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World energy consumption is the total
energy In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.The second law of thermodynamics imposes limitations on the capacity of a system to transfer energy by p ...
produced and used by humans. Typically measured per year, it involves all energy harnessed from every
energy source Energy development is the field of activities focused on obtaining sources of energy from natural resources. These activities include production of conventional, alternative and renewable sources of energy, and for the recovery and reuse of energ ...
applied towards activity across all industrial and technological sectors, in every country. It does not include energy from food. World energy consumption has implications for the socio-economic-political sphere. Institutions such as the
International Energy Agency The International Energy Agency (IEA; french: Agence internationale de l'énergie) is a Paris-based autonomous intergovernmental organisation established in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 197 ...
(IEA), the U.S.
Energy Information Administration The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public ...
(EIA), and the
European Environment Agency The European Environment Agency (EEA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) which provides independent information on the environment. Definition The European Environment Agency (EEA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) which provides in ...
(EEA) record and publish energy data periodically. Improved data and understanding of world energy consumption may reveal systemic trends and patterns, which could help frame current energy issues and encourage movement towards collectively useful solutions. Closely related to energy consumption is the concept of total
primary energy Primary energy (PE) is an energy form found in nature that has not been subjected to any human engineered conversion process. It is energy contained in raw fuels, and other forms of energy received as input to a system. Primary energy can be non ...
supply (TPES), which – on a global level – is the sum of energy production minus storage changes. Since changes of energy storage over the year are minor, TPES values can be used as an estimator for energy consumption. However, TPES ignores conversion efficiency, overstating forms of energy with poor conversion efficiency (e.g.
coal Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as rock strata called coal seams. Coal is mostly carbon with variable amounts of other elements; chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen. Coal is formed when dead p ...

coal
, gas and
nuclear Nuclear may refer to: Physics *Nuclear engineering *Nuclear physics *Nuclear power *Nuclear reactor *Nuclear weapon *Nuclear medicine *Radiation therapy *Nuclear warfare Mathematics *Nuclear space *Nuclear operator *Nuclear congruence *Nuclear C ...
) and understating forms already accounted for in converted forms (e.g.
photovoltaics Photovoltaics (PV) is the conversion of light into electricity using semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect, a phenomenon studied in physics, photochemistry, and electrochemistry. The photovoltaic effect is commercially u ...
or
hydroelectricity Hydroelectricity, or hydroelectric power, is electricity produced from hydropower. In 2015, hydropower generated 16.6% of the world's total electricity and 70% of all renewable electricity,http://www.ren21.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/GSR_20 ...
). The IEA estimates that, in 2013, total primary energy supply (TPES) was 157.5 petawatt hours or or about 18TW-year. From 2000 to 2012 coal was the source of energy with the total largest growth. The use of oil and natural gas also had considerable growth, followed by hydropower and renewable energy. Renewable energy grew at a rate faster than any other time in history during this period. The demand for nuclear energy decreased, in part due to nuclear disasters (
Three Mile Island 3 is a number, numeral, and glyph. 3, three, or III may also refer to: * AD 3, the third year of the AD era * 3 BC, the third year before the AD era * March, the third month Books * ''Three of Them'' (Russian: ', literally, "three"), a 1901 nov ...
in 1979,
Chernobyl Chernobyl (, , russian: Чернобыль), also known as Chornobyl ( uk, Чорнобиль, Chornobyl'; ; ), is a partially abandoned city in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, situated in the Ivankiv Raion of northern Kyiv Oblast, Ukraine. Cherno ...
in 1986, and Fukushima in 2011).BP
Statistical Review of World Energy
Workbook (xlsx), London, 2016
World Energy Assessment
(WEA). UNDP, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Energy Council, New York
More recently, consumption of coal has declined relative to renewable energy. Coal dropped from about 29% of the global total primary energy consumption in 2015 to 27% in 2017, and non-hydro renewables were up to about 4% from 2%. In 2010, expenditures on energy totaled over US$6 trillion, or about 10% of the world
gross domestic product Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all the final goods and services produced in a specific time period. GDP (nominal) per capita does not, however, reflect differences in the cost of living and the inflation ...
(GDP). Europe spends close to one-quarter of the world's energy expenditures, North America close to 20%, and Japan 6%.


