HOME

TheInfoList




The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an
international non-governmental organization An international non-governmental organization (INGO) is an organization which is independent of government involvement and extends the concept of a non-governmental organization A non-governmental organization, or simply an NGO, is an organi ...
founded in 1961 that works in the field of wilderness preservation and the reduction of
human impact on the environment Human impact on the environment or anthropogenic impact on the environment includes changes to biophysical environments A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism In biology, an organism (from An ...
. It was formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
and the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
. WWF is the world's largest
conservation organization An environmental organization is an organization An organization, or organisation ( Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is an entity – such as a company, an institution, or an association – comprising one or more peopl ...
, with over five million supporters worldwide, working in more than 100 countries and supporting around 3,000 conservation and environmental projects. They have invested over $1 billion in more than 12,000 conservation initiatives since 1995. WWF is a
foundation Foundation may refer to: * Foundation (nonprofit), a type of charitable organization ** Foundation (United States law), a type of charitable organization in the U.S. ** Private foundation, a charitable organization that, while serving a good cause ...
with 55% of funding from individuals and bequests, 19% from government sources (such as the
World Bank The World Bank is an international financial institution An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that has been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence is subject to international law. Its o ...
,
DFID , type = Department , logo = DfID.svg , logo_width = 180px , logo_caption = , picture = File:Admiralty Screen (411824276).jpg , picture_width = 180px , picture_caption = Department for International Development (London office) (far right ...
, and
USAID The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in differen ...
) and 8% from corporations in 2014. WWF aims to "stop the degradation of the planet's natural environment and to build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature." The
Living Planet Report The ''Living Planet Report'' is published every 2 years by the World Wide Fund for Nature The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization An international non-governmental organization (INGO) is an ...
has been published every two years by WWF since 1998; it is based on a
Living Planet Index The Living Planet Index (LPI) is an indicator of the state of global biological diversity Biodiversity is the biological variety and variability of life on Earth. Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the genetic, species In b ...
and
ecological footprint The ecological footprint is a method promoted by the Global Footprint Network Global Footprint Network, founded in 2003, is an independent think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research ce ...
calculation. In addition, WWF has launched several notable worldwide campaigns, including
Earth Hour Earth Hour is a worldwide movement organized by the World Wide Fund for Nature The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961 that works in the field of wilderness preservation and th ...

Earth Hour
and
Debt-for-nature swapDebt-for-nature swaps are financial transactions in which a portion of a developing nation Image:Imf-advanced-un-least-developed-2008.svg, 450px, Example of Older Classifications by the International Monetary Fund, IMF and the United Nations, U ...
, and its current work is organized around these six areas: food, climate, freshwater, wildlife, forests, and oceans. WWF received criticism for its alleged corporate ties and has been reprimanded for supporting eco-guards that hounded African forest dwellers in the proposed Messok Dja national park in the Republic of the Congo. WWF is part of the Steering Group of the
Foundations Platform F20 Foundation may refer to: * Foundation (nonprofit) A foundation (also a charitable foundation) is a category of nonprofit organization or charitable trust that typically provides funding and support for other charitable organizations through gra ...
, an international network of foundations and philanthropic organizations.


History


Founding

The idea for a fund on behalf of endangered animals was officially proposed by
Victor Stolan Victor Stolan (born 1893) provided "the germ of the idea"Sir Arthur Norman (industrialist), Arthur Norman (1981) The story of the World Wildlife Fund. Contemporary Review vol 239, 23-29. that led Julian Huxley and Max Nicholson with him to start the ...
to Sir Julian Huxley in response to articles he published in the British newspaper ''
The Observer ''The Observer'' is a British newspaper published on Sundays. In the same place on the political spectrum A political spectrum is a system to characterize and classify different in relation to one another. These positions sit upon one ...

The Observer
.'' This proposal led Huxley to put Stolan in contact with
Edward Max Nicholson Edward Max Nicholson (12 July 1904 – 26 April 2003) was a pioneering environmentalist Image:Voynet Montreuil 2008-01-06.jpg, Dominique Voynet, 2008 An environmentalist is a person who is concerned with and/or advocates for the protection of ...
, a person who had had thirty years experience of linking
progressive Progressive may refer to: Politics * Progressivism is a political philosophy in support of social reform Political organizations * Congressional Progressive Caucus, members within the Democratic Party in the United States Congress dedicated to th ...
intellectuals with
big business Big business involves large-scale corporate-controlled financial Finance is a term for the management, creation, and study of money and investments. Pamela Drake and Frank Fabozzi (2009)What Is Finance?/ref> Specifically, it deals with the ...
interests through the
Political and Economic Planning Political and Economic Planning (PEP) was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the Bri ...
think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for doing research Research is "creativity, creative and systematic work undertaken to inc ...
.Kate Kellaway (7 November 2010)
How the Observer brought the WWF into being
The Observer ''The Observer'' is a British newspaper published on Sundays. In the same place on the political spectrum A political spectrum is a system to characterize and classify different in relation to one another. These positions sit upon one ...

