HOME

TheInfoList



OR:

Xenophon of Athens (; grc, Ξενοφῶν ; – probably 355 or 354 BC) was a Greek military leader, philosopher, and historian, born in
Athens Athens ( ; el, Αθήνα, Athína ; grc, Ἀθῆναι, Athênai (pl.) ) is a coastal city in the Mediterranean and is both the capital and largest city of Greece. With a population close to four million, it is also the seventh largest c ...
. At the age of 30, Xenophon was elected commander of one of the biggest Greek mercenary armies of the
Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Empire or Achaemenian Empire (; peo, wikt:𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎶, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, , ), also called the First Persian Empire, was an History of Iran#Classical antiquity, ancient Iranian empire founded by Cyrus the Great in 550 BC. Bas ...
, the
Ten Thousand The Ten Thousand ( grc, οἱ Μύριοι, ''oi Myrioi'') were a force of mercenary units, mainly Ancient Greece, Greeks, employed by Cyrus the Younger to attempt to wrest the throne of the Achaemenid Empire, Persian Empire from his brother, Ar ...
, that marched on and came close to capturing
Babylon ''Bābili(m)'' * sux, 𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠 * arc, 𐡁𐡁𐡋 ''Bāḇel'' * syc, ܒܒܠ ''Bāḇel'' * grc-gre, Βαβυλών ''Babylṓn'' * he, בָּבֶל ''Bāvel'' * peo, 𐎲𐎠𐎲𐎡𐎽𐎢 ''Bābiru'' * elx, 𒀸𒁀𒉿𒇷 ''Babi ...
in 401 BC. As the military historian
Theodore Ayrault Dodge Theodore Ayrault Dodge (May 28, 1842 – October 26, 1909) was an American officer, military history, military historian, and Businessperson, businessman. He fought as a Union (American Civil War), Union officer in the American Civil War; as a wri ...
wrote, "the centuries since have devised nothing to surpass the genius of this warrior". Xenophon established precedents for many logistical operations, and was among the first to describe strategic
flanking maneuver In military tactics, a flanking maneuver is a movement of an armed force around an enemy force's side, or wikt:flank, flank, to achieve an advantageous position over it. Flanking is useful because a force's fighting strength is typically con ...
s and
feint Feint is a French term that entered English via the discipline of swordsmanship and fencing. Feints are maneuvers designed to distract or mislead, done by giving the impression that a certain maneuver will take place, while in fact another, or e ...
s in combat. Xenophon's '' Anabasis'' recounts his adventures with the
Ten Thousand The Ten Thousand ( grc, οἱ Μύριοι, ''oi Myrioi'') were a force of mercenary units, mainly Ancient Greece, Greeks, employed by Cyrus the Younger to attempt to wrest the throne of the Achaemenid Empire, Persian Empire from his brother, Ar ...
while in the service of
Cyrus the Younger Cyrus the Younger ( peo, wikt:𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁, 𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 ''Kūruš''; grc-gre, wikt:Κῦρος, Κῦρος ; died 401 BC) was an Achaemenid prince and general. He ruled as satrap of Lydia and Ionia from 408 to 401 BC. Son of Da ...
, Cyrus's failed campaign to claim the Persian throne from
Artaxerxes II of Persia Arses ( grc-gre, Ἄρσης; 445 – 359/8 BC), known by his regnal name Artaxerxes II ( peo, 𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂 ; grc-gre, Ἀρταξέρξης), was King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Empire or Achaemenian E ...
, and the return of Greek mercenaries after Cyrus's death in the
Battle of Cunaxa The Battle of Cunaxa was fought in the late summer of 401 BC between the Persian king Artaxerxes II and his brother Cyrus the Younger for control of the Achaemenid throne. The great battle of the revolt of Cyrus took place 70 km north of ...
. '' Anabasis'' is a unique first-hand, humble, and self-reflective account of a military leader's experience in antiquity. On the topic of campaigns in Asia Minor and in
Babylon ''Bābili(m)'' * sux, 𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠 * arc, 𐡁𐡁𐡋 ''Bāḇel'' * syc, ܒܒܠ ''Bāḇel'' * grc-gre, Βαβυλών ''Babylṓn'' * he, בָּבֶל ''Bāvel'' * peo, 𐎲𐎠𐎲𐎡𐎽𐎢 ''Bābiru'' * elx, 𒀸𒁀𒉿𒇷 ''Babi ...
, Xenophon wrote ''
Cyropaedia The ''Cyropaedia'', sometimes spelled ''Cyropedia'', is a partly fictional biography of Cyrus the Great, the founder of Persia's Achaemenid Empire. It was written around 370 BC by Xenophon, the Athens, Athenian-born soldier, historian, and studen ...
'' outlining both military and political methods used by
Cyrus the Great Cyrus II of Persia (; peo, wikt:𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁, 𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 ), commonly known as Cyrus the Great, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the History of Iran, first Persian empire.#refachaemenids-EI, Schmitt Achaemenid dynasty ...
to conquer the
Neo-Babylonian Empire The Neo-Babylonian Empire or Second Babylonian Empire, historically known as the Chaldean Empire, was the last polity ruled by monarchs native to Mesopotamia. Beginning with the coronation of Nabopolassar as the List of kings of Babylon, King of B ...
in 539 BC. '' Anabasis'' and ''
Cyropaedia The ''Cyropaedia'', sometimes spelled ''Cyropedia'', is a partly fictional biography of Cyrus the Great, the founder of Persia's Achaemenid Empire. It was written around 370 BC by Xenophon, the Athens, Athenian-born soldier, historian, and studen ...
'' inspired
Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc, wikt:Ἀλέξανδρος, Ἀλέξανδρος, Alexandros; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king of the Ancient Greece, ancient Greek kingdom of Maced ...
and other Greeks to conquer
Babylon ''Bābili(m)'' * sux, 𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠 * arc, 𐡁𐡁𐡋 ''Bāḇel'' * syc, ܒܒܠ ''Bāḇel'' * grc-gre, Βαβυλών ''Babylṓn'' * he, בָּבֶל ''Bāvel'' * peo, 𐎲𐎠𐎲𐎡𐎽𐎢 ''Bābiru'' * elx, 𒀸𒁀𒉿𒇷 ''Babi ...
and the
Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Empire or Achaemenian Empire (; peo, wikt:𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎶, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, , ), also called the First Persian Empire, was an History of Iran#Classical antiquity, ancient Iranian empire founded by Cyrus the Great in 550 BC. Bas ...
in 331 BC. A student and a friend of
Socrates Socrates (; ; –399 BC) was a Greeks, Greek philosopher from Classical Athens, Athens who is credited as the founder of Western philosophy and among the first moral philosophers of the Ethics, ethical tradition of thought. An enigmati ...
, Xenophon recounted several
Socratic dialogue Socratic dialogue ( grc, Σωκρατικὸς λόγος) is a genre of literary prose developed in Ancient Greece, Greece at the turn of the fourth century BC. The earliest ones are preserved in the works of Plato and Xenophon and all involve S ...
s''
Symposium In ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a northeastern Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean civilization, existing from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of Classical Antiquity, classical ...
'', ''
Oeconomicus The ''Oeconomicus'' ( grc-gre, Οἰκονομικός) by Xenophon is a Socratic method, Socratic dialogue principally about household management and agriculture. ''Oeconomicus'' comes from the Ancient Greek words ''oikos'' for home or house ...
'', '' Hiero'', a tribute to
Socrates Socrates (; ; –399 BC) was a Greeks, Greek philosopher from Classical Athens, Athens who is credited as the founder of Western philosophy and among the first moral philosophers of the Ethics, ethical tradition of thought. An enigmati ...
''
Memorabilia A souvenir (), memento, keepsake, or token of remembrance is an object a person acquires for the memory, memories the owner associates with it. A souvenir can be any object that can be collected or purchased and transported home by the travele ...
'', and a chronicle of the philosopher's trial in 399 BC'' Apology of Socrates to the Jury''. Reading Xenophon's ''
Memorabilia A souvenir (), memento, keepsake, or token of remembrance is an object a person acquires for the memory, memories the owner associates with it. A souvenir can be any object that can be collected or purchased and transported home by the travele ...
'' inspired
Zeno of Citium Zeno of Citium (; grc-x-koine, Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς, ; c. 334 – c. 262 BC) was a Hellenistic In Classical antiquity, the Hellenistic period covers the time in History of the Mediterranean region, Mediterranean history after Clas ...
to change his life and start the Stoic school of philosophy. For at least two millennia, Xenophon's many talents fueled the debate of whether to place Xenophon with generals, historians or philosophers. For the majority of time in the past two millennia, Xenophon was recognized as a philosopher.
Quintilian Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (; 35 – 100 AD) was a Roman Empire, Roman educator and rhetorician from Hispania, widely referred to in Middle ages, medieval schools of rhetoric and in Renaissance writing. In English translation, he is usuall ...
in The Orator's Education discusses the most prominent historians, orators and philosophers as examples of eloquence and recognizes Xenophon's historical work, but ultimately places Xenophon next to
Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, wikt:Πλάτων, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a Greeks, Greek philosopher born in Athens during the Classical Greece, Classical period in Ancient Greece. He founded the Platonist school of thou ...
as a philosopher. Today, Xenophon is best known for his historical works. The ''
Hellenica ''Hellenica'' ( grc, Ἑλληνικά) simply means writings on Greek (Hellenic) subjects. Several histories of 4th-century Greece, written in the mould of Thucydides or straying from it, have borne the conventional Latin title ''Hellenica''. Th ...
'' continues directly from the final sentence of
Thucydides Thucydides (; grc, , }; BC) was an Classical Athens, Athenian historian and general. His ''History of the Peloponnesian War'' recounts Peloponnesian War, the fifth-century BC war between Sparta and Athens until the year 411 BC. Thucydides has ...
' ''
History of the Peloponnesian War The ''History of the Peloponnesian War'' is a historical account of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), which was fought between the Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) and the Delian League (led by Classical Athens, Athens). It was written b ...
'' covering the last seven years of the
Peloponnesian War The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greece, ancient Greek war fought between Classical Athens, Athens and Sparta and their respective allies for the hegemony of the Ancient Greece, Greek world. The war remained undecided for ...
(431–404 BC) and the subsequent forty-two years (404 BC–362 BC) ending with the Second Battle of Mantinea. Despite being born an Athenian citizen, Xenophon came to be associated with
Sparta Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, ''Spártā''; Attic Greek: wikt:Σπάρτη, Σπάρτη, ''Spártē'') was a prominent city-state in Laconia, in ancient Greece. In antiquity, the city-state was known as Lacedaemon (, ), while the nam ...
, the traditional opponent of Athens. Experience as a mercenary and a military leader, service under Spartan commanders in Ionia, Asia Minor, Persia and elsewhere, exile from Athens, and friendship with King Agesilaus II endeared Xenophon to the Spartans. Much of what is known today about the Spartan society comes from Xenophon's worksthe royal biography of the Spartan king ''
Agesilaus Agesilaus II (; grc-gre, Ἀγησίλαος ; c. 442 – 358 BC) was king of Sparta from c. 399 to 358 BC. Generally considered the most important king in the history of Sparta, Agesilaus was the main actor during the period of Spartan hegemony ...
'' and the '' Constitution of the Lacedaemonians''. Xenophon is recognized as one of the greatest writers of antiquity. Xenophon's works span multiple genres and are written in plain
Attic Greek Attic Greek is the Greek language, Greek dialect of the regions of ancient Greece, ancient region of Attica, including the ''polis'' of classical Athens, Athens. Often called classical Greek, it was the prestige (sociolinguistics), prestige diale ...
, which is why they have often been used in translation exercises for contemporary students of the
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: Mycenaean Greek (), Greek Dark ...
language. In the ''
Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers Diogenes Laërtius ( ; grc-gre, Διογένης Λαέρτιος, ; ) was a biographer of the Greek philosopher A philosopher is a person who practices or investigates philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the systematized study of g ...
'',
Diogenes Laërtius Diogenes Laërtius ( ; grc-gre, Διογένης Λαέρτιος, ; ) was a biographer of the Greek philosophers. Nothing is definitively known about his life, but his surviving ''Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers'' is a principal sou ...
observed that Xenophon was known as the "Attic Muse" because of the sweetness of his diction. Several centuries later, Roman philosopher and statesman
Cicero Marcus Tullius Cicero ( ; ; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Ancient Rome, Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, philosopher, and Academic skepticism, academic skeptic, who tried to uphold optimate principles during crisis of ...
described Xenophon's mastery of Greek composition in
Orator An orator, or oratist, is a public speaker, especially one who is Eloquence, eloquent or skilled. Etymology Recorded in English c. 1374, with a meaning of "one who pleads or argues for a cause", from Anglo-French ''oratour'', Old French ''orate ...
with the following words: "the muses were said to speak with the voice of Xenophon". Roman orator, attorney and teacher of rhetoric
Quintilian Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (; 35 – 100 AD) was a Roman Empire, Roman educator and rhetorician from Hispania, widely referred to in Middle ages, medieval schools of rhetoric and in Renaissance writing. In English translation, he is usuall ...
echoes Cicero in '' The Orator's Education'' saying "the Graces themselves seem to have molded his style and the goddess of persuasion sat upon his lips".