Overview


Energy supply, consumption and electricity

World
total primary energy supply Primary energy (PE) is an energy form found in nature that has not been subjected to any human engineered conversion process. It is energy contained in raw fuels, and other forms of energy received as input to a system. Primary energy can be non ...
(TPES), or "primary energy" differs from the world final energy consumption because much of the energy that is acquired by humans is lost as other forms of energy during the process of its refinement into usable forms of energy and its transport from its initial place of supply to consumers. For instance, when oil is extracted from the ground it must be refined into gasoline, so that it can be used in a car, and transported over long distances to gas stations where it can be used by consumers. World final energy consumption refers to the fraction of the world's primary energy that is used in its final form by humanity. Also one needs to bear in mind that there are different qualities of energy. Heat, especially at a relatively low temperature, is low-quality energy, whereas electricity is high-quality energy. It takes around 3 kWh of heat to produce 1 kWh of electricity. But by the same token, a kilowatt-hour of this high-quality electricity can be used to pump several kilowatt-hours of heat into a building using a heat pump. And electricity can be used in many ways in which heat cannot. So the "loss" of energy incurred when generating electricity is not the same as a loss due to, say, resistance in power lines. In 2014, world primary energy supply amounted to 155,481 terawatt-hour (TWh) or 13,541 million
tonne of oil equivalentThe tonne of oil equivalent (toe) is a unit of energy defined as the amount of energy released by burning one tonne of crude oil. It is approximately 42 gigajoules or 11.630 megawatt-hours, although as different crude oils have different calorific va ...
(Mtoe), while the world final energy consumption was 109,613 TWh or about 29.5% less than the total supply. World final energy consumption includes products as lubricants, asphalt and petrochemicals which have chemical energy content but are not used as fuel. This non-energy use amounted to 9,723 TWh (836 Mtoe) in 2015. The United States
Energy Information Administration The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public ...
(EIA) regularly publishes a report on world consumption for most types of primary energy resources. For 2013, estimated world energy consumption was 5.67 × 1020 joules, or 157,481 TWh. According to the IEA the total world energy consumption in past years was 143,851 TWh in 2008, 133,602 TWh in 2005, 117,687 TWh in 2000, and 102,569 TWh in 1990. In 2012 approximately 22% of world energy was consumed in North America, 5% was consumed in South and Central America, 23% was consumed in Europe and Eurasia, 3% was consumed in Africa, and 40% was consumed in the Asia Pacific region.


Electricity generation

The total amount of electricity consumed worldwide was 19,504 TWh in 2013, 16,503 TWh in 2008, 15,105 TWh in 2005, and 12,116 TWh in 2000. By the end of 2014, the total installed electricity generating capacity worldwide was nearly 6.14 TW (million MW) which only includes generation connected to local
electricity grid Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of matter that has a property of electric charge. Electricity is related to magnetism, both being part of the phenomenon of electromagnetism, as described by ...
s. In addition, there is an unknown amount of heat and electricity consumed off-grid by isolated villages and industries. In 2014, the share of world energy consumption for
electricity generation Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy. For utilities in the electric power industry, it is the stage prior to its delivery (transmission, distribution, etc.) to end users or its storag ...
by source was coal at 41%, natural gas at 22%, nuclear at 11%, hydro at 16%, other sources (solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, etc.) at 6% and oil at 4%. Coal and natural gas were the most used energy fuels for generating electricity. The world's electricity consumption was 18,608 TWh in 2012. This figure is about 18% smaller than the generated electricity, due to grid losses, storage losses, and self-consumption from power plants (
gross generationPower Station or The Power Station may refer to: * Power station, a facility for the generation of electricity Music * The Power Station (band), a 1980s supergroup ** ''The Power Station'' (album), a 1985 album by The Power Station * Power Station ...
).
Cogeneration Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) is the use of a heat engine or power station to generate electricity and useful heat at the same time. Trigeneration or combined cooling, heat and power (CCHP) refers to the simultaneous generation of ...