The Observer
.
Nicholson thought up the name of the organization and the original panda logo was designed by
Sir Peter Scott Sir Peter Markham Scott, (14 September 1909 – 29 August 1989) was a British ornithologist Ornithology is a branch of zoology that concerns the "methodological study and consequent knowledge of birds with all that relates to them". Several ...
. WWF was conceived on 29 April 1961, under the name of ''World Wildlife Fund''. Its first office was opened on 11 September in
IUCN The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization An international organization (also known as an international institut ...
's headquarters at
Morges Morges (; la, Morgiis, plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from ...

Morges
, Switzerland. The WWF was conceived to act as an international fundraising organisation to support the work of existing conservation groups, primarily the
International Union for Conservation of Nature The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization An international organization (also known as an international institut ...
. Its establishment was marked with the signing of the "Morges Manifesto", the founding document that sets out the fund's commitment to assisting worthy organizations struggling to save the world's wildlife: Dutch
Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld (later Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands, ; 29 June 1911 – 1 December 2004) was a German-born nobleman who was the consort __NOTOC__ Consort may refer to: Music * The Consort (Rufus Wainwright song), ...
helped found the World Wildlife Fund, becoming its first President in 1961. In 1963, the Foundation held a conference and published a major report warning of
anthropogenic Anthropogenic ("human" + "generating") is an adjective that may refer to: * Anthropogeny, the study of the origins of humanity Counterintuitively, anthropogenic may also refer to things that have been generated by humans, as follows: * Human im ...
global warming Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been previous periods of climate change, but the current changes are more rapid than any known even ...

global warming
, written by Noel Eichhorn based on the work of
Frank Fraser Darling Sir Frank Fraser Darling FRSE Fellowship of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (FRSE) is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Scotland's national academy of science and Literature, letters, judged to be "eminently d ...
(then foundation vice president), Edward Deevey, Erik Eriksson, Charles Keeling,
Gilbert Plass Gilbert Norman Plass (March 22, 1920 – March 1, 2004) was a Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, man ...
, Lionel Walford, and William Garnett. In 1970, along with
Duke of Edinburgh Duke of Edinburgh, named after the city of Edinburgh Edinburgh (; sco, Edinburgh; gd, Dùn Èideann ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the holding primary status in a , , , , or other , usually as its seat of th ...
and a few associates,
Prince Bernhard Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld (later Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands, ; 29 June 1911 – 1 December 2004) was a German-born nobleman who was the consort__NOTOC__ Consort may refer to: Music * "The Consort" (Rufus Wainwright song) ...
established the WWF's
financial endowment A financial endowment is a legal structure for managing, and in many cases indefinitely perpetuating, a pool of financial Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they operate within the financial system. It is ...
'' The 1001: A Nature Trust'' to handle the WWF's administration and fundraising. 1001 members each contributed $10,000 to the trust.WWF Finland - History of WWF International
/ref>
Prince Bernhard Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld (later Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands, ; 29 June 1911 – 1 December 2004) was a German-born nobleman who was the consort__NOTOC__ Consort may refer to: Music * "The Consort" (Rufus Wainwright song) ...
resigned his post after being involved in the Lockheed Bribery Scandal.


Recent development

The WWF has set up offices and operations around the world. It originally worked by fundraising and providing grants to existing non-governmental organizations with an initial focus on the protection of
endangered species An endangered species is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group ...
. As more resources became available, its operations expanded into other areas such as the preservation of
biological diversity Biodiversity is the biological variety and variability of life on Earth. Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the genetic, species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic ...

biological diversity
, sustainable use of
natural resources Natural resources are resource Resource refers to all the materials available in our environment which help us to satisfy our needs and wants. Resources can broadly be classified upon their availability — they are classified into renewabl ...
, the reduction of
pollution Pollution is the introduction of contaminant Contamination is the presence of a constituent, impurity, or some other undesirable element that spoils, corrupts, infects, makes unfit, or makes inferior a material, physical body, natural en ...

pollution
, and
climate change Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been previous periods of climate change, but the current changes are more rapid than any known even ...
. The organization also began to run its own conservation projects and campaigns.In 1986, the organization changed its name to ''World Wide Fund for Nature'', while retaining the WWF initials. However, it continued at that time to operate under the original name in the United States and Canada. 1986 was the 25th anniversary of WWF's foundation, an event marked by a gathering in Assisi, Italy to which the organization's International President Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh, invited religious authorities representing Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam and Judaism. These leaders produced The Assisi Declarations, theological statements showing the spiritual relationship between their followers and nature that triggered a growth in the engagement of those religions with conservation around the world. In the 1990s, WWF revised its mission statement to: WWF scientists and many others identified 238
ecoregions An ecoregion (ecological region) or ecozone (ecological zone) is an ecologically Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including h ...

ecoregions
that represent the world's most biologically outstanding
terrestrial Terrestrial refers to things related to land Land is the solid surface of the Earth that is not permanently covered by water. The vast majority of human activity throughout history has occurred in land areas that support agriculture A ...