Life


Early years

Xenophon was born around 430 BC, in the
deme In Ancient Greece, a deme or ( grc, δῆμος, plural: demoi, δημοι) was a suburb or a subdivision of Classical Athens, Athens and other city-states. Demes as simple subdivisions of land in the countryside seem to have existed in the 6th ...
Erchia of
Athens Athens ( ; el, Αθήνα, Athína ; grc, Ἀθῆναι, Athênai (pl.) ) is a coastal city in the Mediterranean and is both the capital and largest city of Greece. With a population close to four million, it is also the seventh largest c ...
. Xenophon's father, Gryllus, was a member of a wealthy equestrian family. Detailed accounts of events in ''
Hellenica ''Hellenica'' ( grc, Ἑλληνικά) simply means writings on Greek (Hellenic) subjects. Several histories of 4th-century Greece, written in the mould of Thucydides or straying from it, have borne the conventional Latin title ''Hellenica''. Th ...
'' suggest that Xenophon personally witnessed the Return of Alcibiades in 407 BC, the Trial of the Generals in 406 BC, and the overthrow of the
Thirty Tyrants The Thirty Tyrants ( grc, οἱ τριάκοντα τύραννοι, ''hoi triákonta týrannoi'') were a pro-Spartan oligarchy installed in Athens Athens ( ; el, Αθήνα, Athína ; grc, Ἀθῆναι, Athênai (pl.) ) is a coastal ci ...
in 403 BC. Detailed account of Xenophon's life starts 401 BC. Personally invited by Proxenus of Beotia (''Anabasis'' 3.1.9), one of the captains in Cyrus's mercenary army, Xenophon sailed to
Ephesus Ephesus (; grc-gre, Ἔφεσος, Éphesos; tr, Efes; may ultimately derive from hit, 𒀀𒉺𒊭, Apaša) was a city in ancient Greece on the coast of Ionia, southwest of present-day Selçuk in İzmir Province, Turkey. It was built in t ...
to meet
Cyrus the Younger Cyrus the Younger ( peo, wikt:𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁, 𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 ''Kūruš''; grc-gre, wikt:Κῦρος, Κῦρος ; died 401 BC) was an Achaemenid prince and general. He ruled as satrap of Lydia and Ionia from 408 to 401 BC. Son of Da ...
and participate in Cyrus's military campaign against
Tissaphernes Tissaphernes ( peo, wiktionary:Reconstruction:Old Persian/Ciçafarnāʰ, *Ciçafarnāʰ; grc-gre, wiktionary:Τισσαφέρνης, Τισσαφέρνης; xlc, 𐊋𐊆𐊈𐊈𐊀𐊓𐊕𐊑𐊏𐊀 , ; 445395 BC) was a History of Persia, P ...
, the Persian
satrap A satrap () was a governor of the provinces of the ancient Medes, Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic period, Hellenistic empires. The satrap served as viceroy to t ...
of
Ionia Ionia () was an ancient region on the western coast of Anatolia, to the south of present-day Izmir. It consisted of the northernmost territories of the Ionian League of Greeks, Greek settlements. Never a unified state, it was named after the I ...
. Xenophon describes his life in 401 BC and 400 BC in the memoir '' Anabasis''.


''Anabasis''

The ''Anabasis'' is a narrative of how "Xenophon rouses the despairing Greeks into action and leads them on their long march home; and the narrative of his successes has won him noteworthy if uneven admiration for over two millennia."


Expedition with Cyrus the Younger

Written years after the events it recounts, Xenophon's book '' Anabasis'' (Greek: ἀνάβασις, literally "going up") is his record of the expedition of Cyrus and the Greek mercenaries’ journey home. Xenophon writes that he asked Socrates for advice on whether to go with Cyrus, and that Socrates referred him to the divinely inspired
Pythia Pythia (; grc, Πυθία ) was the name of the high priestess of the Temple of Apollo (Delphi), Temple of Apollo at Delphi. She specifically served as its oracle and was known as the Oracle of Delphi. Her title was also historically glossed i ...
. Xenophon's query to the oracle, however, was not whether or not to accept Cyrus' invitation, but "to which of the gods he must pray and do sacrifice, so that he might best accomplish his intended journey and return in safety, with good fortune". The oracle answered his question and told him which gods to pray and sacrifice to. When Xenophon returned to Athens and told Socrates of the oracle's advice, Socrates chastised him for asking so disingenuous a question (''Anabasis'' 3.1.5–7). Under the pretext of fighting
Tissaphernes Tissaphernes ( peo, wiktionary:Reconstruction:Old Persian/Ciçafarnāʰ, *Ciçafarnāʰ; grc-gre, wiktionary:Τισσαφέρνης, Τισσαφέρνης; xlc, 𐊋𐊆𐊈𐊈𐊀𐊓𐊕𐊑𐊏𐊀 , ; 445395 BC) was a History of Persia, P ...
, the Persian
satrap A satrap () was a governor of the provinces of the ancient Medes, Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic period, Hellenistic empires. The satrap served as viceroy to t ...
of
Ionia Ionia () was an ancient region on the western coast of Anatolia, to the south of present-day Izmir. It consisted of the northernmost territories of the Ionian League of Greeks, Greek settlements. Never a unified state, it was named after the I ...
, Cyrus assembled a massive army composed of native Persian soldiers, but also a large number of Greeks. Prior to waging war against Artaxerxes, Cyrus proposed that the enemy was the
Pisidia Pisidia (; grc-gre, Πισιδία, ; tr, Pisidya) was a region of ancient Asia Minor located north of Pamphylia, northeast of Lycia, west of Isauria and Cilicia, and south of Phrygia, corresponding roughly to the Antalya Province, modern-da ...
ns, and so the Greeks were unaware that they were to battle against the larger army of King Artaxerxes II (''Anabasis'' 1.1.8–11). At Tarsus the soldiers became aware of Cyrus's plans to depose the king, and as a result, refused to continue (''Anabasis'' 1.3.1). However, Clearchus, a Spartan general, convinced the Greeks to continue with the expedition. The army of Cyrus met the army of Artaxerxes II in the
Battle of Cunaxa The Battle of Cunaxa was fought in the late summer of 401 BC between the Persian king Artaxerxes II and his brother Cyrus the Younger for control of the Achaemenid throne. The great battle of the revolt of Cyrus took place 70 km north of ...
. Despite effective fighting by the Greeks, Cyrus was killed in the battle (''Anabasis'' 1.8.27–1.9.1). Shortly thereafter, Clearchus was treacherously invited by Tissaphernes to a feast, where, alongside four other generals and many captains, including Xenophon's friend Proxenus, he was captured and executed (''Anabasis'' 2.5.31–32).


