Energy supply, consumption and electricityWorld (TPES), or "primary energy" differs from the world final energy consumption because much of the energy that is acquired by humans is lost as other forms of energy during the process of its refinement into usable forms of energy and its transport from its initial place of supply to consumers. For instance, when oil is extracted from the ground it must be refined into gasoline, so that it can be used in a car, and transported over long distances to gas stations where it can be used by consumers. World final energy consumption refers to the fraction of the world's primary energy that is used in its final form by humanity. Also one needs to bear in mind that there are different qualities of energy. Heat, especially at a relatively low temperature, is low-quality energy, whereas electricity is high-quality energy. It takes around 3 kWh of heat to produce 1 kWh of electricity. But by the same token, a kilowatt-hour of this high-quality electricity can be used to pump several kilowatt-hours of heat into a building using a heat pump. And electricity can be used in many ways in which heat cannot. So the "loss" of energy incurred when generating electricity is not the same as a loss due to, say, resistance in power lines. In 2014, world primary energy supply amounted to 155,481 terawatt-hour (TWh) or 13,541 million (Mtoe), while the world final energy consumption was 109,613 TWh or about 29.5% less than the total supply. World final energy consumption includes products as lubricants, asphalt and petrochemicals which have chemical energy content but are not used as fuel. This non-energy use amounted to 9,723 TWh (836 Mtoe) in 2015. The United States (EIA) regularly publishes a report on world consumption for most types of primary energy resources. For 2013, estimated world energy consumption was 5.67 × 1020 joules, or 157,481 TWh. According to the IEA the total world energy consumption in past years was 143,851 TWh in 2008, 133,602 TWh in 2005, 117,687 TWh in 2000, and 102,569 TWh in 1990. In 2012 approximately 22% of world energy was consumed in North America, 5% was consumed in South and Central America, 23% was consumed in Europe and Eurasia, 3% was consumed in Africa, and 40% was consumed in the Asia Pacific region.
Electricity generationThe total amount of electricity consumed worldwide was 19,504 TWh in 2013, 16,503 TWh in 2008, 15,105 TWh in 2005, and 12,116 TWh in 2000. By the end of 2014, the total installed electricity generating capacity worldwide was nearly 6.14 TW (million MW) which only includes generation connected to local s. In addition, there is an unknown amount of heat and electricity consumed off-grid by isolated villages and industries. In 2014, the share of world energy consumption for by source was coal at 41%, natural gas at 22%, nuclear at 11%, hydro at 16%, other sources (solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, etc.) at 6% and oil at 4%. Coal and natural gas were the most used energy fuels for generating electricity. The world's electricity consumption was 18,608 TWh in 2012. This figure is about 18% smaller than the generated electricity, due to grid losses, storage losses, and self-consumption from power plants ( ). (CHP) power stations use some of the heat that is otherwise wasted for use in buildings or industrial processes. In 2016 the total world energy came from 80% fossil fuels, 10% biofuels, 5% nuclear, and 5% renewable (hydro, wind, solar, geothermal). Only 18% of that total world energy was in the form of electricity. Most of the other 82% was used for heat and transportation. Recently there has been a large increase in international agreements and national Energy Action Plans, such as the EU 2009 Renewable Energy Directive, to increase the use of renewable energy due to the growing concerns about pollution from energy sources that come from fossil fuels such as oil, coal, and natural gas. One such initiative was the United Nations Development Programme's World Energy Assessment in 2000 that highlighted many challenges humanity would have to overcome in order to shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. From 2000 to 2012 renewable energy grew at a rate higher than any other point in history, with a consumption increase of 176.5 million tonnes of oil. During this period, oil, coal, and natural gas continued to grow and had increases that were much higher than the increase in renewable energy. The following figures illustrate the growth in consumption of fossil fuels such as oil, coal, and natural gas as well as renewable sources of energy during this period.