Cogeneration
(CHP) power stations use some of the heat that is otherwise wasted for use in buildings or industrial processes. In 2016 the total world energy came from 80% fossil fuels, 10% biofuels, 5% nuclear, and 5% renewable (hydro, wind, solar, geothermal). Only 18% of that total world energy was in the form of electricity. Most of the other 82% was used for heat and transportation. Recently there has been a large increase in international agreements and national Energy Action Plans, such as the EU 2009 Renewable Energy Directive, to increase the use of renewable energy due to the growing concerns about pollution from energy sources that come from fossil fuels such as oil, coal, and natural gas. One such initiative was the United Nations Development Programme's World Energy Assessment in 2000 that highlighted many challenges humanity would have to overcome in order to shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. From 2000 to 2012 renewable energy grew at a rate higher than any other point in history, with a consumption increase of 176.5 million tonnes of oil. During this period, oil, coal, and natural gas continued to grow and had increases that were much higher than the increase in renewable energy. The following figures illustrate the growth in consumption of fossil fuels such as oil, coal, and natural gas as well as renewable sources of energy during this period.


Trends

File: Japan energy and GDP.svg, GDP and energy consumption in Japan, 1958–2000: The data shows the correlation between GDP and energy use; however, it also shows that this link can be broken. After the oil shocks of 1973 and 1979 the energy use stagnated while Japan's GDP continued to grow, after 1985, under the influence of the then much cheaper oil, energy use resumed its historical relation to GDP. The energy consumption growth in the G20 slowed down to 2% in 2011, after the strong increase of 2010. The economic crisis is largely responsible for this slow growth. For several years now, the world
energy demand World energy consumption is the total energy produced and used by humans. Typically measured per year, it involves all energy harnessed from every energy source applied towards activity across all industrial and technological sectors, in every ...
is characterized by the bullish Chinese and Indian markets, while developed countries struggle with stagnant economies, high oil prices, resulting in stable or decreasing energy consumption. According to IEA data from 1990 to 2008, the average energy use per person increased 10% while the world population increased 27%. Regional energy use also grew from 1990 to 2008: the Middle East increased by 170%, China by 146%, India by 91%, Africa by 70%, Latin America by 66%, the United States by 20%, the European Union by 7%, and world overall grew by 39%. In 2008, total worldwide primary energy consumption was 132,000 terawatt-hours ( TWh) or 474 exajoules (EJ). In 2012, primary energy demand increased to 158,000 TWh (567 EJ).International Energy Statistics 2015 The production and usage of electronic devices, data traffic, and storage is growing 9% per year and is expected to use 3.3% of the world's electricity supply in 2020 (vs. 1.9% in 2013). In 2017 data centers consumed 19% of the global digital energy consumption. Internet traffic is expanding 25% per year, meaning the number of data centers is expanding very quickly, increasing energy consumption dramatically. Energy consumption in the G20 increased by more than 5% in 2010 after a slight decline in 2009. In 2009, world energy consumption decreased for the first time in 30 years by 1.1%, or about 130 million
tonnes of oil equivalentThe tonne of oil equivalent (toe) is a unit of energy defined as the amount of energy released by burning one tonne of crude oil. It is approximately 42 gigajoules or 11.630 megawatt-hours, although as different crude oils have different calorific va ...
(Mtoe), as a result of the financial and economic crisis, which reduced world GDP by 0.6% in 2009. This evolution is the result of two contrasting trends: Energy consumption growth remained vigorous in several developing countries, specifically in Asia (+4%). Conversely, in OECD, consumption was severely cut by 4.7% in 2009 and was thus almost down to its 2000 levels. In North America, Europe and the , consumption shrank by 4.5%, 5%, and 8.5% respectively due to the slowdown in economic activity. China became the world's largest energy consumer (18% of the total) since its consumption surged by 8% during 2009 (up from 4% in 2008). Oil remained the largest energy source (33%) despite the fact that its share has been decreasing over time. Coal posted a growing role in the world's energy consumption: in 2009, it accounted for 27% of the total. Most energy is used in the country of origin, since it is cheaper to transport final products than raw materials. In 2008, the share export of the total energy production by fuel was: oil 50% (1,952/3,941 Mt), gas 25% (800/3,149 bcm) and hard coal 14% (793/5,845 Mt).IEA Key energy statistics 2010
an
IEA Key energy statistics 2009
oil p. 11, gas p. 13, hard coal (excluding brown coal) p. 15 and electricity p. 27
Most of the world's high energy resources are from the conversion of the sun's rays to other energy forms after being incident upon the planet. Some of that energy has been preserved as fossil energy, some is directly or indirectly usable; for example, via solar PV/thermal, wind, hydro- or wave power. The total solar irradiance is measured by satellite to be roughly 1361 watts per square meter ''(see
solar constant The solar constant (''GSC'') is a flux density measuring mean solar electromagnetic radiation (solar irradiance) per unit area. It is measured on a surface perpendicular to the rays, one astronomical unit (AU) from the Sun (roughly the distance f ...
)'', though it fluctuates by about 6.9% during the year due to the Earth's varying distance from the sun. This value, after multiplication by the cross-sectional area intercepted by the Earth, is the total rate of
solar energy Solar energy is radiant light and heat from the Sun that is harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, solar architecture, molten salt power plants and artificial photosynt ...
received by the planet; about half, 89,000  TW, reaches the Earth's surface. The estimates of remaining non-renewable worldwide energy resources vary, with the remaining fossil fuels totaling an estimated 0.4  yottajoule (YJ) or 4 × 1023 joules, and the available nuclear fuel such as
uranium Uranium is a chemical element with the symbol U and atomic number 92. It is a silvery-grey metal in the actinide series of the periodic table. A uranium atom has 92 protons and 92 electrons, of which 6 are valence electrons. Uranium is weak ...
exceeding 2.5 YJ. Fossil fuels range from 0.6 to 3  YJ if estimates of reserves of
methane clathrates . Methane clathrate (CH4·5.75H2O) or (4CH4·23H2O), also called methane hydrate, hydromethane, methane ice, fire ice, natural gas hydrate, or gas hydrate, is a solid clathrate compound (more specifically, a clathrate hydrate) in which a large amou ...
are accurate and become technically extractable. The total power flux from the sun intercepting the Earth is 5.5  YJ per year, though not all of this is available for human consumption. The IEA estimates for the world to meet global energy demand for the two decades from 2015 to 2035 it will require investment of $48 trillion and "credible policy frameworks." According to IEA (2012), the goal of limiting warming to 2 °C is becoming more difficult and costly with each year that passes. If action is not taken before 2017, CO2 emissions would be locked-in by energy infrastructure existing in 2017. Fossil fuels are dominant in the global
energy mixThe energy mix is a group of different primary energy sources from which secondary energy for direct use - such as electricity - is produced. Energy mix refers to all direct uses of energy, such as transportation and housing, so it is not be confused ...
, supported by $523 billion
subsidies A subsidy or government incentive is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy. Although commonly extended from the government, the term ...
in 2011, up almost 30% on 2010 and six times more than subsidies to renewables.