Return

The
mercenaries A mercenary, sometimes Pseudonym, also known as a soldier of fortune or hired gun, is a private individual, particularly a soldier, that joins a military conflict for personal profit, is otherwise an outsider to the conflict, and is not a memb ...
, known as the
Ten Thousand The Ten Thousand ( grc, οἱ Μύριοι, ''oi Myrioi'') were a force of mercenary units, mainly Ancient Greece, Greeks, employed by Cyrus the Younger to attempt to wrest the throne of the Achaemenid Empire, Persian Empire from his brother, Ar ...
, found themselves without leadership far from the sea, deep in hostile territory near the heart of
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن or ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in the northern part of the F ...
, with a hostile population and armies to deal with. They elected new leaders, including Xenophon himself. Dodge says of Xenophon's generalship, "Xenophon is the father of the system of retreat, the originator of all that appertains to the science of rear-guard fighting. He reduced its management to a perfect method. More originality in tactics has come from the Anabasis than from any dozen other books. Every system of war looks to this as to the fountain-head when it comes to rearward movements, as it looks to Alexander for a pattern of resistless and intelligent advance. Necessity to Xenophon was truly the mother of invention, but the centuries since have devised nothing to surpass the genius of this warrior. No general ever possessed a grander moral ascendant over his men. None ever worked for the safety of his soldiers with greater ardor or to better effect." Xenophon and his men initially had to deal with volleys by a minor force of harassing Persian missile cavalry. Every day, these cavalry, finding no opposition from the Ten Thousand, moved cautiously closer and closer. One night, Xenophon formed a body of archers and light cavalry. When the Persian cavalry arrived the next day, now firing within several yards, Xenophon suddenly unleashed his new cavalry in a shock charge, smashing into the stunned and confused enemy, killing many and routing the rest. Tissaphernes pursued Xenophon with a vast force, and when the Greeks reached the wide and deep
Great Zab The Great Zab or Upper Zab ( (''al-Zāb al-Kabīr''), or , , ''(zāba ʻalya)'') is an approximately long river flowing through Turkey and Iraq. It rises in Turkey near Lake Van and joins the Tigris in Iraq south of Mosul. The drainage basin o ...
River, it seemed they were surrounded. However, Xenophon quickly devised a plan: all goats, cows, sheep and donkeys were slaughtered and their bodies stuffed with hay, laid across the river and sewn up and covered with dirt so as not to be slippery. This created a bridge across which Xenophon led his men before the Persians could get to them. That Xenophon was able to acquire the means of feeding his force in the heart of a vast empire with a hostile population was astonishing. Dodge notes, "On this retreat also was first shown the necessary, if cruel, means of arresting a pursuing enemy by the systematic devastation of the country traversed and the destruction of its villages to deprive him of food and shelter. And Xenophon is moreover the first who established in rear of the phalanx a reserve from which he could at will feed weak parts of his line. This was a superb first conception." The Ten Thousand eventually made their way into the land of the Carduchians, a wild tribe inhabiting the mountains of modern southeastern Turkey. The Carduchians were "a fierce, war-loving race, who had never been conquered. Once the Great King had sent into their country an army of 120,000 men, to subdue them, but of all that great host not one had ever seen his home again." The Ten Thousand made their way in and were shot at with stones and arrows for several days before they reached a defile where the main Carduchian host sat. In the Battle of the Carduchian Defile, Xenophon had 8,000 men feint at this host and marched the other 2,000 to a pass revealed by a prisoner under the cover of a rainstorm, and "having made their way to the rear of the main pass, at daylight, under cover of the morning mist, they boldly pushed in upon the astonished Carducians. The blare of their many trumpets gave notice of their successful detour to Xenophon, as well as added to the confusion of the enemy. The main army at once joined in the attack from the valley side, and the Carducians were driven from their stronghold." After heavy mountain fighting in which Xenophon showed the calm and patience needed for the situation, the Greeks made their way to the northern foothills of the mountains at the Centrites River, only to find a major Persian force blocking the route north. With the Carduchians surging toward the Greek rear, Xenophon again faced the threat of total destruction in battle. Xenophon's scouts quickly found another ford, but the Persians moved and blocked this as well. Xenophon sent a small force back toward the other ford, causing the anxious Persians to detach a major part of their force parallel. Xenophon stormed and completely overwhelmed the force at his ford, while the Greek detachment made a forced march to this bridgehead. This was among the first attacks in depth ever made, 23 years after Delium and 30 years before Epaminondas’ more famous use of it at Leuctra. Winter by now arrived as the Greeks marched through Armenia "absolutely unprovided with clothing suitable for such weather", inflicting more casualties than they suffered during a skillful ambush of a local satrap's force and the flanking of another force in this period. At a period when the Greeks were in desperate need of food, they decided upon attacking a wooden castle known to have had storage. The castle, however, was stationed on a hill surrounded by forest. Xenophon ordered small parties of his men to appear on the hill road, and when the defenders fired, one soldier would leap into the trees, and he "did this so often that at last there was quite a heap of stones lying in front of him, but he himself was untouched." Then, "the other men followed his example, and made it a sort of game, enjoying the sensation, pleasant alike to old and young, of courting danger for a moment, and then quickly escaping it. When the stones were almost exhausted, the soldiers raced one another over the exposed part of the road", storming the fortress, which, with most of the garrison now neutralized, barely put up a fight. Soon after, Xenophon's men reached Trapezus on the coast of the
Black Sea The Black Sea is a marginal sea, marginal Mediterranean sea (oceanography), mediterranean sea of the Atlantic Ocean lying between Europe and Asia, east of the Balkans, south of the East European Plain, west of the Caucasus, and north of An ...
(''Anabasis'' 4.8.22). Before their departure, the Greeks made an alliance with the locals and fought one last battle against the Colchians, vassals of the Persians, in mountainous country. Xenophon ordered his men to deploy the line extremely thin so as to overlap the enemy, keeping a strong reserve. The Colchians, seeing they were being outflanked, divided their army to check the Greek deployment, opening a gap in their line through which Xenophon rushed in his reserves, scoring a brilliant Greek victory. They then made their way westward back to Greek territory via Chrysopolis (''Anabasis'' 6.3.16). Once there, they helped
Seuthes II Seuthes II ( grc, Σεύθης, ''Seuthēs'') was a ruler in the Odrysian kingdom The Odrysian Kingdom (; Ancient Greek: ) was a state grouping many List of ancient tribes in Thrace and Dacia, Thracian tribes united by the Odrysae, which arose in ...
make himself king of
Thrace Thrace (; el, Θράκη, Thráki; bg, Тракия, Trakiya; tr, Trakya) or Thrake is a geographical and historical region in Southeast Europe, now split among Bulgaria, Greece, and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to th ...
, before being recruited into the army of the Spartan general Thimbron (whom Xenophon refers to as Thibron). The Spartans were at war with Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus II, Persian
satrap A satrap () was a governor of the provinces of the ancient Medes, Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic period, Hellenistic empires. The satrap served as viceroy to t ...
s in
Anatolia Anatolia (also Asia Minor), is a large peninsula in Western Asia and is the western-most extension of continental Asia. The land mass of Anatolia constitutes most of the territory of contemporary Turkey. Geographically, the Anatolian region i ...
. Filled with a plethora of originality and tactical genius, Xenophon's conduct of the retreat caused Dodge to name the Athenian knight the greatest general that preceded Alexander the Great.


