the 9200 system to save decades of manual copying. Before it was aired, there was some concern that the commercial would be denounced as blasphemous. However, when the commercial was screened for the Archbishop of New York, he found it amusing and gave it his blessing. Dominic, portrayed by Jack Eagle, became the face of Xerox into the 1980s. Following these years of record profits, in 1975, Xerox resolved an anti-trust suit with the United States
Federal Trade Commission The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is an independent agency of the United States government Independent agencies of the United States federal government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government or U.S. gover ...

Federal Trade Commission
(FTC), which at the time was under the direction of Frederic M. Scherer. The Xerox
consent decree A consent decree is an agreement or settlement that resolves a dispute between two parties without admission of guilt (in a criminal case Criminal law is the body of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, inte ...
resulted in the forced licensing of the company's entire
patent A patent is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depe ...

patent
portfolio, mainly to Japanese competitors. Within four years of the consent decree, Xerox's share of the U.S.
copier A photocopier (also known as a copier or copy machine, and formerly a Genericised trade mark, Xerox Machine) is a machine that makes copies of documents and other visual images onto paper or plastic film quickly and cheaply. Most modern photocopi ...

copier
market dropped from nearly 100% to less than 14%. In 1979, Xerox purchased Western Union International (WUI) as the basis for its proposed ''Xerox Telecommunications Network'' (XTEN) for local-loop communications. However, after three years, in 1982, the company decided the idea was a mistake and sold its assets to MCI at a loss.


1980s

David T. Kearns, a Xerox executive since 1971, took over as CEO in 1982. The company was revived in the 1980s and 1990s, through improvement in quality design and realignment of its product line. Attempting to expand beyond copiers, in 1981 Xerox introduced a line of electronic memory typewriters, the ''Memorywriter'', which gained 20% market share, mostly at the expense of IBM. In 1983, Xerox bought , an insurance company, and formed Xerox Financial Services (XFS) in 1984. In 1985, Xerox sold all of its publishing subsidiaries including University Microfilms and R. R. Bowker.


1990s

In 1990,
Paul Allaire Paul Arthur Allaire (July 21, 1938 – February 24, 2019) was an american entrepreneur who served as CEO and chairman of Xerox Corporation, and as a director on several other public companies. Allaire graduated from Worcester Polytechnic Institu ...
, a Xerox executive since 1966, succeeded David Kearns, who had reached mandatory retirement age. Allaire disentangled Xerox from the financial services industry. The development of digital photocopiers in the 1990s and a revamp of the entire product range again gave Xerox a technical lead over its competitors. In 1990, Xerox released the
DocuTech DocuTech is the name given to a line of electronic production-publishing systems produced by Xerox, Xerox Corporation. It allowed paper documents to be scanned, electronically edited, and then printed on demand. DocuTech systems were the last known ...
Production Publisher Model 135, ushering in print-on-demand. Digital photocopiers were essentially high-end laser printers with integrated scanners. Soon, additional features such as network printing and faxing were added to many models, known as Multi Function Machines, or just MFMs, which were able to be attached to computer networks. Xerox worked to turn its product into a service, providing a complete document service to companies including supply, maintenance, configuration, and user support. To reinforce this image, the company introduced a corporate signature in 1994, "The Document Company", above its main logo and introduced a red digital X. The digital X symbolized the transition of documents between the paper and digital worlds. In April 1999, Allaire was succeeded by Richard Thoman, who had been brought in from
IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York, as the C ...

IBM
in 1997 as president. The first "outsider" to head Xerox, Thoman resigned in 2000.