terrestrial
,
freshwater Fresh water or freshwater is any naturally occurring liquid or frozen water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in ...
and
marine Marine is an adjective meaning of or pertaining to the sea or ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
marine
habitats, based on a worldwide biodiversity analysis which the organization says was the first of its kind. In the early 2000s (decade), its work was focused on a subset of these ecoregions, in the areas of forest, freshwater and marine
habitat conservation Habitat conservation is a management practice that seeks to conserve, protect and restore habitat Ibex in an alpine habitat In ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the ...
, endangered species conservation, climate change, and the elimination of the most toxic chemicals. In 1990, the Conservation Foundation was completely merged into WWF, after becoming an affiliate of WWF-US in 1985 when it became a distinct legal entity but with the same staff and board. The organization now known as the Conservation Foundation in the United States is the former Forest Foundation of DuPage County. In 1996, the organization obtained general consultative status from
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
. Harvard University published a case study on WWF called "Negotiating Toward the Paris Accords: WWF & the Role of Forests in the 2015 Climate Agreement":


Panda symbol

WWF's
giant panda The giant panda (''Ailuropoda melanoleuca''; ), also known as the panda bear (or simply the panda), is a bear Bears are carnivoran mammals of the family (biology), family Ursidae. They are classified as caniforms, or doglike carnivoran ...

giant panda
logo originated from a panda named Chi Chi that had been transferred from
Beijing Zoo The Beijing Zoo is a zoological park A zoo (short for zoological garden; also called an animal park or menagerie) is a facility in which animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom ...
to
London Zoo London Zoo is the world's oldest scientific zoo A zoo (short for zoological garden; also called an animal park or menagerie) is a facility in which animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form ...
in 1958, three years before WWF became established. Being famous as the only panda residing in the Western world at that time, her uniquely recognisable physical features and status as an endangered species were seen as ideal to serve the organization's need for a strong recognisable symbol that would overcome all language barriers. The organization also needed an animal that would have an impact in black and white printing. The logo was then designed by
Sir Peter Scott Sir Peter Markham Scott, (14 September 1909 – 29 August 1989) was a British ornithologist Ornithology is a branch of zoology that concerns the "methodological study and consequent knowledge of birds with all that relates to them". Several ...
from preliminary sketches by Gerald Watterson, a Scottish naturalist. The logo was slightly simplified and made more geometric in 1978, and was revised significantly again in 1986, at the time that the organization changed its name, with the new version featuring solid black shapes for eyes. In 2000 a change was made to the font used for the initials "WWF" in the logo.


Organization and operation


Policy-making

Policies of the WWF are made by board members elected for three-year terms. An Executive Team guides and develops WWF's strategy. There is also a National Council which stands as an advisory group to the board and a team of scientists and experts in conservation who research for WWF. National and international law plays an important role in determining how habitats and resources are managed and used. Laws and regulations become one of the organization's global priorities. The WWF has been opposed to the extraction of oil from the Canadian
tar sands Tar sandstone from California, United States Oil sands, tar sands, crude bitumen, or bituminous sands, are a type of unconventional oil, unconventional petroleum deposit. Oil sands are either loose sands or partially consolidated sandston ...
and has campaigned on this matter. Between 2008 and 2010 the WWF worked with
The Co-operative Group The Co-operative Group, trading as the Co-op, is a British consumer co-operative with a diverse family of retail businesses including food retail and wholesale; e-pharmacy; insurance services; legal services and funeral care. The Co-operati ...
, the 's largest
consumer co-operative A consumers' co-operative is an enterprise Enterprise (or the archaic spelling Enterprize) may refer to: Business and economics Brands and enterprises * Enterprise GP Holdings Enterprise GP Holdings was a midstream energy holding compan ...
to publish reports which concluded that: (1) exploiting the Canadian tar sands to their full potential would be sufficient to bring about what they described as 'runaway climate change; (2)
carbon capture and storage Carbon capture and storage (CCS), or carbon capture and sequestration and carbon control and sequestration, is the process of capturing waste carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting i ...

carbon capture and storage
(CCS) technology cannot be used to reduce the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere to a level comparable to that of other methods of oil extraction; (3) the $379 billion which is expected to be spent extracting oil from
tar sands Tar sandstone from California, United States Oil sands, tar sands, crude bitumen, or bituminous sands, are a type of unconventional oil, unconventional petroleum deposit. Oil sands are either loose sands or partially consolidated sandston ...
could be better spent on research and development in renewable energy technology; and (4) the expansion of tar sands extraction poses a serious threat to the caribou in Alberta . The organization convinces and helps governments and other political bodies to adopt, enforce, strengthen and/or change policies, guidelines and laws that affect biodiversity and natural resource use. It also ensures government consent and/or keeps their commitment to international instruments relating to the protection of biodiversity and natural resources. In 2012, David Nussbaum, Chief Executive of WWF-UK, spoke out against the way
shale gas Shale gas is natural gas Natural gas (also called fossil gas; sometimes just gas) is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting of methane and commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a s ...
is used in the UK, saying: "...the Government must reaffirm its commitment to tackling climate change and prioritise renewables and energy efficiency."