Life after Anabasis

Xenophon's Anabasis ends in 399 BC in the city of
Pergamon Pergamon or Pergamum ( or ; grc-gre, Πέργαμον), also referred to by its modern Greek form Pergamos (), was a rich and powerful ancient Greece, ancient Greek city in Mysia. It is located from the modern coastline of the Aegean Sea on a ...
with the arrival of the Spartan commander Thimbron. Thimbron's campaign is described in
Hellenica ''Hellenica'' ( grc, Ἑλληνικά) simply means writings on Greek (Hellenic) subjects. Several histories of 4th-century Greece, written in the mould of Thucydides or straying from it, have borne the conventional Latin title ''Hellenica''. Th ...
. The level of detail with which Xenophon describes Thimbron's campaign in Hellenica suggests first hand knowledge. After capturing Teuthrania and Halisarna, the Greeks led by Thimbron lay siege to
Larissa Larissa (; el, Λάρισα, , ) is the capital and largest city of the Thessaly modern regions of Greece, region in Greece. It is the fifth-most populous city in Greece with a population of 144,651 according to the 2011 census. It is also capit ...
. Failing to capture Larissa, the Greeks fall back to
Caria Caria (; from Greek language, Greek: Καρία, ''Karia''; tr, Karya) was a region of western Anatolia extending along the coast from mid-Ionia (Mycale) south to Lycia and east to Phrygia. The Ionians, Ionian and Dorians, Dorian Greeks coloniz ...
. As a result of the failed siege of Larissa, the
ephors The ephors were a board of five magistrates in ancient Sparta. They had an extensive range of judicial, religious, legislative, and military powers, and could shape Sparta's home and foreign affairs. The word "''ephors''" (Ancient Greek ''ép ...
of Sparta recall Thimbron and send
Dercylidas Dercylidas (Greek language, Greek: Δερκυλίδας) was a Spartan commander during the 5th and 4th century BC. For his cunning and inventiveness, he was nicknamed Sisyphus. In 411 BC he was appointed harmost at Abydos, Hellespont, Abydos. In ...
to lead the Greek army. After facing the court at Sparta, Thimbron is banished. Xenophon describes
Dercylidas Dercylidas (Greek language, Greek: Δερκυλίδας) was a Spartan commander during the 5th and 4th century BC. For his cunning and inventiveness, he was nicknamed Sisyphus. In 411 BC he was appointed harmost at Abydos, Hellespont, Abydos. In ...
as a significantly more experienced commander than Thimbron. Led by
Dercylidas Dercylidas (Greek language, Greek: Δερκυλίδας) was a Spartan commander during the 5th and 4th century BC. For his cunning and inventiveness, he was nicknamed Sisyphus. In 411 BC he was appointed harmost at Abydos, Hellespont, Abydos. In ...
, Xenophon and the Greek army march to Aeolis and capture nine cities in 8 days including
Larissa Larissa (; el, Λάρισα, , ) is the capital and largest city of the Thessaly modern regions of Greece, region in Greece. It is the fifth-most populous city in Greece with a population of 144,651 according to the 2011 census. It is also capit ...
,
Hamaxitus Hamaxitus ( grc, Ἁμαξιτός, Hamaxitos) was an Ancient Greece, ancient Greek city in the south-west of the Troad region of Anatolia which was considered to mark the boundary between the Troad and Aeolis. Its surrounding territory was know ...
, and Kolonai.Hellenica III, 2 The Persians negotiated a temporary truce and the Greek army retired for a winter camp at
Byzantium Byzantium () or Byzantion ( grc, Βυζάντιον) was an Ancient Greece, ancient Greek Polis, city in classical antiquity that became known as Constantinople in late antiquity and Istanbul today. The Greek name ''Byzantion'' and its Romanizat ...
. In 398 BC, Xenophon was likely a part of the Greek force capturing the city of
Lampsacus Lampsacus (; grc, Λάμψακος, translit=Lampsakos) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is ...
. Also in 398, the Spartan
ephors The ephors were a board of five magistrates in ancient Sparta. They had an extensive range of judicial, religious, legislative, and military powers, and could shape Sparta's home and foreign affairs. The word "''ephors''" (Ancient Greek ''ép ...
officially cleared the
Ten Thousand The Ten Thousand ( grc, οἱ Μύριοι, ''oi Myrioi'') were a force of mercenary units, mainly Ancient Greece, Greeks, employed by Cyrus the Younger to attempt to wrest the throne of the Achaemenid Empire, Persian Empire from his brother, Ar ...
of any previous wrongdoing (the
Ten Thousand The Ten Thousand ( grc, οἱ Μύριοι, ''oi Myrioi'') were a force of mercenary units, mainly Ancient Greece, Greeks, employed by Cyrus the Younger to attempt to wrest the throne of the Achaemenid Empire, Persian Empire from his brother, Ar ...
were likely a part of the investigation of Thimbron's failure at
Larissa Larissa (; el, Λάρισα, , ) is the capital and largest city of the Thessaly modern regions of Greece, region in Greece. It is the fifth-most populous city in Greece with a population of 144,651 according to the 2011 census. It is also capit ...
) and fully integrated the
Ten Thousand The Ten Thousand ( grc, οἱ Μύριοι, ''oi Myrioi'') were a force of mercenary units, mainly Ancient Greece, Greeks, employed by Cyrus the Younger to attempt to wrest the throne of the Achaemenid Empire, Persian Empire from his brother, Ar ...
into
Dercylidas Dercylidas (Greek language, Greek: Δερκυλίδας) was a Spartan commander during the 5th and 4th century BC. For his cunning and inventiveness, he was nicknamed Sisyphus. In 411 BC he was appointed harmost at Abydos, Hellespont, Abydos. In ...
' army.
Hellenica ''Hellenica'' ( grc, Ἑλληνικά) simply means writings on Greek (Hellenic) subjects. Several histories of 4th-century Greece, written in the mould of Thucydides or straying from it, have borne the conventional Latin title ''Hellenica''. Th ...
mentions the response of the commander of the
Ten Thousand The Ten Thousand ( grc, οἱ Μύριοι, ''oi Myrioi'') were a force of mercenary units, mainly Ancient Greece, Greeks, employed by Cyrus the Younger to attempt to wrest the throne of the Achaemenid Empire, Persian Empire from his brother, Ar ...
(likely Xenophon) "But men of Lacedaemon, we are the same men now as we were last year; but the commander now is one man (Dercylidas), and in the past was another (Thimbron). Therefore you are at once able to judge for yourselves the reason why we are not at fault now, although we were then." The truce between the Greeks and the Persians was fragile and in 397 BC
Dercylidas Dercylidas (Greek language, Greek: Δερκυλίδας) was a Spartan commander during the 5th and 4th century BC. For his cunning and inventiveness, he was nicknamed Sisyphus. In 411 BC he was appointed harmost at Abydos, Hellespont, Abydos. In ...
' force mirrored the movement of
Tissaphernes Tissaphernes ( peo, wiktionary:Reconstruction:Old Persian/Ciçafarnāʰ, *Ciçafarnāʰ; grc-gre, wiktionary:Τισσαφέρνης, Τισσαφέρνης; xlc, 𐊋𐊆𐊈𐊈𐊀𐊓𐊕𐊑𐊏𐊀 , ; 445395 BC) was a History of Persia, P ...
' and Pharnabazus' force near
Ephesus Ephesus (; grc-gre, Ἔφεσος, Éphesos; tr, Efes; may ultimately derive from hit, 𒀀𒉺𒊭, Apaša) was a city in ancient Greece on the coast of Ionia, southwest of present-day Selçuk in İzmir Province, Turkey. It was built in t ...
, but did not engage in battle. The Persian army retreated to Tralles and the Greeks to Leucophrys.
Dercylidas Dercylidas (Greek language, Greek: Δερκυλίδας) was a Spartan commander during the 5th and 4th century BC. For his cunning and inventiveness, he was nicknamed Sisyphus. In 411 BC he was appointed harmost at Abydos, Hellespont, Abydos. In ...
proposed the new terms of truce to
Tissaphernes Tissaphernes ( peo, wiktionary:Reconstruction:Old Persian/Ciçafarnāʰ, *Ciçafarnāʰ; grc-gre, wiktionary:Τισσαφέρνης, Τισσαφέρνης; xlc, 𐊋𐊆𐊈𐊈𐊀𐊓𐊕𐊑𐊏𐊀 , ; 445395 BC) was a History of Persia, P ...
and Pharnabazus and the three parties submitted the truce proposal to Sparta and the Persian king for ratification. Under
Dercylidas Dercylidas (Greek language, Greek: Δερκυλίδας) was a Spartan commander during the 5th and 4th century BC. For his cunning and inventiveness, he was nicknamed Sisyphus. In 411 BC he was appointed harmost at Abydos, Hellespont, Abydos. In ...
' proposal, the Persians abandoned claims to independent Greek cities in Ionia and the Spartans withdrew the army, leaving Spartan governors in the Greek cities. In 396 BC, the newly appointed Spartan king,
Agesilaus Agesilaus II (; grc-gre, Ἀγησίλαος ; c. 442 – 358 BC) was king of Sparta from c. 399 to 358 BC. Generally considered the most important king in the history of Sparta, Agesilaus was the main actor during the period of Spartan hegemony ...
arrived at
Ephesus Ephesus (; grc-gre, Ἔφεσος, Éphesos; tr, Efes; may ultimately derive from hit, 𒀀𒉺𒊭, Apaša) was a city in ancient Greece on the coast of Ionia, southwest of present-day Selçuk in İzmir Province, Turkey. It was built in t ...
and assumed the command of the army from
Dercylidas Dercylidas (Greek language, Greek: Δερκυλίδας) was a Spartan commander during the 5th and 4th century BC. For his cunning and inventiveness, he was nicknamed Sisyphus. In 411 BC he was appointed harmost at Abydos, Hellespont, Abydos. In ...
. Xenophon and
Agesilaus Agesilaus II (; grc-gre, Ἀγησίλαος ; c. 442 – 358 BC) was king of Sparta from c. 399 to 358 BC. Generally considered the most important king in the history of Sparta, Agesilaus was the main actor during the period of Spartan hegemony ...
likely met for the first time and Xenophon joined Agesilaus' campaign for Ionian Greece independence of 396–394. In 394 BC, Agesilaus' army returned to Greece taking the route of the Persian invasion eighty years earlier and fought in the Battle of Coronea. Athens banished Xenophon for fighting on the Spartan side. Xenophon likely followed Agesilaus' march to Sparta in 394 BC and finished his military journey after seven years. Xenophon received an estate in Scillus where he spent the next twenty three years. In 371 BC, after the
Battle of Leuctra The Battle of Leuctra ( grc-gre, Λεῦκτρα, ) was a battle fought on 6 July 371 BC between the Boeotians led by the Thebes (Greece), Thebans, and the History of Sparta, Spartans along with their allies amidst the post-Corinthian War conflict ...
, Elians confiscated Xenophon's estate and, according to
Diogenes Laërtius Diogenes Laërtius ( ; grc-gre, Διογένης Λαέρτιος, ; ) was a biographer of the Greek philosophers. Nothing is definitively known about his life, but his surviving ''Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers'' is a principal sou ...
, Xenophon moved to
Corinth Corinth ( ; el, Κόρινθος, Kórinthos, ) is the successor to an ancient city, and is a former municipality in Corinthia, Peloponnese (region), Peloponnese, which is located in south-central Greece. Since the 2011 local government refor ...
. Diogenes writes that Xenophon lived in
Corinth Corinth ( ; el, Κόρινθος, Kórinthos, ) is the successor to an ancient city, and is a former municipality in Corinthia, Peloponnese (region), Peloponnese, which is located in south-central Greece. Since the 2011 local government refor ...
until his death in 354 BC.
Pausanias Pausanias ( el, wikt:Παυσανίας, Παυσανίας) may refer to: *Pausanias of Athens, lover of the poet Agathon and a character in Plato's ''Symposium'' *Pausanias the Regent, Spartan general and regent of the 5th century BC *Pausanias of ...
mentions Xenophon's tomb in Scillus.