Emissions

Global warming Exhaust gas, emissions resulting from energy production are an environmental problem. Efforts to resolve this include the Kyoto Protocol (1997) and the Paris Agreement (2015), international governmental agreements aiming to Climate change mitigation, reduce harmful climate impacts, which a number of nations have signed. Limiting global temperature increase to 2 degrees Celsius, thought to be a risk by the Stockholm Environmental Institute, SEI, is now doubtful. To limit global temperature to a hypothetical 2 degrees Celsius rise would demand a 75% decline in carbon emissions in industrial countries by 2050, if the population is 10 billion in 2050. Across 40 years, this averages to a 2% decrease every year. In 2011, the emissions of energy production continued rising regardless of the consensus of the basic problem. Hypothetically, according to Robert Engelman (Worldwatch Institute), in order to prevent collapse, human civilization would have to stop increasing emissions within a decade regardless of the economy or population (2009). Greenhouse gases are not the only emissions of energy production and consumption. Large amounts of pollutants such as sulphurous oxides (SOx), nitrous oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) are produced from the combustion of fossil fuels and biomass; the World Health Organization estimates that 7 million premature deaths are caused each year by air pollution. Biomass combustion is a major contributor. In addition to producing air pollution like fossil fuel combustion, most biomass has high CO2 emissions.