2000s

After Thoman's resignation, Allaire again resumed the position of CEO and served until the appointment of
Anne M. Mulcahy Anne M. Mulcahy (born October 21, 1952) is the former chairperson and CEO of Xerox Corporation Xerox Holdings Corporation (; also known simply as Xerox) is an American corporation that sells print and digital document products and services in ...
, another long-term Xerox executive. Xerox's turnaround was largely led by Mulcahy, who was appointed president in May 2000, CEO in August 2001 and chairman in January 2002. She launched an aggressive turnaround plan that returned Xerox to full-year profitability by the end of 2002, along with decreasing debt, increasing cash, and continuing to invest in research and development. In 2000, Xerox acquired
Tektronix Tektronix, Inc., historically widely known as Tek, is an American company best known for manufacturing test and measurement devices such as oscilloscope model 475A portable analog oscilloscope, a typical instrument of the late 1970s An oscillo ...
color printing and imaging division in Wilsonville, Oregon, for US$925 million. This led to the current
Xerox Phaser Xerox Phaser is the brand name for a line of color and monochrome Computer printer, printers produced and sold by Xerox. Some Phaser printers use Xerox Solid Ink. Phaser printers were originally manufactured and marketed by Tektronix, of Wilsonvil ...
line of products as well as Xerox
solid ink Solid ink (also referred to as hot melt ink) is a type of ink Ink is a gel, Sol (colloid), sol, or Solution (chemistry), solution that contains at least one colourant, such as a dye or pigment, and is used to color a surface to produce a ...
printing technology. In September 2004, Xerox celebrated the 45th anniversary of the Xerox 914. More than 200,000 units were made around the world between 1959 and 1976, the year production of the 914 was stopped. Today, the 914 is part of
American history The history of the United States started with the arrival of Native Americans in North America around 15,000 BC. Native American cultures in the United States, Numerous indigenous cultures formed, and many disappeared in the 1500s. The arrival o ...
as an artifact in the
Smithsonian Institution The Smithsonian Institution ( ), or simply, the Smithsonian, is a group of museums and education and research centers, the largest such complex in the world, created by the U.S. government "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge". Founded ...

Smithsonian Institution
. In November 2006, Xerox completed the acquisition of XMPie. XMPie, a provider of software for cross-media, variable data one-to-one marketing, was the first acquisition of Xerox to remain independent entity, as a Xerox company and not a division, and to this day is led by its original founder . In October 2008, Xerox Canada Ltd. was named one of
Greater Toronto's Top Employers Canada's Top 100 Employers is an annual editorial competition that recognizes the best places in Canada to work. First held in 1999, the project aims to single out the employers that lead their industries in offering exceptional working conditions ...
by Mediacorp Canada Inc., which was announced by the ''
Toronto Star The ''Toronto Star'' is a Canadian English-language broadsheet A broadsheet is the largest and is characterized by long vertical pages, typically of . Other common s include the smaller and – formats. Description Many broadsheets m ...
'' newspaper. On July 1, 2009,
Ursula Burns Ursula M. Burns (born September 20, 1958), is an American businesswoman. She was the chair and CEO of VEON from late 2018 to early 2020, a senior advisor to Teneo, and a non-executive director of Diageo since April 2018. She is a member of the boar ...
succeeded Anne Mulcahy as CEO of Xerox. Burns was the first
African American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being t ...

African American
woman to head a company the size of Xerox. On September 28, 2009, Xerox announced the intended acquisition of
Affiliated Computer Services Affiliated Computer Services Inc. (ACS) was a company that provided information technology services as well as business process outsourcing Outsourcing is an agreement in which one company hires another company to be responsible for a planned or ...
, a services and
outsourcing Outsourcing is an agreement in which one company hires another company to be responsible for a planned or existing activity that is or could be done internally, and sometimes involves transferring employees and assets from one firm A compan ...

outsourcing
company, for $6.4 Billion. The acquisition was completed in February 2010. Xerox said it paid 4.935 Xerox shares and $18.60 cash for each share of ACS, totaling $6.4 billion, or $63.11 a share for the company.