Collaboration

The organisation works on a number of
global issue A global issue is any issue (problem, risk) that adversely affects the global community and environment, possibly in a catastrophic way, including environmental issue Environmental issues are harmful Human impact on the environment, effects o ...
s driving
biodiversity loss Biodiversity loss includes the extinction Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells ...
and unsustainable use of natural resources, including species conservation, finance, business practices, laws, and consumption choices. Local offices also work on national or regional issues. WWF works with a large number of different groups to achieve its goals, including other NGOs, governments, business, investment banks, scientists, fishermen, farmers and local communities. It also undertakes public campaigns to influence decision makers, and seeks to educate people on how to live in a more environmentally friendly manner. It urges people to donate funds to protect the environment. The donors can also choose to receive gifts in return. In October 2020, WWF was named as one of the alliance partner's of
Prince William Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, (William Arthur Philip Louis; born 21 June 1982) is a member of the British royal family The British royal family comprises and her close relations. There is no strict legal or formal definition ...

Prince William
's Earthshot Prize, to find solutions to environmental issues. In March 2021, WWF announced an extension of their partnership with to address sustainable supply chain practices.


List of presidents


Notable initiatives and programs


Campaigns

*
Debt-for-Nature SwapDebt-for-nature swaps are financial transactions in which a portion of a developing nation Image:Imf-advanced-un-least-developed-2008.svg, 450px, Example of Older Classifications by the International Monetary Fund, IMF and the United Nations, U ...
*
Earth Hour Earth Hour is a worldwide movement organized by the World Wide Fund for Nature The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961 that works in the field of wilderness preservation and th ...

Earth Hour
* Healthy Grown *
Marine Stewardship Council The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) is an independent non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and opera ...


Publications

WWF publishes the ''
Living Planet Index The Living Planet Index (LPI) is an indicator of the state of global biological diversity Biodiversity is the biological variety and variability of life on Earth. Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the genetic, species In b ...
'' in collaboration with the
Zoological Society of London The Zoological Society of London (ZSL) is a charity devoted to the worldwide animal conservation, conservation of animals and their habitat conservation, habitats. It was founded in 1826. History On 29 November 1822, the birthday of John R ...

Zoological Society of London
. Along with
ecological footprint The ecological footprint is a method promoted by the Global Footprint Network Global Footprint Network, founded in 2003, is an independent think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research ce ...
calculations, the ''Index'' is used to produce a bi-yearly ''
Living Planet Report The ''Living Planet Report'' is published every 2 years by the World Wide Fund for Nature The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization An international non-governmental organization (INGO) is an ...
'' giving an overview of the impact of human activity on the world. In 2019, WWF and
Knorr Knorr may refer to: *Knorr (surname) *Knorr (brand), a brand of foods and beverages, particularly known for dehydrated broth *Knorr-Bremse, manufacturer of braking systems for rail and commercial vehicles *RV Knorr, R/V ''Knorr'', the ship used to ...
jointly published the Future 50 Foods report identifying "50 Foods for Healthier People and a Healthier Planet". The organization also regularly publishes reports, fact sheets and other documents on issues related to its work, to raise awareness and provide information to policy and decision makers.


Promotions

* ''
No One's Gonna Change Our World ''No One's Gonna Change Our World'' is a charity album released in the UK on 12 December 1969 for the benefit of the World Wildlife Fund. The compilation, assembled by comedian Spike Milligan, includes two tracks from Milligan and one from his Goon ...
'' was a charity album released in 1969, for the benefit of the WWF. * Peter Rose and Anne Conlon are music theatre writers, well known for their environmental musicals for children, who were commissioned by WWF-UK to write several environmental musicals as part of an education plan. Some were narrated by
David Attenborough Sir David Frederick Attenborough (; born 8 May 1926) is an English broadcaster, natural historian Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμό ...

David Attenborough
, and broadcast on television in numerous countries. * The British pop group
S Club 7 S Club 7 were a British pop group from London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the south-east of Engla ...
were ambassadors for WWF-UK during their time together as a band (1999-2003). Each of the members sponsored an endangered animal, and in 2000, traveled to the various locations around the world of their chosen animals for a seven-part
BBC The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a public service broadcaster, headquartered at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London. It is the world's oldest national broadcaster, and the largest broadcasting, broadcaster in the world by ...

BBC
documentary series entitled '' S Club 7 Go Wild''. * ''Environmentally Sound: A Select Anthology of Songs Inspired by the Earth'' is a benefit album released in 2006, for WWF-Philippines, featuring artists that included Up Dharma Down,
Radioactive Sago Project Radioactive Sago Project is a Filipino jazz rock band formed in 1999 in Quezon City, Philippines. The band's sound is a fusion of spoken-word poetry, bebop jazz, and punk. Subjects in their material range from politics, drugs, alcohol, random musi ...

Radioactive Sago Project
, Kala, Johnny Alegre Affinity,
Cynthia Alexander Cynthia Alexander (b. ''Cynthia Veronica Ayala'', 1971) is a singer-songwriter and multi-instrumentalist originally from the Philippines. She has performed on local and international stages including the Rainforest World Music Festival in Malaysia ...
, and
Joey Ayala José Íñigo Homer Lacambra Ayala (born June 1, 1956 in Bukidnon Bukidnon () ( ceb, Lalawigan sa Bukidnon; tl, Lalawigan ng Bukidnon; Binukid and Higaonon: ''Probinsya ta Bukidnon'') is a landlocked province A province is almost always an ...
. * In June 2012, WWF launched an online
music download A music download (commonly referred to as a digital download) is the digital music, digital transfer of music via the Internet into a device capable of decoding and playing it, such as a personal computer, portable media player, MP3 player or sma ...
store with fairsharemusic from which 50% of the profit goes to the charity. * In April 2015, Hailey Gardiner released her solo EP, titled The Woods. In honor of
Earth Day Earth Day is an annual event on April 22 to demonstrate support for environmental protection Environmental protection is the practice of protecting the natural environment The natural environment or natural world encompasses all and n ...