Xenophon's political philosophy

Like
Socrates Socrates (; ; –399 BC) was a Greeks, Greek philosopher from Classical Athens, Athens who is credited as the founder of Western philosophy and among the first moral philosophers of the Ethics, ethical tradition of thought. An enigmati ...
and other students of Socrates (
Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, wikt:Πλάτων, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a Greeks, Greek philosopher born in Athens during the Classical Greece, Classical period in Ancient Greece. He founded the Platonist school of thou ...
,
Alcibiades Alcibiades ( ; grc-gre, wikt:Ἀλκιβιάδης, Ἀλκιβιάδης; 450 – 404 BC) was a prominent Athens (polis), Athenian statesman, Public speaking, orator, and general. He was the last of the Alcmaeonidae, which fell from prominen ...
,
Critias Critias (; grc-gre, Κριτίας, ''Kritias''; c. 460 – 403 BC) was an ancient Athenian political figure and author. Born in Athens, Critias was the son of Callaeschrus and a first cousin of Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, wikt:Πλά ...
), Xenophon took a keen interest in political philosophy. Almost all Xenophon's writings touch on the topics of political philosophy making it impossible to discuss Xenophon without discussing political philosophy. What is a good leader and how to be a good leader are the two topics Xenophon examines very
often "Often" is a song by Canadian singer the Weeknd. The track was released on July 31, 2014, as the first single from his second studio album, ''Beauty Behind the Madness'' (2015). The song reached number 59 on the Billboard Hot 100, ''Billboard'' H ...
. Political philosophy was a dangerous interest at the time of Xenophon. Xenophon's teacher Socrates was convicted and condemned to death for his teachings. Lives of
Alcibiades Alcibiades ( ; grc-gre, wikt:Ἀλκιβιάδης, Ἀλκιβιάδης; 450 – 404 BC) was a prominent Athens (polis), Athenian statesman, Public speaking, orator, and general. He was the last of the Alcmaeonidae, which fell from prominen ...
,
Critias Critias (; grc-gre, Κριτίας, ''Kritias''; c. 460 – 403 BC) was an ancient Athenian political figure and author. Born in Athens, Critias was the son of Callaeschrus and a first cousin of Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, wikt:Πλά ...
, and
Cyrus the Younger Cyrus the Younger ( peo, wikt:𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁, 𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 ''Kūruš''; grc-gre, wikt:Κῦρος, Κῦρος ; died 401 BC) was an Achaemenid prince and general. He ruled as satrap of Lydia and Ionia from 408 to 401 BC. Son of Da ...
found a violent end.
Thucydides Thucydides (; grc, , }; BC) was an Classical Athens, Athenian historian and general. His ''History of the Peloponnesian War'' recounts Peloponnesian War, the fifth-century BC war between Sparta and Athens until the year 411 BC. Thucydides has ...
, Xenophon's co-author of the history of the Peloponnesian Wars, was
exile Exile is primarily penal expulsion from one's native country A country is a distinct part of the world, such as a state (polity), state, nation, or other polity, political entity. It may be a sovereign state or make up one part of a la ...
d – a sentence commonly used as an alternative to a death sentence. Xenophon's dear friend, King Agesilaus II was smeared after his death. Xenophon himself was exiled from Athens (the details of his sentence are unknown). Although less dangerous today than at the time of Xenophon, political philosophy remains a contentious and difficult subject.
The conflict ''The Conflict'' is a 1916 American silent film, silent drama film directed by Ralph Ince and starring Lucille Lee Stewart, Huntley Gordon and Wilfred Lytell.Connelly p.51 Cast * Lucille Lee Stewart as Madeleine Turner * Jessie Miller (actress) ...
between Athens and Sparta seemingly ended in 404 BC with the defeat of Athens. Athens and Sparta signed a symbolic peace on March 12, 1996. In some respects, the conflict between Athens and Sparta still rages on. People still side with either Athens or Sparta and still try to damage and discredit the other side. Taking the side of Athens and democrats, some people accuse Sparta and people associated with Sparta of being arrogant oligarch oppressors of helots. Others accuse Athens and people associated with Athens of being disingenuous imperialists, colonialists and tyrants. Xenophon, an Athenian who ostensibly sided with Sparta (we don't know whether Xenophon had a choice) and finished Thucydides' incredibly important work about the wars between Athens and Sparta, still remains a target of the conflict. Many read Xenophon's works through a prism of Athenian or Spartan view and either attack or defend Xenophon practicing ad hominem. Given Xenophon's significant role as a participant and a historian in the Athens-Sparta conflict, finding unbiased writings about Xenophon's political philosophy can be challenging. The best advice to people interested in Xenophon is to read Xenophon's original writings and approach Xenophon's ideas with an open mind. After all, the "Attic muse" has no need for retellers. Xenophon has long been associated with the opposition to the Athenian democracy of his time, of which he saw the shortcomings and the ultimate defeat to the Spartan oligarchic power. Although Xenophon seems to prefer oligarchy, or at least the aristocracy, especially in light of his associations with Sparta, none of his works puts a major focus on attacking democracy. But there are definitely some mockeries or criticisms here and there, for instance in the Anabasis, when deliberations are intimidated by cries of "pelt" if a speaker says something others disagree with. Or in a dialog between the Spartan commander and Xenophon himself (Book IV, Chap.6, l.16) when the Spartan says "I too hear that you Athenians are clever at stealing public funds, and this even though the danger is quite extreme for the thief; and indeed the best do it the most, if indeed the best among you are those considered worthy of ruling." Some scholars go so far as to say his views aligned with those of the democracy in his time. However, certain works of Xenophon, in particular the ''
Cyropaedia The ''Cyropaedia'', sometimes spelled ''Cyropedia'', is a partly fictional biography of Cyrus the Great, the founder of Persia's Achaemenid Empire. It was written around 370 BC by Xenophon, the Athens, Athenian-born soldier, historian, and studen ...
'', seem to show his oligarchic politics. This historical-fiction serves as a forum for Xenophon to subtly display his political inclinations.


''Cyropaedia''


Relations between Medes and Persians in the ''Cyropaedia''

Xenophon wrote the ''Cyropaedia'' to outline his political and moral philosophy. He did this by endowing a fictional version of the boyhood of
Cyrus the Great Cyrus II of Persia (; peo, wikt:𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁, 𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 ), commonly known as Cyrus the Great, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the History of Iran, first Persian empire.#refachaemenids-EI, Schmitt Achaemenid dynasty ...
, founder of the first
Persian Empire The Achaemenid Empire or Achaemenian Empire (; peo, wikt:𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎶, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, , ), also called the First Persian Empire, was an History of Iran#Classical antiquity, ancient Iranian empire founded by Cyrus the Great in 550 BC. Bas ...
, with the qualities of what Xenophon considered the ideal ruler. Historians have asked whether Xenophon's portrait of Cyrus was accurate or if Xenophon imbued Cyrus with events from Xenophon's own life. The consensus is that Cyrus’s career is best outlined in the '' Histories'' of
Herodotus Herodotus ( ; grc, , }; BC) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided in ...
. But Steven Hirsch writes, "Yet there are occasions when it can be confirmed from Oriental evidence that Xenophon is correct where Herodotus is wrong or lacks information. A case in point involves the ancestry of Cyrus." Herodotus contradicts Xenophon at several other points, most notably in the matter of Cyrus’s relationship with the Median Kingdom. Herodotus says that Cyrus led a rebellion against his maternal grandfather,
Astyages Astyages (Median In statistics and probability theory, the median is the value separating the higher half from the lower half of a Sample (statistics), data sample, a statistical population, population, or a probability distribution. For a data ...
king of Media, and defeated him, thereafter (improbably) keeping Astyages in his court for the remainder of his life (''Histories'' 1.130). The Medes were thus "reduced to subjection" (1.130) and became "slaves" (1.129) to the Persians 20 years before the capture of Babylon in 539 BC. The ''Cyropaedia'' relates instead that Astyages died and was succeeded by his son Cyaxares II, the maternal uncle of Cyrus (1.5.2). In the initial campaign against the Lydians, Babylonians and their allies, the Medians were led by Cyaxares and the Persians by Cyrus, who was crown prince of the Persians, since his father was still alive (4.5.17). Xenophon relates that at this time the Medes were the strongest of the kingdoms that opposed the Babylonians (1.5.2). There is an echo of this statement, verifying Xenophon and contradicting Herodotus, in the Harran Stele, a document from the court of
Nabonidus Nabonidus (Babylonian cuneiform: ''Nabû-naʾid'', meaning "May Nabu be exalted" or "Nabu is praised") was the last king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, ruling from 556 BC to the fall of Babylon to the Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus the Great in 539 ...
. In the entry for year 14 or 15 of his reign (542–540 BC), Nabonidus speaks of his enemies as the kings of Egypt, the Medes, and the Arabs. There is no mention of the Persians, although according to Herodotus and the current consensus the Medians had been made "slaves" of the Persians several years previously. It does not seem that Nabonidus would be completely misled about who his enemies were, or who was really in control over the Medes and Persians just one to three years before his kingdom fell to their armies. Other archaeological evidence supporting Xenophon’s picture of a confederation of Medes and Persians, rather than a subjugation of the Medes by the Persians, comes from the bas-reliefs in the stairway at
Persepolis , native_name_lang = , alternate_name = , image = Gate of All Nations, Persepolis.jpg , image_size = , alt = , caption = Ruins of the Gate of All Nations, Persepolis. , map = , map_type ...
. These show no distinction in official rank or status between the Persian and Median nobility. Although Olmstead followed the consensus view that Cyrus subjugated the Medes, he nevertheless wrote, "Medes were honored equally with Persians; they were employed in high office and were chosen to lead Persian armies." A more extensive list of considerations related to the credibility of the ''Cyropaedia’s'' picture of the relationship between the Medes and Persians is found on the ''
Cyropaedia The ''Cyropaedia'', sometimes spelled ''Cyropedia'', is a partly fictional biography of Cyrus the Great, the founder of Persia's Achaemenid Empire. It was written around 370 BC by Xenophon, the Athens, Athenian-born soldier, historian, and studen ...
'' page. Both Herodotus (1.123,214) and Xenophon (1.5.1,2,4, 8.5.20) present Cyrus as about 40 years old when his forces captured Babylon. In the
Nabonidus Chronicle The Nabonidus Chronicle is an ancient Babylonian text, part of a larger series of Babylonian Chronicles inscribed in cuneiform script on clay tablets. It deals primarily with the reign of Nabonidus, the last king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, cove ...
, there is mention of the death of the wife of the king (name not given) within a month after the capture of Babylon. It has been conjectured that this was Cyrus’s first wife, which lends credibility to the ''Cyropaedia''’s statement (8.5.19) that Cyaxares II gave his daughter in marriage to Cyrus soon (but not immediately) after the fall of the city, with the kingdom of Media as her dowry. When Cyaxares died about two years later the Median kingdom passed peaceably to Cyrus, so that this would be the true beginning of the Medo-Persian Empire under just one monarch.