2010s

In May 2011, Xerox acquired NewField IT for an undisclosed sum. In December 2013, Xerox sold their Wilsonville, Oregon
solid ink Solid ink (also referred to as hot melt ink) is a type of ink Ink is a gel, Sol (colloid), sol, or Solution (chemistry), solution that contains at least one colourant, such as a dye or pigment, and is used to color a surface to produce a ...
product design, engineering and chemistry group and related assets previously acquired from
Tektronix Tektronix, Inc., historically widely known as Tek, is an American company best known for manufacturing test and measurement devices such as oscilloscope model 475A portable analog oscilloscope, a typical instrument of the late 1970s An oscillo ...
to
3D Systems 3D Systems, headquartered in Rock Hill, South Carolina, is a company that engineers, manufactures and sells 3D printers, 3D printing materials, 3D scanners, and offers a 3D printing service. Chuck Hull, the CTO and former president, pioneered ster ...
for $32.5 million in cash. In December 2014, Xerox sold the IT Outsourcing business it had acquired in 2009 from
Affiliated Computer Services Affiliated Computer Services Inc. (ACS) was a company that provided information technology services as well as business process outsourcing Outsourcing is an agreement in which one company hires another company to be responsible for a planned or ...
to
Atos Atos is a French multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a sovereign s ...
for $1.05 billion. This move was taken due to the relatively slow growth of this business relative to some other Xerox units. In January 2016, Xerox—reportedly under pressure from activist shareholder
Carl Icahn Carl Celian Icahn (; born February 16, 1936) is an American businessman. He is the founder and controlling shareholder of Icahn Enterprises, a diversified conglomerate holding company based in New York City, formerly known as American Real Esta ...
—announced that by the end of the year it would spin off its business services unit, largely made up of Affiliated Computer Services, into its own
publicly traded company A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public limited company is a company whose ownership is organized via shares of share capital, stock which are intended to be freely traded on a stock ...
. The name and management of the new company had not been determined at the time of the announcement. Icahn will appoint three members of the new company's
board of directors A board of directors is a group of people who jointly supervise the activities of an organization An organization, or organisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, W ...
, and he will choose a person to advise its search for a
CEO A chief executive officer (CEO), chief administrator officer, or just chief executive (CE), is one of a number of corporate executives A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as c ...
. In June, the company announced that the document management business would retain the name Xerox and the new business services company would be named
Conduent Conduent Inc. is an American business services provider company headquartered in Florham Park, New Jersey, Florham Park, New Jersey. It was formed in 2017 as a Divestment, divestiture from Xerox. The company offers digital platforms for business ...
. It also announced that will serve as Conduent's CEO and that Icahn will control three seats on the new company's board. It continues to seek a CEO for Xerox; in May, Burns announced her intention to step down as CEO but continue as chairman of the document management business. In June 2016, the company announced that Jeff Jacobson will become the new CEO following the completion of the company's planned separation. This became effective in January 2017. On January 31, 2018, Xerox announced that
Fujifilm , trading as A trade name, trading name, or business name is a pseudonym A pseudonym () or alias () (originally: ψευδώνυμος in Greek) is a fictitious name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which differs from t ...
had agreed to acquire a 50.1% controlling stake in the company for US$6.1 billion, which was to be combined into their existing joint venture
Fuji Xerox is a joint venture A joint venture is a business entity created by two or more parties, generally characterized by shared ownership, shared returns and economic risk, risks, and shared governance. Companies typically pursue joint ventures for ...
(having a value of $18 billion post-acquisition). On May 1, 2018, it was announced that Chairman Robert Keegan and CEO Jeff Jacobson and four other directors would resign as part of a deal with investors
Carl Icahn Carl Celian Icahn (; born February 16, 1936) is an American businessman. He is the founder and controlling shareholder of Icahn Enterprises, a diversified conglomerate holding company based in New York City, formerly known as American Real Esta ...
and Darwin Deason, who had mounted a proxy fight to oppose the Fujifilm deal. On May 4, Xerox backed away from the deal after stipulations about ceasing litigation were not met. Icahn and Deason responded with an open letter to shareholders blaming the board and management. On May 13 a new deal was reached that additionally cancelled the Fujifilm transaction. In November 2019, Xerox began to pursue a
hostile takeover In business, a takeover is the purchase of one company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Natural person, natural, Legal person, legal or a mixture of both, w ...
of PC and printer manufacturer
HP Inc. HP Inc. is an American Multinational corporation, multinational information technology, information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, that develops personal computers (PCs), printer (computing), printers and related s ...
, declaring its intent to "engage directly" with shareholders after HP rejected two unsolicited bids for the company. Xerox stated in January 2020 that it would pursue the replacement of HP's board. HP has criticized the proposed purchase as a "flawed value exchange" based on "overstated synergies", and instituted a
shareholder rights plan A shareholder rights plan, colloquially known as a "poison pill", is a type of defensive tactic used by a corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the State (polity), state to act ...
and other measures designed to quell the bid, which the company believed was being orchestrated by Icahn.


2020s

In February 2020, Xerox announced the hiring of Tali Rosman as VP of Xerox's 3D business. She joins Xerox from NICE, where she was vice president and head of business operations for the Americas. She will report to CTO Naresh Shanker. On March 5, HP revealed that its board of directors has unanimously declined Xerox's $24 a share cash-and-stock offer. On March 13, Xerox revealed that they are putting their campaign to acquire HP on hold by postponing additional presentations, interviews with the press and meetings with HP shareholders. Xerox Vice Chairman and Chief Executive John Visentin cited the
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic A pandemic (from , , "all" and , , "local people" the 'crowd') is an of an that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple or worldwide, affecting a substantial numbe ...