Earth Day
, 15% of the proceeds made towards the purchase of the EP would be donated to the WWF.


Controversies and disputes


ARD documentary and ''PandaLeaks'' book

The German public television
ARD ARD or Ard may refer to: People * Ard (surname), a surname of Scottish origin * Ard (biblical figure), a son of Benjamin in the Bible * Ard., abbreviation in scientific literature for botanist Pietro Arduino Places * Ard, Arkansas, U.S. * Ard, ...
aired a documentary on 22 June 2011 that claimed to show how the WWF cooperates with corporations such as
Monsanto The Monsanto Company () was an American agrochemical An agrochemical or agrichemical, a contraction of ''agricultural chemical'', is a chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteris ...

Monsanto
, providing sustainability certification in exchange for donations– essentially
greenwashing Greenwashing (a compound word modelled on " whitewash"), also called "green sheen", is a form of marketing spin in which green PR (green values) and green marketing are deceptively used to persuade the public that an organization's products, a ...

greenwashing
. WWF has denied the allegations. By encouraging high-impact eco-tourism, the program alleges that WWF contributes to the destruction of habitat and species it claims to protect while also harming indigenous peoples. The filmmaker, German investigative journalist Wilfried Huismann, was sued by the WWF over his documentary and the book ''Schwarzbuch WWF'' published in 2012, which was based on the documentary. In an out of court settlement, he agreed to remove or revise certain claims. Speaking on behalf of WWF Germany, Marco Vollmar indicated " uismanndraws a distorted picture of false statements, defamations and exaggerations, but we will accept that as expressions of opinion." (Translated from the original German: "ein Zerrbild aus falschen Aussagen, Diffamierungen und Übertreibungen, aber das werden wir als Meinungsäußerungen hinnehmen.") In 2014, Huismann published a revised edition of his 2012 book, originally called ''The Silence of the Pandas''. The original edition had become a bestseller in Germany, but was banned from Britain until 2014, when it was released under the title of ''PandaLeaks - The Dark Side of the WWF'', after a series of injunctions and court orders. The book criticizes WWF for its involvement with corporations that are responsible for large-scale destruction of the environment, such as Coca-Cola, and gives details into the existence of the secret 1001 Club, whose members, Huismann claims, continue to have an unhealthy influence on WWF's policy making. WWF has denied the allegations made against it.


Corporate partnerships

WWF has been accused by the campaigner
Corporate Watch Corporate Watch (The Corporate Watch Co-Operative Ltd.) is a "not-for-profit co-operative providing critical information on the social and environmental impacts of corporations and capitalism." It was established in 1996 and incorporated in 1999 as ...
of being too close to business to campaign objectively. WWF claims partnering with corporations such as
Coca-Cola Coca-Cola, or Coke, is a carbonated Carbonation is the chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Classically, chemical A chemical sub ...

Coca-Cola
, Lafarge,
Carlos Slim Carlos Slim Helú (; born January 28, 1940 in Mexico City) is a Mexican business magnate, investor and philanthropist. From 2010 to 2013, Slim was ranked as the richest person in the world by the ''Forbes ''Forbes'' () is an American ...

Carlos Slim
's and
IKEA#REDIRECT IKEA ''IKEA'' () is a Swedish multinational conglomerate that designs and sells , kitchen appliances and home accessories, among other useful goods and occasionally home services. Founded in Sweden Sweden (; sv, Sverige ), offic ...
will reduce their effect on the environment. WWF received €56 million (US$80 million) from corporations in 2010 (an 8% increase in support from corporations compared to 2009), accounting for 11% of total revenue for the year. For their 2019 fiscal year, WWF reported 4% of their total operating revenue coming from corporations.


Human rights abuses by paramilitaries

In 2017, a report by
Survival International Survival International is a human rights organisation formed in 1969 that campaigns for the collective rights, rights of indigenous peoples, indigenous and/or tribal peoples and uncontacted peoples. The organisation's campaigns generally focus on ...
claimed that WWF-funded paramilitaries are not only committing abuses against the indigenous Baka and
Bayaka The African Pygmies (or Congo Pygmies, variously also "Central African foragers", "African rainforest hunter-gatherers" (RHG) or "Forest People of Central Africa") are a group of ethnicities Indigenous peoples of Africa, native to Central Afri ...
in the Congo Basin, who "face harassment and beatings, torture and death", but are also corrupt and aid in the destruction of conserved areas. The report accused WWF and its guards of partnering with several logging companies who carried out deforestation, while the rangers ignored wildlife trafficking networks. In 2019, an investigation by ''
BuzzFeed News ''BuzzFeed News'' is an American news website An online newspaper (or electronic news or electronic news publication) is the online In computer technology and telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by ...
'' alleged that paramilitary groups funded by the organisation are engaged in serious human rights abuses against villagers, and the organisation has covered up the incidents and acted to protect the perpetrators from law enforcement. These armed groups were claimed to torture, sexually assault, and execute villagers based on false accusations. In one instance found by ''BuzzFeed News'' investigators, an 11-year-old boy was allegedly tortured by WWF-funded rangers in front of his parents; WWF ignored all complaints against the rangers. In another incident, a ranger attempted to rape a Tharu woman and, when she resisted, attacked her with bamboo stick until she lost consciousness. While the ranger was arrested, the woman was pressured not to press charges, resulting in the ranger going free. In 2010, WWF-sponsored rangers reportedly killed a 12-year-old girl who was collecting tree bark in
Bardiya National Park ; , iucn_category = II , photo = Bardia forest.jpg , photo_caption = Forest in Bardiya National Park , map_image = , map_caption = Location in Nepal , location = Nepal Nepal (; ne, नेपाल ), officially Nepal, is a Sovereign s ...