By source


Fossil fuels

The twentieth century saw a rapid twenty-fold increase in the use of fossil fuels. Between 1980 and 2006, the worldwide annual growth rate was 2%. According to the US
Energy Information Administration The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public ...
's 2006 estimate, the estimated 471.8 EJ total consumption in 2004, was divided as given in the table above, with fossil fuels supplying 86% of the world's energy:


Coal

In 2000, China accounted for 28% of world coal consumption, other Asia consumed 19%, North America 25% and the EU 14%. The single greatest coal-consuming country is China. Its share of the world coal production was 28% in 2000 and rose to 48% in 2009. In contrast to China's ~70% increase in coal consumption, world coal use increased 48% from 2000 to 2009. In practice, the majority of this growth occurred in China and the rest in other Asia.Table 52 Global supply of coal, 1990–2009 (pp. 44-45), in (see als
Energy in Sweden 2011
, data from International Energy Agency, IEA]
Energy Balances of Non-OECD countries
2010.
China's energy consumption is mostly driven by the industry sector, the majority of which comes from coal consumption. Coal is the largest source of carbon dioxide emissions in the world. According to James Hansen the single most important action needed to tackle the climate crisis is to reduce CO2 emissions from Coal mining, coal. Energy in Indonesia, Indonesia and Energy in Australia, Australia exported together 57.1% of the world coal export in 2011. China, Japan, South Korea, India and Taiwan had 65% share of all the world coal import in 2011.


Oil

Coal fueled the industrial revolution in the 18th and 19th century. With the advent of the automobile, aeroplanes and the spreading use of electricity, Petroleum, oil became the dominant fuel during the twentieth century. The growth of oil as the largest fossil fuel was further enabled by steadily dropping prices from 1920 until 1973. After the oil shocks of 1973 oil crisis, 1973 and 1979 energy crisis, 1979, during which the price of oil increased from 5 to 45 US dollars per barrel, there was a shift away from oil. Coal, natural gas, and nuclear became the fuels of choice for electricity generation and conservation measures increased energy efficiency. In the U.S. the average car more than doubled the number of miles per gallon. Japan, which bore the brunt of the oil shocks, made spectacular improvements and now has the highest energy efficiency in the world. pp. 48–57 From 1965 to 2008, the use of fossil fuels has continued to grow and their share of the energy supply has increased. From 2003 to 2008, coal was the fastest growing fossil fuel. It is estimated that between 100 and 135 billion tonnes of oil has been consumed between 1850 and the present.


Natural Gas

In 2009, the world use of natural gas grew 31% compared to 2000. 66% of this growth was outside EU, North America, Latin America, and Russia. Others include the Middle East, Asia, and Africa. The gas supply increased also in the previous regions: 8.6% in the EU and 16% in the North America 2000–2009.


Renewable energy

Renewable energy is generally defined as energy that comes from Renewable resource, resources that are not significantly depleted by their use, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tidal power, tides, wave power, waves and geothermal energy, geothermal heat. Renewable energy is gradually replacing conventional fuels in four distinct areas:
electricity generation Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy. For utilities in the electric power industry, it is the stage prior to its delivery (transmission, distribution, etc.) to end users or its storag ...
, solar hot water, hot water/space heating, motor fuels, and Stand-alone power system, rural (off-grid) energy services.REN21 (2010)
Renewables 2010 Global Status Report
p. 15.
Based on REN21's 2019 report, renewables contributed 18.1 percent to the world's energy consumption and 26 percent to its electricity generation in 2017 and 2018, respectively. This energy consumption is divided as 7.5% coming from traditional biomass, 4.2% as heat energy (non-biomass), 1% biofuels for transport, 3.6% hydro electricity and 2% electricity from wind, solar, biomass, geothermal, and ocean power. Worldwide investments in renewable technologies amounted to more than US$289 billion in 2018, with countries like Renewable energy in China, China and the Renewable energy in the United States, United States heavily investing in wind, hydro, solar and biofuels. Renewable energy resources exist over wide geographical areas, in contrast to other energy sources, which are concentrated in a limited number of countries. Rapid deployment of renewable energy and efficient energy use, energy efficiency is resulting in significant Energy security and renewable technology, energy security, climate change mitigation, and economic benefits. In international public opinion surveys there is strong support for promoting renewable sources such as solar power and wind power. At the national level, at least 30 nations around the world already have renewable energy contributing more than 20 percent of energy supply. National renewable energy markets are projected to continue to grow strongly in the coming decade and beyond. The following table shows increasing nameplate capacity, and has capacity factors that range from 11% for solar, to 40% for hydropower. From 2000 to 2013 the total renewable energy use has increased by 6,450 TWh and total energy use by 40,500 TWh.