TrendsFile: Japan energy and GDP.svg, GDP and energy consumption in Japan, 1958–2000: The data shows the correlation between GDP and energy use; however, it also shows that this link can be broken. After the oil shocks of 1973 and 1979 the energy use stagnated while Japan's GDP continued to grow, after 1985, under the influence of the then much cheaper oil, energy use resumed its historical relation to GDP. The energy consumption growth in the G20 slowed down to 2% in 2011, after the strong increase of 2010. The economic crisis is largely responsible for this slow growth. For several years now, the world is characterized by the bullish Chinese and Indian markets, while developed countries struggle with stagnant economies, high oil prices, resulting in stable or decreasing energy consumption. According to IEA data from 1990 to 2008, the average energy use per person increased 10% while the world population increased 27%. Regional energy use also grew from 1990 to 2008: the Middle East increased by 170%, China by 146%, India by 91%, Africa by 70%, Latin America by 66%, the United States by 20%, the European Union by 7%, and world overall grew by 39%. In 2008, total worldwide primary energy consumption was 132,000 terawatt-hours ( TWh) or 474 exajoules (EJ). In 2012, primary energy demand increased to 158,000 TWh (567 EJ).International Energy Statistics 2015 The production and usage of electronic devices, data traffic, and storage is growing 9% per year and is expected to use 3.3% of the world's electricity supply in 2020 (vs. 1.9% in 2013). In 2017 data centers consumed 19% of the global digital energy consumption. Internet traffic is expanding 25% per year, meaning the number of data centers is expanding very quickly, increasing energy consumption dramatically. Energy consumption in the G20 increased by more than 5% in 2010 after a slight decline in 2009. In 2009, world energy consumption decreased for the first time in 30 years by 1.1%, or about 130 million (Mtoe), as a result of the financial and economic crisis, which reduced world GDP by 0.6% in 2009. This evolution is the result of two contrasting trends: Energy consumption growth remained vigorous in several developing countries, specifically in Asia (+4%). Conversely, in OECD, consumption was severely cut by 4.7% in 2009 and was thus almost down to its 2000 levels. In North America, Europe and the , consumption shrank by 4.5%, 5%, and 8.5% respectively due to the slowdown in economic activity. China became the world's largest energy consumer (18% of the total) since its consumption surged by 8% during 2009 (up from 4% in 2008). Oil remained the largest energy source (33%) despite the fact that its share has been decreasing over time. Coal posted a growing role in the world's energy consumption: in 2009, it accounted for 27% of the total. Most energy is used in the country of origin, since it is cheaper to transport final products than raw materials. In 2008, the share export of the total energy production by fuel was: oil 50% (1,952/3,941 Mt), gas 25% (800/3,149 bcm) and hard coal 14% (793/5,845 Mt).IEA Key energy statistics 2010
EmissionsGlobal warming Exhaust gas, emissions resulting from energy production are an environmental problem. Efforts to resolve this include the Kyoto Protocol (1997) and the Paris Agreement (2015), international governmental agreements aiming to Climate change mitigation, reduce harmful climate impacts, which a number of nations have signed. Limiting global temperature increase to 2 degrees Celsius, thought to be a risk by the Stockholm Environmental Institute, SEI, is now doubtful. To limit global temperature to a hypothetical 2 degrees Celsius rise would demand a 75% decline in carbon emissions in industrial countries by 2050, if the population is 10 billion in 2050. Across 40 years, this averages to a 2% decrease every year. In 2011, the emissions of energy production continued rising regardless of the consensus of the basic problem. Hypothetically, according to Robert Engelman (Worldwatch Institute), in order to prevent collapse, human civilization would have to stop increasing emissions within a decade regardless of the economy or population (2009). Greenhouse gases are not the only emissions of energy production and consumption. Large amounts of pollutants such as sulphurous oxides (SOx), nitrous oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) are produced from the combustion of fossil fuels and biomass; the World Health Organization estimates that 7 million premature deaths are caused each year by air pollution. Biomass combustion is a major contributor. In addition to producing air pollution like fossil fuel combustion, most biomass has high CO2 emissions.