Bardiya National Park
. Park and WWF officials allegedly obstructed investigations in these cases, by "falsifying and destroying evidence, falsely claiming the victims were poachers, and pressuring the families of the victims to withdraw criminal complaints". In July 2019, ''Buzzfeed'' reported that a leaked report by the WWF accused guards of beating and raping women including pregnant women while torturing men by tying their penises with fishing lines. The investigations were cut short after paramilitary groups threatened investigators with death. The investigators accused WWF of covering up the crimes. Releasing an official statement, the WWF claimed that the report was not made public to ensure the safety of the victims and that the guards were suspended and are awaiting prosecution. However Buzzfeed accused the WWF of attempting to withhold the report to the US congressional committee investigating the human rights violations by providing highly redacted versions instead. In the
Central African Republic The Central African Republic (CAR; sg, Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; french: République centrafricaine, RCA; , or , ) is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or ...
, WWF officials were reportedly involved in an arms deal, where the organization paid for 15 Kalashnikov assault rifles and ammunition; but part of the money went unaccounted for and they were apparently defrauded by the CAR army representatives selling the weapons. ''
The Kathmandu Post ''The Kathmandu Post'' is a major daily newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is often typed in black ink with a white or gray background. New ...
'', which cooperated with ''BuzzFeed News'' on the investigations in
Nepal Nepal (; ne, नेपाल ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal ( ne, सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल ), is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is ma ...

Nepal
, claimed there was intense lobbying and political pressure to release WWF-funded rangers arrested for murder. They interviewed activists who claimed they were promised donations for pressuring victims of abuse to drop charges against the rangers. When the local Tharu community protested, WWF officials carried out a counter-protest in favour of the accused and used park elephants to block
Prithvi Highway The Prithvi Highway () is a highway connecting Naubise of Tribhuvan Highway, 26 km from Kathmandu , image_map = , mapsize = 300px , map_caption = , image_map1 ...

Prithvi Highway
. An investigation by Rainforest Foundation UK found evidence of widespread physical and sexual assault by 'eco-guards' employed by the Salonga National Park in the
Democratic Republic of Congo The Democratic Republic of the Congo ( french: République démocratique du Congo (RDC) ), also known as Congo-Kinshasa, DR Congo, the DRC, the DROC, or the Congo, and formerly Zaire Zaire (, ), officially the Republic of Zaire (frenc ...

Democratic Republic of Congo
funded by WWF. These include two cases of gang rape, two extrajudicial killings, and multiple accounts of torture and other forms of mistreatment committed by park guards. In reply to the investigations, WWF stated that it takes any allegations seriously and would be launching an independent review into the cases raised. The organisation stated it has stringent policies designed to ensure it and its partners are safeguarding the rights and well-being of indigenous peoples and local communities, and should the review uncover any breaches, it is committed to taking swift action. These accusations were central to a four day sit-in protest carried out by members of
Extinction Rebellion Extinction Rebellion (abbreviated as XR) is a global environmental movement with the stated aim of using nonviolent civil disobedience to compel government action to avoid tipping points in the climate system, biodiversity loss, and the risk o ...
's XR Youth Solidarity Network at WWF-UK's headquarters in September 2021.


Initialism dispute

In 2000, the World Wide Fund for Nature sued the World Wrestling Federation (now named
WWE World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc., d/b/a WWE, is an American integrated media and entertainment company that is primarily known for professional wrestling Professional wrestling is a type of athletic exhibition and entertainment involving ...
) for unfair trade practices. Both parties had shared the initials "WWF" since 1979. The conservation organization claimed that the
professional wrestling Professional wrestling is a form of entertainment and performing art, which combines athletics with performance. It comprises of exhibitions, called 'matches', held by touring companies called Professional wrestling promotion, promotions, in ...
company had violated a 1994 agreement regarding international use of the WWF initials. On 10 August 2001, a UK court ruled in favour of the World Wide Fund for Nature. The World Wrestling Federation filed an appeal in October 2001. However, on 10 May 2002, the World Wrestling Federation changed its
Web address A Uniform Resource Locator (URL), colloquially termed a web address, is a reference to a web resource that specifies its location on a computer network and a mechanism for retrieving it. A URL is a specific type of Uniform Resource Identifier (U ...
from ''WWF.com'' to ''WWE.com'', and replaced every "WWF" reference on the existing site with "WWE", as a prelude to changing the company's name to "World Wrestling Entertainment." Its stock ticker also switched from WWF to WWE. The wrestling organization's abandonment of "WWF"
initialism An acronym is a word In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign langu ...
did not end the two organizations' legal conflict. Later in 2002, the World Wide Fund for Nature petitioned the court for $360 million in damages, but was not successful. A subsequent request to overturn by the World Wide Fund for Nature was dismissed by the British
Court of Appeal An appellate court, commonly called an ''appeals court'', ''court of appeals'' (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics ...
on 28 June 2007. In 2003, World Wrestling Entertainment won a limited decision which permitted them to continue marketing certain pre-existing products with the abandoned WWF logo. However, WWE was mandated to issue newly branded merchandise such as apparel, action figures, video games, and
DVD The DVD (common abbreviation for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital elect ...