Hydro

Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the kinetic energy of falling or flowing water. In 2015 hydropower generated 16.6% of the world's total electricity and 70% of renewable electricity. In 2019 it made up 6.5% of total energy use. Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 32 percent of global hydropower in 2010. China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with of production in 2010, representing around 17% of domestic electricity use. There are now three hydroelectricity plants larger than 10 GW: the Three Gorges Dam in China, Itaipu Dam in Brazil, and Guri Dam in Venezuela. Nine of the List of countries by electricity production from renewable sources, worlds top 10 renewable electricity producers are primarily hydroelectric, one is wind.


Wind

Wind power is growing at the rate of 11% annually, with a worldwide Installed wind power capacity, installed capacity of 539,123 megawatts (MW) at the end of 2017, and is widely used in Wind power in the European Union, Europe, Wind power in China, Asia, and the Wind power in the United States, United States.Global wind energy markets continue to boom – 2006 another record year
(PDF).
Several countries have achieved relatively high levels of wind power penetration: wind power produced the equivalent of 47% of Denmark's total electricity consumption in 2019, 18% in Wind power in Portugal, Portugal, 16% in Wind power in Spain, Spain, 14% in Wind power in Ireland, Ireland and 9% in Wind power in Germany, Germany in 2010. As of 2011, 83 countries around the world are using wind power on a commercial basis. In 2019 wind made up 2.2% of total energy use.


Solar

Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, has been harnessed by humans since ancient history, ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. Solar energy technologies include solar heating, solar photovoltaics, concentrated solar power and solar architecture, which can make considerable contributions to solving some of the most urgent problems the world now faces. The
International Energy Agency The International Energy Agency (IEA; french: Agence internationale de l'énergie) is a Paris-based autonomous intergovernmental organisation established in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 197 ...
projected that solar power could provide "a third of the global final energy demand after 2060, while CO2 emissions would be reduced to very low levels." Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert, and distribute solar energy. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic systems and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that Ventilation (architecture), naturally circulate air. In 2012 it make up 0.18% of energy use which increase to 1.1% in 2019.


Geothermal

Geothermal energy is used commercially in over 70 countries. In 2004, of electricity was generated from geothermal resources, and an additional of geothermal energy was used directly, mostly for space heating. In 2007, the world had a global capacity for of electricity generation and an additional of geothermal heating, direct heating, including extraction by geothermal heat pumps. Heat pumps are small and widely distributed, so estimates of their total capacity are uncertain and range up to . It was estimated that geothermal heat pumps had, in 2015, a total capacity of about producing about per year.


Bio energy

Until the beginning of the nineteenth-century biomass was the predominant fuel, today it has only a small share of the overall energy supply. Electricity produced from biomass sources was estimated at 44  GW for 2005. Biomass electricity generation increased by over 100% in Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Poland, and Spain. A further 220  GW was used for heating (in 2004), bringing the total energy consumed from biomass to around 264  GW. The use of biomass fires for cooking is excluded. World production of Ethanol fuel, bioethanol increased by 8% in 2005 to reach , with most of the increase in the United States, bringing it level to the levels of consumption in Brazil. Biodiesel increased by 85% to , making it the fastest-growing renewable energy source in 2005. Over 50% is produced in Germany.


Marine energy

Marine energy, also known as ''ocean energy'' and ''marine and hydrokinetic energy'' (MHK) includes tidal power, tidal and wave power, wave power and is a relatively new sector of renewable energy, with most projects still in the pilot phase, but the theoretical potential is equivalent to 4–18 Mtoe. MHK development in U.S. and international waters includes projects using devices such as wave energy converters in open coastal areas with significant waves, tidal turbines placed in coastal and estuarine areas, in-stream turbines in fast-moving rivers, ocean current turbines in areas of strong marine currents, and ocean thermal energy converters in deep tropical waters.