Fossil fuelsThe twentieth century saw a rapid twenty-fold increase in the use of fossil fuels. Between 1980 and 2006, the worldwide annual growth rate was 2%. According to the US
CoalIn 2000, China accounted for 28% of world coal consumption, other Asia consumed 19%, North America 25% and the EU 14%. The single greatest coal-consuming country is China. Its share of the world coal production was 28% in 2000 and rose to 48% in 2009. In contrast to China's ~70% increase in coal consumption, world coal use increased 48% from 2000 to 2009. In practice, the majority of this growth occurred in China and the rest in other Asia.Table 52 Global supply of coal, 1990–2009 (pp. 44-45), in (see als
OilCoal fueled the industrial revolution in the 18th and 19th century. With the advent of the automobile, aeroplanes and the spreading use of electricity, Petroleum, oil became the dominant fuel during the twentieth century. The growth of oil as the largest fossil fuel was further enabled by steadily dropping prices from 1920 until 1973. After the oil shocks of 1973 oil crisis, 1973 and 1979 energy crisis, 1979, during which the price of oil increased from 5 to 45 US dollars per barrel, there was a shift away from oil. Coal, natural gas, and nuclear became the fuels of choice for electricity generation and conservation measures increased energy efficiency. In the U.S. the average car more than doubled the number of miles per gallon. Japan, which bore the brunt of the oil shocks, made spectacular improvements and now has the highest energy efficiency in the world. pp. 48–57 From 1965 to 2008, the use of fossil fuels has continued to grow and their share of the energy supply has increased. From 2003 to 2008, coal was the fastest growing fossil fuel. It is estimated that between 100 and 135 billion tonnes of oil has been consumed between 1850 and the present.
Natural GasIn 2009, the world use of natural gas grew 31% compared to 2000. 66% of this growth was outside EU, North America, Latin America, and Russia. Others include the Middle East, Asia, and Africa. The gas supply increased also in the previous regions: 8.6% in the EU and 16% in the North America 2000–2009.
Renewable energyRenewable energy is generally defined as energy that comes from Renewable resource, resources that are not significantly depleted by their use, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tidal power, tides, wave power, waves and geothermal energy, geothermal heat. Renewable energy is gradually replacing conventional fuels in four distinct areas: , solar hot water, hot water/space heating, motor fuels, and Stand-alone power system, rural (off-grid) energy services.REN21 (2010)
HydroHydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the kinetic energy of falling or flowing water. In 2015 hydropower generated 16.6% of the world's total electricity and 70% of renewable electricity. In 2019 it made up 6.5% of total energy use. Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 32 percent of global hydropower in 2010. China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with of production in 2010, representing around 17% of domestic electricity use. There are now three hydroelectricity plants larger than 10 GW: the Three Gorges Dam in China, Itaipu Dam in Brazil, and Guri Dam in Venezuela. Nine of the List of countries by electricity production from renewable sources, worlds top 10 renewable electricity producers are primarily hydroelectric, one is wind.
WindWind power is growing at the rate of 11% annually, with a worldwide Installed wind power capacity, installed capacity of 539,123 megawatts (MW) at the end of 2017, and is widely used in Wind power in the European Union, Europe, Wind power in China, Asia, and the Wind power in the United States, United States.Global wind energy markets continue to boom – 2006 another record year
SolarSolar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, has been harnessed by humans since ancient history, ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. Solar energy technologies include solar heating, solar photovoltaics, concentrated solar power and solar architecture, which can make considerable contributions to solving some of the most urgent problems the world now faces. The projected that solar power could provide "a third of the global final energy demand after 2060, while CO2 emissions would be reduced to very low levels." Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert, and distribute solar energy. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic systems and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that Ventilation (architecture), naturally circulate air. In 2012 it make up 0.18% of energy use which increase to 1.1% in 2019.
GeothermalGeothermal energy is used commercially in over 70 countries. In 2004, of electricity was generated from geothermal resources, and an additional of geothermal energy was used directly, mostly for space heating. In 2007, the world had a global capacity for of electricity generation and an additional of geothermal heating, direct heating, including extraction by geothermal heat pumps. Heat pumps are small and widely distributed, so estimates of their total capacity are uncertain and range up to . It was estimated that geothermal heat pumps had, in 2015, a total capacity of about producing about per year.
Bio energyUntil the beginning of the nineteenth-century biomass was the predominant fuel, today it has only a small share of the overall energy supply. Electricity produced from biomass sources was estimated at 44 GW for 2005. Biomass electricity generation increased by over 100% in Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Poland, and Spain. A further 220 GW was used for heating (in 2004), bringing the total energy consumed from biomass to around 264 GW. The use of biomass fires for cooking is excluded. World production of Ethanol fuel, bioethanol increased by 8% in 2005 to reach , with most of the increase in the United States, bringing it level to the levels of consumption in Brazil. Biodiesel increased by 85% to , making it the fastest-growing renewable energy source in 2005. Over 50% is produced in Germany.