COVID-19 pandemic
as a main reason and said, "In light of the escalating Covid-19 pandemic, Xerox needs to prioritize health and safety of its employees, customers, partners and affiliates over and above all considerations, including its proposal to acquire HP." On March 31, 2020, Xerox abolished its $24 a share offer. In September 2021, Xerox announced it was transferring its stock ticker from the
New York Stock Exchange The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE, nicknamed "The Big Board") is an American stock exchange A stock exchange, securities exchange, or bourse is an Exchange (organized market), exchange where stockbrokers and stock trader, traders can buy an ...

New York Stock Exchange
to the
Nasdaq The Nasdaq Stock Market () is an American stock exchange A stock exchange, securities exchange, or bourse is an Exchange (organized market), exchange where stockbrokers and stock trader, traders can buy and sell security (finance), secur ...
after 60 years. The move, as described by Visentin, was to " hallengethe status quo by developing and leveraging new innovations to create solutions that address major secular challenges across industries", and was viewed as part of Xerox's transition into software. The transfer went into effect on September 21, 2021.


Digital printing

The laser printer was invented in 1969 by Xerox researcher
Gary Starkweather Gary Keith Starkweather (January 9, 1938 – December 26, 2019) was an American engineer and inventor most notable for the invention of the laser printer Laser printing is an electrostatic digital printing process. It produces high-quality text ...

Gary Starkweather
by modifying a Xerox 7000 copier. Xerox management was afraid the product version of Starkweather's invention, which became the 9700, would negatively impact their copier business so the innovation sat in limbo until IBM launched the laser printer in 1976. The first commercial non-impact printer was the
Xerox 1200 The Xerox 1200 Computer Printing System is significant as being the first commercial non-impact Xerographic printer used to create computer output. It is sometimes mistakenly referred to as a laser printer, but it did not in fact have a laser. ...

Xerox 1200
, introduced in 1973, based on the 3600 copier. It had an optical character generator designed by optical engineer Phil Chen. In 1977, following IBM's laser printer introduction, the
Xerox 9700 The Xerox 9700 was a high-end laser printer Laser printing is an electrostatic digital printing process. It produces high-quality text and graphics (and moderate-quality photographs) by repeatedly passing a laser beam back and forth over a negat ...
was introduced. Laser printing eventually became a multibillion-dollar business for Xerox. In the late 1970s, Xerox introduced the "Xerox 350 color slide system" This product allowed the customer to create digital word and graphic 35mm slides. Many of the concepts used in today's "Photo Shop" programs were pioneered with this technology. In 1980, Xerox announced the 5700 laser printing system, a much smaller version of their 9700, but with revolutionary touch screen capabilities and multiple media input (word processing disks, IBM magcards, etc.) and printer 'finishing' options. This product was allegedly never intended to make the commercial markets due to its development cost, but rather to show the innovation of Xerox. It took off with many customers, but was soon replaced with its smaller and lower cost 2700 Distributed Electronic Printer offering in 1982.


Palo Alto Research Center

In 1970, under company president C. Peter McColough, Xerox opened the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, known as Xerox PARC. The facility developed many modern computing technologies such as the
graphical user interface The graphical user interface (GUI "UI" by itself is still usually pronounced . or ) is a form of user interface In the industrial design Industrial design is a process of design A design is a plan or specification for the construction ...
(GUI),
laser printing Laser printing is an electrostatic digital printing process. It produces high-quality text and graphics (and moderate-quality photographs) by repeatedly passing a laser beam back and forth over a Electric charge, negatively-charged cylinder call ...

laser printing
,
WYSIWYG In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and sof ...
text editors and
Ethernet Ethernet () is a family of wired computer network A computer network is a set of s sharing resources located on or provided by . The computers use common s over to communicate with each other. These interconnections are made up of te ...

Ethernet
. From these inventions, Xerox PARC created the
Xerox Alto The Xerox Alto is the first computer designed from its inception to support an operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. Examples of system soft ...