DVD
s with the "WWE" initials. Additionally, the court order required the company to remove both auditory and visual references to "WWF" in its library of video footage outside the United Kingdom. Starting with the 1,000th episode of ''Raw'' in July 2012, the WWF "scratch" logo is no longer censored in archival footage. In addition, the WWF initials are no longer censored when spoken or when written in plain text in archival footage. In exchange, WWE is no longer permitted to use WWF initials or logo in any new, original footage, packaging, or advertising, with any old-school logos for retro-themed programming now using a modification of the original WWF logo without the F.


Mekong River dolphins report

In June 2009, Touch Seang Tana, chairman of
Cambodia Cambodia (; also Kampuchea ; km, កម្ពុជា, ), officially the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is in area, bordered by Thailand to Cambodia–T ...

Cambodia
's Commission for Conservation and Development of the
Mekong River The Mekong or Mekong River is a trans-boundary river A transboundary river is a river that crosses at least one political border, either a border within a nation or an international boundary. Bangladesh has the highest number of these rive ...

Mekong River
Dolphins Eco-tourism Zone, argued that the WWF had misrepresented the danger of extinction of the Mekong dolphin to boost fundraising. The report stated that the deaths were caused by a bacterial disease that became fatal due to environmental contaminants suppressing the dolphins' immune systems. He called the report unscientific and harmful to the Cambodian government and threatened WWF's Cambodian branch with suspension unless they met with him to discuss his claims. Touch Seang Tana later said he would not press charges of supplying false information and would not make any attempt to prevent WWF from continuing its work in Cambodia, but advised WWF to adequately explain its findings and check with the commission before publishing another report. Criticism of the validity of reports critical of government action or inaction, where 'approval' has not been sought before publication, is common in Cambodia. In January 2012, Touch Seang Tana signed the "Kratie Declaration on the Conservation of the Mekong River Irrawaddy Dolphin" along with WWF and the Cambodian Fisheries Administration, an agreement binding the parties to work together on a "roadmap" addressing dolphin conservation in the Mekong River.


Cultural Missteps

Social movements in Okinawa highlighted in the 2020 article "Drawing the Sea Near: Satoumi and Coral Reef Conservation in Okinawa" by C.A. Claus were able to redirect the placement of an airport in order to preserve coral reef that is home to a rare blue coral among greater biodiversity. These social movements received external help from NGOs such as WWF. Once an alternative location for the airport was agreed upon, the attentions of the WWF turned towards more long term environmental goals and was met with resistance from the local Okinawans. The WWF then took part in the organization of a ''sanizu'' festival, which negotiated the relationship between the Okinawan culture and coral reef conservation in a more successful way. The acknowledgement of the participation of NGOs in a history of environmental conservation that has historically been rooted in a history of colonialism and neoliberalism is an important step.


Accountability

The
Charity Navigator Charity Navigator is a charity assessment organization that evaluates hundreds of thousands of charitable organization A charitable organization or charity is an organization whose primary objectives are philanthropy and social well-being ...
gave the WWF a 3-star overall rating, a 2-star financial rating and a 4-star accountability and transparency rating for the 2018 fiscal year.


Manipulation of CO2 emissions

In 2009, in a scorecard report that they authored on carbon emissions in G8 countries, the WWF portrayed the
greenhouse gas emissions Greenhouse gas emissions from human activities strengthen the greenhouse effect The greenhouse effect is the process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without ...
of countries who use
low-carbon A low-carbon economy (LCE) or decarbonised economy is an economy An economy (; ) is an area of the production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in t ...
nuclear power Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reaction In nuclear physics Nuclear physics is the field of physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), ...

nuclear power
in their mix as a higher amount of emissions than realistically calculated. For example, for France, the WWF displayed a false value of 362 gCO2eq/kWh which is over 400% larger than the actual emissions in France. WWF explained the manipulation as follows: The scorecard for Sweden was also "adjusted" in similar way, where the WWF replaced the actual emissions of 47 gCO2eq/kWh with 212 gCO2eq/kWh.


Regional organisations


WWF-Australia

The Australian arm of WWF was established on 29 June 1978 in an old factory in
Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug The Darug or Dharug people are an Aboriginal Australian people, who share strong ties of kinship and, in Colonial Australia, pre-colonial times, survived as skilled hunters in family groups or clans, scattered througho ...