Persians as centaurs

The ''Cyropaedia'' as a whole lavishes a great deal of praise on the first Persian emperor,
Cyrus the Great Cyrus II of Persia (; peo, wikt:𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁, 𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 ), commonly known as Cyrus the Great, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the History of Iran, first Persian empire.#refachaemenids-EI, Schmitt Achaemenid dynasty ...
, on account of his virtue and leadership quality, and it was through his greatness that the Persian Empire held together. Thus this book is normally read as a positive treatise about Cyrus. However, following the lead of
Leo Strauss Leo Strauss (, ; September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973) was a German-American Political philosophy, political philosopher who specialized in classical political philosophy. Born in Germany to Jewish parents, Strauss later emigrated from Germany ...
, David Johnson suggests that there is a subtle but strong layer to the book in which Xenophon conveys criticism of not only the Persians but the Spartans and Athenians as well.Johnson, D. M. 2005. "Persians as Centaurs in Xenophon’s ‘Cyropaedia’", ''Transactions of the American Philological Association''. Vol 135, No. 1, pp. 177–207. In section 4.3 of the ''Cyropaedia'' Cyrus makes clear his desire to institute cavalry. He even goes so far to say that he desires that no Persian
kalokagathos
' ("noble and good man" literally, or simply "noble") ever be seen on foot but always on a horse, so much so that the Persians may actually seem to be
centaur A centaur ( ; grc, κένταυρος, kéntauros; ), or occasionally hippocentaur, is a creature from Greek mythology with the upper body of a human and the lower body and legs of a horse. Centaurs are thought of in many Greek myths as being ...
s (4.3.22–23). Centaurs were often thought of as creatures of ill repute, which makes even Cyrus’ own advisors wary of the label. His minister Chrysantas admires the centaurs for their dual nature, but also warns that the dual nature does not allow centaurs to fully enjoy or act as either one of their aspects in full (4.3.19–20). In labelling Persians as centaurs through the mouth of Cyrus, Xenophon plays upon the popular post-Persian-war propagandistic paradigm of using mythological imagery to represent the Greco-Persian conflict. Examples of this include the wedding of the
Lapiths The Lapiths (; grc, Λαπίθαι) are a group of legendary people in Greek mythology, whose home was in Thessaly, in the valley of the Peneus and on the mountain Pelion. Mythology Origin The Lapiths were an Aeolians, Aeolian tribe who, lik ...
, Gigantomachy,
Trojan War In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Homer), Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris (mythology), Paris of Troy took Helen of Troy, Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta. The war is one of th ...
, and
Amazonomachy In Greek mythology A major branch of classical mythology, Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and C ...
on the
Parthenon frieze The Parthenon frieze is the high-relief Mount Pentelicus#Pentelic marble, Pentelic marble sculpture created to adorn the upper part of the Parthenon’s Cella, naos. It was sculpted between c. 443 and 437 BC, most likely under the direction of Ph ...
. Johnson reads even more deeply into the centaur label. He believes that the unstable dichotomy of man and horse found in a centaur is indicative of the unstable and unnatural alliance of Persian and Mede formulated by Cyrus. The Persian hardiness and austerity is combined with the luxuriousness of the Medes, two qualities that cannot coexist. He cites the regression of the Persians directly after the death of Cyrus as a result of this instability, a union made possible only through the impeccable character of Cyrus. In a further analysis of the centaur model, Cyrus is likened to a centaur such as
Chiron In Greek mythology, Chiron ( ; also Cheiron or Kheiron; ) was held to be the superlative centaur amongst his brethren since he was called the "wisest and justest of all the centaurs". Biography Chiron was notable throughout Greek mythology ...
, a noble example from an ignoble race. Thus this entire paradigm seems to be a jab at the Persians and an indication of Xenophon’s general distaste for the Persians.


Against empire/monarchy

The strength of Cyrus in holding the empire together is praiseworthy according to Xenophon. However, the empire began to decline upon the death of Cyrus. By this example Xenophon sought to show that empires lacked stability and could only be maintained by a person of remarkable prowess, such as Cyrus. Cyrus is idealized greatly in the narrative. Xenophon displays Cyrus as a lofty, temperate man. This is not to say that he was not a good ruler, but he is depicted as surreal and not subject to the foibles of other men. By showing that only someone who is almost beyond human could conduct such an enterprise as empire, Xenophon indirectly censures imperial design. Thus he also reflects on the state of his own reality in an even more indirect fashion, using the example of the Persians to decry the attempts at empire made by Athens and Sparta. Although partially graced with hindsight, having written the ''Cyropaedia'' after the downfall of Athens in the Peloponnesian War, this work criticizes the Greek attempts at empire and "monarchy", dooming them to failure.


Against democracy

Another passage that Johnson cites as criticism of monarchy and empire concerns the devaluation of the ''homotīmoi''. The manner in which this occurs seems also to be a subtle jab at democracy. ''Homotīmoi'' were highly and thoroughly educated and thus became the core of the soldiery as heavy infantry. As the name ''homotīmoi'' ("equal", or "same honours" i.e. "peers") suggests, their small band (1000 when Cyrus fought the
Assyria Assyria (Neo-Assyrian cuneiform: , romanized: ''māt Aššur''; syc, ܐܬܘܪ, ʾāthor) was a major ancient Mesopotamia, Mesopotamian civilization which existed as a city-state from the 21st century BC to the 14th century BC, then to a terr ...
ns) shared equally in the spoils of war. However, in the face of overwhelming numbers in a campaign against the Assyrians, Cyrus armed the commoners with similar arms instead of their normal light ranged armament (''Cyropaedia'' 2.1.9). Argument ensued as to how the spoils would now be split, and Cyrus enforced a
meritocracy Meritocracy (''merit'', from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally a dialect spoken in the lower Tiber area (then known as Latiu ...
. Many ''homotīmoi'' found this unfair because their military training was no better than the commoners, only their education, and hand-to-hand combat was less a matter of skill than strength and bravery. As Johnson asserts, this passage decries imperial meritocracy and corruption, for the ''homotīmoi'' now had to ingratiate themselves to the emperor for positions and honours; from this point they were referred to as ''entīmoi'', no longer of the "same honours" but having to be "in" to get the honour. On the other hand, the passage seems to be critical of democracy, or at least sympathetic to aristocrats within democracy, for the ''homotīmoi'' (aristocracy/oligarchs) are devalued upon the empowerment of the commoners (''demos''). Although empire emerges in this case, this is also a sequence of events associated with democracy. Through his dual critique of empire and democracy, Xenophon subtly relates his support of oligarchy.


''Constitution of the Spartans''

The Spartans wrote nothing about themselves, or if they did it is lost. Therefore, what we know about them comes exclusively from outsiders such as Xenophon. Xenophon’s affinity for the Spartans is clear in the Constitution of the Spartans, as well as his penchant for oligarchy. The opening line reads: Xenophon goes on to describe in detail the main aspects of
Laconia Laconia or Lakonia ( el, Λακωνία, , ) is a historical and Administrative regions of Greece, administrative region of Greece located on the southeastern part of the Peloponnese peninsula. Its administrative capital is Sparti (municipality) ...
, handing to us the most comprehensive extant analysis of the institutions of Sparta.


Old Oligarch

A short treatise on the '' Constitution of the Athenians'' exists that was once thought to be by Xenophon, but which was probably written when Xenophon was about five years old. The author, often called in English the "Old Oligarch" or Pseudo-Xenophon, detests the democracy of Athens and the poorer classes, but he argues that the Periclean institutions are well designed for their deplorable purposes. Although the real Xenophon seems to prefer oligarchy over democracy, none of his works so ardently decry democracy as does the Constitution of the Athenians. However, this treatise makes evident that anti-democratic sentiments were extant in Athens in the late 5th century BC and were only increased after its shortcomings were exploited and made apparent during the Peloponnesian War.