Xerox Alto
in 1973, a small minicomputer similar to a modern
workstation A workstation is a special computer designed for technical or scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about ...

workstation
or
personal computer A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use. Personal computers are intended to be operated directly by an end user, rather than by a computer expert or technician ...
. This machine can be considered the first true Personal Computer, given its versatile combination of a cathode-ray-type screen, mouse-type pointing device, and a QWERTY-type alphanumeric keyboard. But the Alto was never commercially sold, as Xerox itself could not see the sales potential of it. It was, however, installed in Xerox's own offices, worldwide and those of the US Government and military, who could see the potential. Within these sites the individual workstations were connected together by Xerox's own unique LAN, The Ethernet. Data was sent around this system of heavy, yellow, low loss coaxial cable using the packet data system. In addition, PARC also developed one of the earliest
internetworking Internetworking is the practice of interconnecting multiple computer network A computer network is a set of s sharing resources located on or provided by . The computers use common s over to communicate with each other. These interconnec ...
protocol suites, the
PARC Universal Packet The PARC Universal Packet (commonly abbreviated to PUP or PuP, although the original documents usually use Pup) was one of the two earliest internetworking protocol suites; it was created by researchers at Xerox PARC in the mid-1970s. (Technically, ...
(PUP). In 1979, Steve Jobs made a deal with Xerox's venture capital division: He would let them invest $1 million in exchange for a look at the technology they were working on. Jobs and the others saw the commercial potential of the
WIMP WiMP was a music streaming service available on mobiles, tablets, network players and computers. Music in WiMP was streamed using the AAC+ file format in a bitrate of 96 kbit/s or the Advanced Audio Coding, AAC file format in a bitrate of 320 kb ...
(Window, Icon, Menu, and Pointing device) system and redirected development of the
Apple Lisa Lisa is a desktop computer A desktop computer is a personal computer A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use. Personal computers are intended to be o ...

Apple Lisa
to incorporate these technologies. Jobs is quoted as saying, "They just had no idea what they had." In 1980, Jobs invited several key PARC researchers to join his company so that they could fully develop and implement their ideas. In 1981, Xerox released a system similar to the Alto, the
Xerox Star The Xerox Star workstation A workstation is a special computer designed for technical or scientific applications. Intended primarily to be used by one person at a time, they are commonly connected to a local area network A local area net ...
. It was the first commercial system to incorporate technologies that have subsequently become commonplace in personal computers, such as a bitmapped display, window-based GUI, mouse,
Ethernet Ethernet () is a family of wired computer network A computer network is a set of s sharing resources located on or provided by . The computers use common s over to communicate with each other. These interconnections are made up of te ...

Ethernet
networking,
file server In computing, a file server (or fileserver) is a computer attached to a network that provides a location for shared disk access, i.e. storage of computer files (such as text, image, sound, video) that can be accessed by the workstations that are abl ...
s,
print server In computer network A computer network is a set of computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform gen ...

print server
s and
e-mail upThe email_address.html"_;"title="at_sign,_a_part_of_every_SMTP_email_address">at_sign,_a_part_of_every_SMTP_email_address Electronic_mail_(email_or_e-mail)_is_a_method_of_exchanging_messages_("mail")_between_people_using_electronic_dev ...

e-mail
. The Xerox Star and its successor the
Xerox Daybreak Xerox Daybreak (also Xerox 6085 PCS, Xerox 1186) is a workstation computer marketed by Xerox from 1985 to 1989. Overview The Daybreak ran the GlobalView, ViewPoint (later GlobalView) Graphical user interface, GUI and was used extensively througho ...
, despite their technological breakthroughs, did not sell well due to its high price, costing $16,000 per unit. A typical Xerox Star-based office, complete with network and printers, would have cost $100,000. In the mid-1980s,
Apple An apple is an edible fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this fie ...
considered buying Xerox; however, a deal was never reached. Apple instead bought rights to the Alto GUI and adapted it into a more affordable personal computer, aimed towards the business and education markets. The
Apple Macintosh The Macintosh (mainly Mac since 1998) is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. (originally as Apple Computer, Inc.) since January 1984. The Macintosh 128K, original Macintosh is the first successful m ...
was released in 1984, and was the first personal computer to popularize the GUI and mouse among the public. In 2002, PARC was spun off into an independent wholly-owned subsidiary of Xerox.