Marine energyMarine energy, also known as ''ocean energy'' and ''marine and hydrokinetic energy'' (MHK) includes tidal power, tidal and wave power, wave power and is a relatively new sector of renewable energy, with most projects still in the pilot phase, but the theoretical potential is equivalent to 4–18 Mtoe. MHK development in U.S. and international waters includes projects using devices such as wave energy converters in open coastal areas with significant waves, tidal turbines placed in coastal and estuarine areas, in-stream turbines in fast-moving rivers, ocean current turbines in areas of strong marine currents, and ocean thermal energy converters in deep tropical waters.
Nuclear powerAs of 1 July 2016, the world had 444 operable grid-electric nuclear fission power reactors with 62 others under construction.World Nuclear Association, (1 July 2016
By countryEnergy consumption is loosely correlated with Gross National Product#Gross National Product, gross national product and climate, but there is a large difference even between the most highly developed countries, such as Japan and Germany with an energy consumption rate of 6 kW per person and the Energy use in the United States, United States with an energy consumption rate of 11.4 kW per person. In developing countries, particularly those that are sub-tropical or tropical such as India, the per person energy use rate is closer to 0.7 kW. Bangladesh has the lowest consumption rate with 0.2 kW per person. The US consumes 25% of the world's energy with a share of global GDP at 22% and a share of the world population at 4.6%. The most significant growth of energy consumption is currently taking place in China, which has been growing at 5.5% per year over the last 25 years. Its population of 1.3 billion people (19.6% of the world population) is consuming energy at a rate of 1.6 kW per person. One measurement of efficiency is energy intensity. This is a measure of the amount of energy it takes a country to produce a dollar of gross domestic product.
OilSaudi Arabia, Russia and the United States accounted for 34% of oil production in 2011. Saudi Arabia, Russia and Nigeria accounted for 36% of oil export in 2011.
CoalCoal was 27% of world energy consumption in 2019 but is being displaced by natural gas and renewables.
By sectorThe table to the right shows the amounts of energy consumed worldwide in 2012 by four sectors, according to the of the US Department of Energy: *Residential (heating, lighting, and appliances) *Commercial (lighting, heating and cooling of commercial buildings, and provision of water and sewer services) *Industrial users (agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and construction) *Transportation (passenger, freight, and pipeline) Of the total 120 PWh () consumed, 19.4 were in the form of electricity, but this electricity required 61.7 PWh to produce. Thus the total energy consumption was around 160 PWh (ca ). The efficiency of a typical existing power plant is around 38%. The new generation of gas-fired plants reaches a substantially higher efficiency of 55%. Coal is the most common fuel for the world's electricity plants. Another report gives different values for the sectors, apparently due to different definitions. According to this, total world energy use per sector in 2008 was industry 28%, transport 27% and residential and service 36%. Division was about the same in the year 2000.
European UnionThe European Environmental Agency (EEA) measures final energy consumption (does not include energy used in production and lost in transportation) and finds that the transport sector is responsible for 32% of final energy consumption, households 26%, industry 26%, service (economics), services 14% and agriculture 3% in 2012. The use of energy is responsible for the majority of greenhouse gas emissions (79%), with the energy sector representing 31 p.p., transport 19 p.p., industry 13 p.p., households 9 p.p.and others 7 p.p.Eva Hoos European Commission 2011
See also* Cubic mile of oil * Domestic energy consumption * Earth's energy budget * Electric energy consumption * Energy demand management * Energy development * Energy intensity * Energy policy * Environmental impact of aviation * Energy security and renewable technology * Kardashev scale * Life-cycle greenhouse-gas emissions of energy sources * Peak oil * Renewable energy commercialization * Sustainable energy * World Energy Outlook * World energy resources ;Lists * List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions * List of countries by electricity consumption * List of countries by electricity production * List of countries by total primary energy consumption and production * List of countries by energy consumption per capita * List of countries by energy intensity * List of countries by greenhouse gas emissions * List of countries by renewable electricity production * List of renewable energy topics by country