Socratic works and dialogues

Xenophon's works include a selection of Socratic dialogues; these writings are completely preserved. Except for the dialogues of
Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, wikt:Πλάτων, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a Greeks, Greek philosopher born in Athens during the Classical Greece, Classical period in Ancient Greece. He founded the Platonist school of thou ...
, they are the only surviving representatives of the genre of
Socratic dialogue Socratic dialogue ( grc, Σωκρατικὸς λόγος) is a genre of literary prose developed in Ancient Greece, Greece at the turn of the fourth century BC. The earliest ones are preserved in the works of Plato and Xenophon and all involve S ...
. These works include Xenophon's '' Apology'', ''
Memorabilia A souvenir (), memento, keepsake, or token of remembrance is an object a person acquires for the memory, memories the owner associates with it. A souvenir can be any object that can be collected or purchased and transported home by the travele ...
'', ''
Symposium In ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a northeastern Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean civilization, existing from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of Classical Antiquity, classical ...
'' and ''
Oeconomicus The ''Oeconomicus'' ( grc-gre, Οἰκονομικός) by Xenophon is a Socratic method, Socratic dialogue principally about household management and agriculture. ''Oeconomicus'' comes from the Ancient Greek words ''oikos'' for home or house ...
''. The ''Symposium'' outlines the character of
Socrates Socrates (; ; –399 BC) was a Greeks, Greek philosopher from Classical Athens, Athens who is credited as the founder of Western philosophy and among the first moral philosophers of the Ethics, ethical tradition of thought. An enigmati ...
as he and his companions discuss what attribute they take pride in. One of the main plots of the Symposium is about the type of loving relationship (noble or base) a rich aristocrat will be able to establish with a young boy (present at the banquet alongside his own father). In ''Oeconomicus'', Socrates explains how to manage a household. Both the ''Apology'' and the ''Memorabilia'' defend Socrates' character and teachings. The former is set during the trial of Socrates, essentially defending Socrates' loss and death, while the latter explains his moral principles and that he was not a corrupter of the youth.


Relationship with Socrates

Xenophon was a student of Socrates, and their personal relationship is evident through a conversation between the two in Xenophon’s ''Anabasis''. In his ''Lives of Eminent Philosophers'', the Greek biographer Diogenes Laërtius (who writes many centuries later) reports how Xenophon met Socrates. "They say that Socrates met enophonin a narrow lane, and put his stick across it and prevented him from passing by, asking him where all kinds of necessary things were sold. And when he had answered him, he asked him again where men were made good and virtuous. And as he did not know, he said, 'Follow me, then, and learn.' And from this time forth, Xenophon became a follower of Socrates." Diogenes Laërtius also relates an incident "when in the
battle of Delium The Battle of Delium (or Delion, a city in Boeotia) took place in 424 BC, during the Peloponnesian War. It was fought between the Athens, Athenians and the Boeotians, who were allies of the Spartans, and ended with the siege of Delium in the foll ...
Xenophon had fallen from his horse" and Socrates reputedly "stepped in and saved his life." Xenophon's admiration for his teacher is clear in writings such as ''Symposium'', ''Apology'', and ''Memorabilia''. Xenophon was away on his Persian campaign during the trial and death of Socrates. Nevertheless, much of Xenophon's Socratic writing, especially ''Apology'', concerns that very trial and the defence Socrates put forward.


Socrates: Xenophon vs. Plato

Both Plato and Xenophon wrote an ''Apology'' concerning the death of Socrates. The two writers seem more concerned about answering questions that arose after the trial than about the actual charges. In particular, Xenophon and Plato are concerned with the failures of Socrates to defend himself. The Socrates that Xenophon portrayed was different from Plato’s in multiple respects. Xenophon asserts that Socrates dealt with his prosecution in an exceedingly arrogant manner, or at least was perceived to have spoken arrogantly. Conversely, while not omitting it completely, Plato worked to temper that arrogance in his own ''Apology''. Xenophon framed Socrates’ defense, which both men admit was not prepared at all, not as a failure to effectively argue his side, but as striving for death even in the light of unconvincing charges. As Danzig interprets it, convincing the jury to condemn him even on unconvincing charges would be a rhetorical challenge worthy of the great persuader.Danzig, Gabriel. 2003. "Apologizing for Socrates: Plato and Xenophon on Socrates’ Behavior in Court." Transactions of the American Philological Association. Vol. 133, No. 2, pp. 281–321. Xenophon uses this interpretation as justification for Socrates’ arrogant stance and conventional failure. By contrast, Plato does not go so far as to claim that Socrates actually desired death but seems to argue that Socrates was attempting to demonstrate a higher moral standard and teach a lesson. This places Socrates in a higher moral position than his prosecutors, a typical Platonic example of absolving "Socrates from blame in every conceivable way."


Historical reality

Although Xenophon claims to have been present at the ''Symposium'', this is impossible as he was only a young boy at the date which he proposes it occurred. And again, Xenophon was not present at the trial of Socrates, having been on campaign in
Anatolia Anatolia (also Asia Minor), is a large peninsula in Western Asia and is the western-most extension of continental Asia. The land mass of Anatolia constitutes most of the territory of contemporary Turkey. Geographically, the Anatolian region i ...
and
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن or ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in the northern part of the F ...
. Thus he puts into the latter’s mouth what he would have thought him to say. It seems that Xenophon wrote his ''Apology'' and ''Memorabilia'' as defences of his former teacher, and to further the philosophic project, not to present a literal transcript of Socrates' response to the historical charges incurred.


Modern reception

Xenophon's standing as a political philosopher has been defended in recent times by
Leo Strauss Leo Strauss (, ; September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973) was a German-American Political philosophy, political philosopher who specialized in classical political philosophy. Born in Germany to Jewish parents, Strauss later emigrated from Germany ...
, who devoted a considerable part of his philosophic analysis to the works of Xenophon, returning to the high judgment of Xenophon as a thinker expressed by
Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury Anthony Ashley Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury (26 February 1671 – 16 February 1713) was an English people, English politician, philosopher, and writer. Early life He was born at Cecil House, Exeter House in London, the son of the future An ...
,
Michel de Montaigne Michel Eyquem, Sieur de Montaigne ( ; ; 28 February 1533 – 13 September 1592), also known as the Lord of Montaigne, was one of the most significant philosophers of the French Renaissance. He is known for popularizing the essay as a liter ...
,
Montesquieu Charles Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu, Lot-et-Garonne, Montesquieu (; ; 18 January 168910 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, intellectual, man of letters, historian, and p ...
,
Jean-Jacques Rousseau Jean-Jacques Rousseau (, ; 28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Republic of Geneva, Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer. His political philosophy influenced the progress of the Age of Enlightenment throughout Europe, as well as aspects ...
,
Johann Joachim Winckelmann Johann Joachim Winckelmann (; ; 9 December 17178 June 1768) was a German art historian and archaeologist. He was a pioneering Hellenism (neoclassicism), Hellenist who first articulated the differences between Ancient Greek art, Greek, Hellenisti ...
,
Niccolò Machiavelli Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli ( , , ; 3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527), occasionally rendered in English as Nicholas Machiavel ( , ; #Machiavel, see below), was an Italian diplomat, author, philosopher and historian who lived during the Re ...
,
Francis Bacon Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban (; 22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626), also known as Lord Verulam, was an English philosopher and statesman who served as Attorney General and Lord Chancellor of England England is a Countries of ...
,
John Milton John Milton (9 December 1608 – 8 November 1674) was an English people, English poet and intellectual. His 1667 epic poetry, epic poem ''Paradise Lost'', written in blank verse and including over ten chapters, was written in a time of immense ...
,
Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 – 19 October 1745) was an Anglo-Irish Satire, satirist, author, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for the Whig (British political party), Whigs, then for the Tories (British political party), Tories), poe ...
,
Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin ( April 17, 1790) was an American polymath who was active as a writer, scientist, Invention, inventor, Statesman (politician), statesman, diplomat, printer (publishing), printer, publisher, and Political philosophy, politi ...
, and
John Adams John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman, attorney, diplomat, writer, and Founding Fathers of the United States, Founding Father who served as the second president of the United States from 1797 to 1801. Befor ...
. Xenophon’s lessons on leadership have been reconsidered for their modern-day value. Jennifer O’Flannery holds that "discussions of leadership and civic virtue should include the work of Xenophon ... on public education for public service."O’Flannery, Jennifer. 2003. "Xenophon’s (The Education of Cyrus) and Ideal Leadership Lessons for Modern Public Administration." Public Administration Quarterly. Vol. 27, No. 1/2, pp. 41–64. The ''Cyropaedia'', in outlining Cyrus as an ideal leader having mastered the qualities of "education, equality, consensus, justice and service to state," is the work that she suggests be used as a guide or example for those striving to be leaders (see
mirrors for princes Mirrors for princes ( la, specula principum) or mirrors of princes, are an educational literary genre, in a loose sense of the word, of politics, political writings during the Early Middle Ages, the High Middle Ages, the late middle ages and the Re ...
). The linking of moral code and education is an especially pertinent quality subscribed to Cyrus that O’Flannery believes is in line with modern perceptions of leadership.


List of works

Xenophon’s entire classical corpus is extant.See for example the ''Landmark edition of Xenophon's Hellenika''. In the preface Strassler writes (xxi), "Fifteen works were transmitted through antiquity under Xenophon's name, and fortunately all fifteen have come down to us". The following list of his works exhibits the extensive breadth of genres in which Xenophon wrote.