Chief executives


Products and services

Xerox manufactures and sells a wide variety of office equipment including scanners, printers, and multifunction systems that scan, print, copy, email and fax. These model families include WorkCentre, Phaser, and ColorQube. For the graphic communications and commercial print industries, the Xerox product portfolio includes high-volume, digital printing presses, production printers, and wide format printers that use xerographic and inkjet printing technologies. Products include the iGen, Nuvera, DocuPrint, and Impika series, as well as the Trivor, iPrint, and Rialto (inkjet) machines.


Corporate structure

Although Xerox is a global
brand A brand is a name, term, design, symbol or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers. Brands are used in business Business is the activity of making one's living or making mon ...

brand
, it maintained a joint venture from 1962 to 2021,
Fuji Xerox is a joint venture A joint venture is a business entity created by two or more parties, generally characterized by shared ownership, shared returns and economic risk, risks, and shared governance. Companies typically pursue joint ventures for ...
, with Japanese photographic firm Fuji Photo Film Co. to develop, produce and sell in the Asia-Pacific] region. Fujifilm announced in January 2020 that it would not renew its technology agreement with Xerox, with Fuji Xerox being renamed to Fujifilm Business Innovation in April 2021. Xerox India, formerly Modi Xerox, is Xerox's Indian subsidiary derived from a joint venture formed between Dr. Bhupendra Kumar Modi and Rank Xerox in 1983. Xerox obtained a majority stake in 1999 and aims to buy out the remaining shareholders. NewField IT is a wholly owned subsidiary of Xerox that implements and supports third-party software for MPS providers. Xerox now sponsors the Factory Ducati Team in the World Superbike Championship, under the name of the "Xerox Ducati".


Rank Xerox

The European company
Rank Xerox Rank Xerox was formed in 1956 as a joint venture A joint venture (JV) is a business entity created by two or more parties, generally characterized by shared ownershipEquity sharing is another name for shared ownership or ''co-ownership (dis ...
, later extended to Asia and Africa, has been fully owned by Xerox Corporation since 1997. The Rank Xerox name was discontinued following the buyout, and the Rank Xerox Research Centre was renamed to the Xerox Research Centre Europe. International Internet company NAVER acquired Xerox Research Centre Europe in June 2017.


Accounting irregularities

On May 31, 2001, Xerox Corporation announced that its auditors, KPMG LLP, had certified Xerox's financial statements for the three years ended December 31, 2000. And the financials included some restatements. On March 31, 2002, Xerox restated its financials which reflected the reallocation of equipment sales revenue of more than $2 billion. On April 11, 2002, the U.S.
Securities and Exchange Commission The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is a large independent agency of the United States federal government, created in the aftermath of the Wall Street Crash of 1929 The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as the Great Cras ...
filed a complaint against Xerox. The complaint alleged Xerox deceived the public between 1997 and 2000 by employing several "accounting maneuvers," the most significant of which was a change in which Xerox recorded revenue from copy machine leases – recognizing a "sale" when a lease contract was signed, instead of recognizing revenue over the entire length of the contract. At issue was when the revenue was recognized, not the validity of the revenue. Xerox's restatement only changed what year the revenue was recognized. On December 20, 2002, Xerox Corporation reported that it had discovered an error in the calculation of its non-cash interest expense related to a debt instrument and associated interest rate swap agreements, resulted in after-tax understatement of interest expense of approximately $5 million to $6 million or less than 1 cent per share in each of the four quarters of 2001 and for the first three quarters of 2002. In response to the SEC's complaint, Xerox Corporation neither admitted nor denied wrongdoing. It agreed to pay a $10 million penalty and to restate its financial results for the years 1997 through 2000. On June 5, 2003, six Xerox senior executives accused of securities fraud settled their issues with the SEC and neither admitted nor denied wrongdoing. They agreed to pay $22 million in penalties, disgorgement, and interest. The company received approval to settle the securities lawsuit in 2008. On January 29, 2003, the SEC filed a complaint against Xerox's auditors,
KPMG KPMG International Limited (or simply KPMG) is a British-Dutch multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple ...

KPMG
, alleging four partners in the "Big Five" accounting firm permitted Xerox to "cook the books" to fill a $3 billion "gap" in revenue and $1.4 billion "gap" in pre-tax earnings. In April 2005 KPMG settled with the SEC by paying a US$22.48 million fine. Meanwhile, Xerox paid a civil penalty of $10 million. As part of the settlement KPMG neither admits nor denies wrongdoings. During a settlement with the
Securities and Exchange Commission The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is a large independent agency of the United States federal government, created in the aftermath of the Wall Street Crash of 1929 The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as the Great Cras ...
, Xerox began to revamp itself once more. As a symbol of this transformation, the relative size of the word "Xerox" was increased in proportion to "The Document Company" on the corporate signature, and the latter was dropped altogether in September 2004, along with the digital X. However, the digital X and "The Document Company" were still used by
Fuji Xerox is a joint venture A joint venture is a business entity created by two or more parties, generally characterized by shared ownership, shared returns and economic risk, risks, and shared governance. Companies typically pursue joint ventures for ...
until April 2008.