Sydney
, with three staff and a budget of around for the first year, consisting of a grant from the
Commonwealth Government The Australian Government, also known as the Commonwealth Government, is the national government of Australia, a federalism, federal parliamentary system, parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Like other Westminster system, Westminster-style ...

Commonwealth Government
and a further in corporate donations. , WWF-Australia is the country's biggest conservation organisation, which operates projects throughout Australia as well as the wider
Oceania Oceania (, , ) is a geographic region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Eart ...

Oceania
region. Between 2015 and 2019 WWF-Australia reported an average revenue of $28.74 million per year. In 2020, WWF-Australia reported a total revenue of over $80 million driven by the global & local response to the Australian bushfires. In 1990, WWF-Australia established the national Threatened Species Network (TSN) with the federal government, which remained operational until 2009. In 1999 it participated in the creation of the
Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act The ''Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999'' (''EPBC Act''), long title ''An Act relating to the protection of the environment and the conservation of biodiversity, and for related purposes'', is an Statute, Act of the ...
, at that time the most encompassing
biodiversity Biodiversity is the biological variety and Genetic variability, variability of life, life on Earth. Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the Genetics, genetic, species, and ecosystem level. Terrestrial biodiversity is usually greater near ...

biodiversity
conservation laws in the world. In 2003/4 the organisation played a part in getting the government to raise the level of protection for the
Great Barrier Reef The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest coral reef A coral reef is an underwater ecosystems, ecosystem characterized by reef-building corals. Reefs are formed of Colony (biology), colonies of coral polyp (zoology), polyps held tog ...

Great Barrier Reef
and the
Ningaloo Reef The Ningaloo Coast is a World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World ...

Ningaloo Reef
, and since then has participated in or managed many conservation programs, such as the reintroduction of black-flanked rock-wallabies to
Kalbarri National Park Kalbarri National Park is located north of Perth, in the Mid West (Western Australia), Mid West region of Western Australia. The major geographical features of the park include the Murchison River gorge which runs for nearly on the lower reach ...

Kalbarri National Park
in
Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...

Western Australia
.


See also

*
Centres of Plant DiversityCentres of Plant Diversity (CPD) was established in 1998 as a joint classification initiative between the World Wildlife Fund The world is the Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harb ...
*
Conservation movement The conservation movement, also known as nature conservation, is a political, environmental, and social movement that seeks to manage and protect natural resource Natural resources are resource Resource refers to all the materials ava ...
*
Environmental Dispute Resolution Fund The Environmental Dispute Resolution Fund (EDRF) is a legal aid program based in British Columbia, Canada that provides grants to individuals, community groups and environmental organizations who need to hire legal representation to assist them in r ...
*
Environmental movement The environmental movement (sometimes referred to as the ecology movement), also including conservation Conservation is the preservation or efficient use of resources, or the conservation of various quantities under physical laws. Conservatio ...
*
Eugene Green Energy StandardImage:EugeneStandardLogo.png, right The Eugene Green Energy Standard was an international standard to which national or international green electricity labelling schemes could be product certification, accredited to confirm that they provide genuine ...
, founded by the WWF. *
Global 200 The Global 200 is the list of ecoregion An ecoregion (ecological region) or ecozone (ecological zone) is an and geographically defined area that is smaller than a , which in turn is smaller than a . Ecoregions cover relatively large areas o ...
, ecoregions identified by the WWF as priorities for conservation *
List of environmental organizations An environmental organization is an organization An organization, or organisation ( Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is an entity – such as a company, an institution, or an association – comprising one or more peopl ...
*
Natural environment The natural environment or natural world encompasses all life, living and non-living things occurring nature, naturally, meaning in this case not Artificiality, artificial. The term is most often applied to the Earth or some parts of Earth. Th ...

Natural environment
*
Sustainability Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing way across various domains of life. In the 21st century, it refers generally to the capacity for Earth's biosphere and human civilization to co-exist. For many, sustainability is ...

Sustainability
*
Sustainable development Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while simultaneously sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services Social forestry in India, Social ...

Sustainable development
*
Traffic (conservation programme) TRAFFIC, the Wildlife Trade Monitoring Network, is the leading non-governmental organisation working globally on the trade of wild animals and plants in the context of both biodiversity and sustainable development. It was founded in 1976 as a s ...
, a joint programme of WWF and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) *
West Coast Environmental Law West Coast Environmental Law is an environmental law and public advocacy organization based in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. It believes in a just and sustainable society where citizens are empowered to protect the environment and environm ...
* World Conservation Award, created in conjunction with the WWF


References


External links

* (WWF International website)
World Wildlife Fund
WWF-US Website. * .
WWF's global network
**
WWF Armenia

WWF-Pakistan

WWF-India

WWF Guianas

WWF Russia
{{DEFAULTSORT:World Wide Fund For Nature World Wide Fund for Nature, International environmental organizations Nature conservation organizations Ecology organizations Wildlife conservation organizations Environmental organizations established in 1961 Organizations established in 1961 Non-profit organisations based in Pakistan Non-profit organisations based in Switzerland Non-profit organisations based in the United Kingdom Non-profit organizations based in the United States 1961 establishments in Switzerland