Historical and biographical works

* '' Anabasis'' (also: ''The Persian Expedition'' or ''The March Up Country'' or The ''Expedition of Cyrus''): Provides an early life biography of Xenophon. ''Anabasis'' was used as a field guide by
Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc, wikt:Ἀλέξανδρος, Ἀλέξανδρος, Alexandros; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king of the Ancient Greece, ancient Greek kingdom of Maced ...
during the early phases of his expedition into the
Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Empire or Achaemenian Empire (; peo, wikt:𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎶, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, , ), also called the First Persian Empire, was an History of Iran#Classical antiquity, ancient Iranian empire founded by Cyrus the Great in 550 BC. Bas ...
. * ''
Cyropaedia The ''Cyropaedia'', sometimes spelled ''Cyropedia'', is a partly fictional biography of Cyrus the Great, the founder of Persia's Achaemenid Empire. It was written around 370 BC by Xenophon, the Athens, Athenian-born soldier, historian, and studen ...
'' (also: ''The Education of Cyrus''): Sometimes seen as the archetype of the European " mirror of princes" genre. * ''
Hellenica ''Hellenica'' ( grc, Ἑλληνικά) simply means writings on Greek (Hellenic) subjects. Several histories of 4th-century Greece, written in the mould of Thucydides or straying from it, have borne the conventional Latin title ''Hellenica''. Th ...
'': His ''Hellenica'' is a major primary source for events in Greece from 411 to 362 BC, and is the continuation of the ''
History of the Peloponnesian War The ''History of the Peloponnesian War'' is a historical account of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), which was fought between the Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) and the Delian League (led by Classical Athens, Athens). It was written b ...
'' by
Thucydides Thucydides (; grc, , }; BC) was an Classical Athens, Athenian historian and general. His ''History of the Peloponnesian War'' recounts Peloponnesian War, the fifth-century BC war between Sparta and Athens until the year 411 BC. Thucydides has ...
, going so far as to begin with the phrase "Following these events...". The Hellenica recounts the last seven years of the Peloponnesian War, as well as its aftermath, and is a detailed and direct account (however partial to Sparta) of the history of Greece until 362 BC. * ''
Agesilaus Agesilaus II (; grc-gre, Ἀγησίλαος ; c. 442 – 358 BC) was king of Sparta from c. 399 to 358 BC. Generally considered the most important king in the history of Sparta, Agesilaus was the main actor during the period of Spartan hegemony ...
'': The biography of Agesilaus II, king of Sparta and companion of Xenophon. * '' Polity of the Lacedaemonians'': Xenophon’s history and description of the Spartan government and institutions.


Socratic works and dialogues


Defences of Socrates

* ''
Memorabilia A souvenir (), memento, keepsake, or token of remembrance is an object a person acquires for the memory, memories the owner associates with it. A souvenir can be any object that can be collected or purchased and transported home by the travele ...
'': Collection of Socratic dialogues serving as a defense of Socrates outside of court. * '' Apology'': Xenophon's defence of Socrates in court.


Other Socratic dialogues

* ''
Oeconomicus The ''Oeconomicus'' ( grc-gre, Οἰκονομικός) by Xenophon is a Socratic method, Socratic dialogue principally about household management and agriculture. ''Oeconomicus'' comes from the Ancient Greek words ''oikos'' for home or house ...
'': Socratic dialogue of a different sort, pertaining to household management and agriculture. * ''
Symposium In ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a northeastern Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean civilization, existing from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of Classical Antiquity, classical ...
'': Symposic literature in which Socrates and his companions discuss what they take pride in with respect to themselves.


Tyrants

* '' Hiero'': Dialogue about happiness between Hiero, the tyrant of Syracuse, and the lyric poet
Simonides of Ceos Simonides of Ceos (; grc-gre, Σιμωνίδης ὁ Κεῖος; c. 556–468 BC) was a Greek lyric poet, born in Ioulis on Kea (island), Ceos. The scholars of Hellenistic Alexandria included him in the canonical list of the nine lyric p ...
.


Short treatises

These works were probably written by Xenophon when he was living in Scillus. His days were likely spent in relative leisure here, and he wrote these treatises about the sorts of activities he spent time on. * '' On Horsemanship'': Treatise on how to break, train, and care for horses. * '' Hipparchikos'': Outlines the duties of a cavalry officer. * '' Hunting with Dogs'': Treatise on the proper methods of hunting with dogs and the advantages of hunting. * '' Ways and Means'': Describes how Athens should deal with financial and economic crisis.


Spuria

* '' Constitution of the Athenians'': Describes and criticizes Athenian democracy; now thought not to be by Xenophon.


See also

* Arexion


References


Citations


Bibliography

* Bradley, Patrick J. "Irony and the Narrator in Xenophon's Anabasis", in ''Xenophon.'' Ed. Vivienne J. Gray. Oxford University Press, 2010 (; ). *Anderson, J.K. ''Xenophon''. London: Duckworth, 2001 (paperback, ). *Buzzetti, Eric. ''Xenophon the Socratic Prince: The Argument of the Anabasis of Cyrus''. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014 (hardcover, ). * ''Xénophon et Socrate: actes du colloque d'Aix-en-Provence (6–9 novembre 2003).'' Ed. par Narcy, Michel and Alonso Tordesillas. Paris: J. Vrin, 2008. 322 p. Bibliothèque d'histoire de la philosophie. Nouvelle série, . *Dodge, Theodore Ayrault. “ALEXANDER. A History of the Origin and Growth of the Art of War, from the Earliest Times to the Battle of Ipsus, b. c. 301”. Boston and New York, Houghton Mifflin Company: 1890. pp. 105–112 * Dillery, John. ''Xenophon and the History of His Times''. London; New York: Routledge, 1995 (hardcover, ). * Evans, R.L.S. "Xenophon" in ''The Dictionary of Literary Biography: Greek Writers.'' Ed.Ward Briggs. Vol. 176, 1997. * Gray, V.J. ''The Years 375 to 371 BC: A Case Study in the Reliability of Diodorus Siculus and Xenophon'', ''The Classical Quarterly'', Vol. 30, No. 2. (1980), pp. 306–326. * Gray, V. J., ''Xenophon on Government.'' Cambridge Greek and Latin Classics. Cambridge University Press (2007). * Higgins, William Edward. ''Xenophon the Athenian: The Problem of the Individual and the Society of the "Polis"''. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1977 (hardcover, ). * Hirsch, Steven W. ''The Friendship of the Barbarians: Xenophon and the Persian Empire''. Hanover; London: University Press of New England, 1985 (hardcover, ). * Hutchinson, Godfrey. ''Xenophon and the Art of Command''. London: Greenhill Books, 2000 (hardcover, ). * ''The Long March: Xenophon and the Ten Thousand'', edited by Robin Lane Fox. New Heaven, Connecticut; London: Yale University Press, 2004 (hardcover, ). * Kierkegaard, Søren A. ''The Concept of Irony with Continual Reference to Socrates''. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992 () * Moles, J.L. "Xenophon and Callicratidas", ''The Journal of Hellenic Studies'', Vol. 114. (1994), pp. 70–84. * Nadon, Christopher. ''Xenophon's Prince: Republic and Empire in the "Cyropaedia"''. Berkeley; Los Angeles; London: University of California Press, 2001 (hardcover, ). * Nussbaum, G.B. ''The Ten Thousand: A Study in Social Organization and Action in Xenophon's "Anabasis". (Social and Economic Commentaries on Classical Texts; 4)''. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1967. * Phillips, A.A & Willcock M.M. ''Xenophon & Arrian On Hunting With Hounds'', contains ''Cynegeticus'' original texts, translations & commentary. Warminster: Aris & Phillips Ltd., 1999 (paperback ). * Pomeroy, Sarah, ''Xenophon, Oeconomicus: A social and historical commentary, with a new English translation''. Clarendon Press, 1994. * Rahn, Peter J. "Xenophon's Developing Historiography", ''Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association'', Vol. 102. (1971), pp. 497–508. * Rood, Tim. ''The Sea! The Sea!: The Shout of the Ten Thousand in the Modern Imagination''. London: Duckworth Publishing, 2004 (paperback, ); Woodstock, New York; New York: The Overlook Press, (hardcover, ); 2006 (paperback, ). * Strassler, Robert B., John Marincola, & David Thomas. ''The Landmark Xenophon's Hellenika''. New York: Pantheon Books, 2009 (hardcover, ). * Strauss, Leo. ''Xenophon's Socrates''. Ithaca, New York; London: Cornell University Press, 1972 (hardcover, ); South Bend, Indiana: St. Augustines Press, 2004 (paperback, ). * Stronk, J.P. ''The Ten Thousand in Thrace: An Archaeological and Historical Commentary on Xenophon's Anabasis,'' Books VI, ''iii–vi'' – VIII ''(Amsterdam Classical Monographs; 2)''. Amsterdam: J.C. Gieben, 1995 (hardcover, ). * Usher, S. "Xenophon, Critias and Theramenes", ''The Journal of Hellenic Studies'', Vol. 88. (1968), pp. 128–135. * Witt, Prof. C. “The Retreat of the Ten Thousand”. Longmans, Green and Co.: 1912. * Waterfield, Robin. ''Xenophon's Retreat: Greece, Persia and the End of the Golden Age''. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2006 (hardcover, ); London: Faber and Faber, 2006 (hardcover, ). * Xenophon, ''Cyropaedia'', translated by Walter Miller. Harvard University Press, 1914, , (Books 1–5) and , (Books 5–8).


External links

*
Graham Oliver's Xenophon Homepage





Sanders (1903) Ph D Thesis on The Cynegeticus

Xenophon
a
Somni
;Online works
Works by Xenophon at Perseus Digital Library
*


Leo Strauss' Seminar Transcripts
on Xenophon (1962, 1966); and an audio recording of the entire course o
Xenophon's Oeconomicus
(1969) are available for reading, listening or download. * * * {{Authority control 430s BC births 354 BC deaths 4th-century BC Greek people 4th-century BC historians 4th-century BC writers Ancient Athenian generals Ancient Athenian historians Ancient Athenians Ancient Greek generals Ancient Greek historians Ancient Greek economists Ancient Greek mercenaries Ancient Greek military writers Ancient Greek political philosophers Attic Greek writers Classical-era Greek historians Classical horsemanship Greco-Persian Wars Military personnel of the Achaemenid Empire Ostracized Athenians Political philosophers Pupils of Socrates Greek social commentators Social critics Social philosophers Writers on horsemanship Memoirists Ten Thousand-ancient mercenaries