Character substitution bug

In 2013, German computer scientist David Kriesel ( de) discovered an
error An error (from the Latin ''error'', meaning "wandering") is an action which is inaccurate or incorrect. In some usages, an error is synonymous with a mistake. In statistics Statistics is the discipline that concerns the collection, o ...
in a Xerox WorkCentre 7535 copier. The device would substitute number digits in scanned documents, even when OCR was turned off. For instance, a cost table in a scanned document had an entry of 85.40, instead of the original sum of 65.40. After unsuccessfully trying to resolve this issue with Xerox's customer support, he publicised his findings on his blog. Providing examples pages that lead to the bug occurrence, it was confirmed that this bug was reproducible on a wide variety of Xerox WorkCentre and other high-end Xerox copiers. The source of the error was a bug in the
JBIG2 JBIG2 is an image compression Image compression is a type of data compression In signal processing Signal processing is an electrical engineering Electrical engineering is an engineering discipline concerned with the study, design ...
implementation, which is an image compression standard that makes use of pattern matching to encode identical characters only once. While this provides a high level of compression, it is susceptible to errors in identifying similar characters. A possible workaround was published by Kriesel, which involved setting the image quality from "normal" to "higher" or "high". Shortly afterwards, it was found that the same fix had been suggested in the printer manual, which mentioned the occurrence of character substitutions in "normal mode", indicating that Xerox was aware of the software error. In Xerox's initial response to a growing interest by the media, the error was described as occurring rarely and only when factory settings had been changed. After Kriesel provided evidence that the error was also occurring in all three image quality modes (normal, higher and high) including the factory defaults, Xerox corrected their statement and released a software patch to eliminate the problem. Despite the problem being present in some instances also in higher quality mode, Xerox advises users that they can use this mode as an alternative to applying the patch.


Trademark

The word ''xerox'' is used as a synonym for ''photocopy'' (both as a noun and a
verb A verb () is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (''bring'', ''read'', ''walk'', ''run'', ''learn''), an occurrence (''happen'', ''become''), or a state of being (''be'', ''exist'', ''stand''). In the usual description of E ...
) in many areas: for example, "I xeroxed the document and placed it on your desk" or "Please make a xeroxed copy of the articles and hand them out a week before the exam". Though both are common, the company does not condone such uses of its trademark, and is particularly concerned about the ongoing use of Xerox as a verb as this places the trademark in danger of being declared a generic word by the courts. The company is engaged in an ongoing advertising and media campaign to convince the public that Xerox should not be used as a verb. To this end, the company has written to publications that have used Xerox as a verb, and has also purchased print advertisements declaring that "you cannot 'xerox' a document, but you can copy it on a Xerox Brand copying machine". Xerox Corporation continues to protect its trademark in most if not all trademark categories. Despite their efforts, many dictionaries continue to include the use of "xerox" as a verb, including the ''
Oxford English Dictionary The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal historical dictionary A historical dictionary or dictionary on historical principles is a dictionary which deals not only with the latterday meanings of words but also the historica ...
''. In 2012, the Intellectual Property Appellate Board (IPAB) of India declared "xerox" a non-generic term after "almost 50 years (1963–2009) of continued existence on the register without challenge, and with proof of almost 44 years of use evident (1965–2009)", but as of 2015, most Indians still use it as a synonym for photocopying. The company has also advertised its trademark concerns, in an attempt to persuade journalists and others not to use "Xerox" as a verb.


See also

* Faxlore, often called 'Xeroxlore'


Citations


General references

* Ellis, Charles D.,
Joe Wilson and the Creation of Xerox
', Wiley, 2006, . * Owen, David
''Copies in Seconds: How a Lone Inventor and an Unknown Company Created the Biggest Communication Breakthrough Since Gutenberg—Chester Carlson and the Birth of the Xerox Machine''
Simon & Schuster, 2004, .


External links

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