Nuclear power

As of 1 July 2016, the world had 444 operable grid-electric nuclear fission power reactors with 62 others under construction.World Nuclear Association, (1 July 2016

www.world-nuclear.org
Annual generation of nuclear power has been on a slight downward trend since 2007, decreasing 1.8% in 2009 to 2558 TWh, and another 1.6% in 2011 to 2518 TWh, despite increases in production from most countries worldwide, because those increases were more than offset by decreases in Germany and Japan. Nuclear power met 11.7% of the world's electricity demand in 2011. Source: IEA/OECD. While all the commercial reactors today use nuclear fission energy, there are plans to use nuclear fusion energy for future power plants. Several international nuclear fusion reactor experiments exist or are being constructed, including ITER.


By country

Energy consumption is loosely correlated with Gross National Product#Gross National Product, gross national product and climate, but there is a large difference even between the most highly developed countries, such as Japan and Germany with an energy consumption rate of 6 kW per person and the Energy use in the United States, United States with an energy consumption rate of 11.4 kW per person. In developing countries, particularly those that are sub-tropical or tropical such as India, the per person energy use rate is closer to 0.7 kW. Bangladesh has the lowest consumption rate with 0.2 kW per person. The US consumes 25% of the world's energy with a share of global GDP at 22% and a share of the world population at 4.6%. The most significant growth of energy consumption is currently taking place in China, which has been growing at 5.5% per year over the last 25 years. Its population of 1.3 billion people (19.6% of the world population) is consuming energy at a rate of 1.6 kW per person. One measurement of efficiency is energy intensity. This is a measure of the amount of energy it takes a country to produce a dollar of gross domestic product.


Oil

Saudi Arabia, Russia and the United States accounted for 34% of oil production in 2011. Saudi Arabia, Russia and Nigeria accounted for 36% of oil export in 2011.


Coal

Coal was 27% of world energy consumption in 2019 but is being displaced by natural gas and renewables.


Natural gas


Wind power


By sector

The table to the right shows the amounts of energy consumed worldwide in 2012 by four sectors, according to the
Energy Information Administration The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public ...
of the US Department of Energy: *Residential (heating, lighting, and appliances) *Commercial (lighting, heating and cooling of commercial buildings, and provision of water and sewer services) *Industrial users (agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and construction) *Transportation (passenger, freight, and pipeline) Of the total 120 PWh () consumed, 19.4 were in the form of electricity, but this electricity required 61.7 PWh to produce. Thus the total energy consumption was around 160 PWh (ca ). The efficiency of a typical existing power plant is around 38%. The new generation of gas-fired plants reaches a substantially higher efficiency of 55%. Coal is the most common fuel for the world's electricity plants. Another report gives different values for the sectors, apparently due to different definitions. According to this, total world energy use per sector in 2008 was industry 28%, transport 27% and residential and service 36%. Division was about the same in the year 2000.


European Union

The European Environmental Agency (EEA) measures final energy consumption (does not include energy used in production and lost in transportation) and finds that the transport sector is responsible for 32% of final energy consumption, households 26%, industry 26%, service (economics), services 14% and agriculture 3% in 2012. The use of energy is responsible for the majority of greenhouse gas emissions (79%), with the energy sector representing 31 p.p., transport 19 p.p., industry 13 p.p., households 9 p.p.and others 7 p.p.Eva Hoos European Commission 2011
A new Directive on Energy Efficiency
Retrieved 11 October 2011.
While efficient energy use and resource efficiency are growing as public policy issues, more than 70% of coal plants in the European Union are more than 20 years old and operate at an efficiency level of between 32 and 40%.European Commission 2011
Impact Assessment Accompanying the document Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on energy efficiency and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2004/8/EC and 2006/32/EC
p. 106. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
Technological developments in the 1990s have allowed efficiencies in the range of 40–45% at newer plants. However, according to an impact assessment by the European Commission, this is still below the Best available technology, best available technological (BAT) efficiency levels of 46–49%. With gas-fired power plants the average efficiency is 52% compared to 58–59% with best available technology (BAT), and gas and oil Boiler (steam generator), boiler plants operate at average 36% efficiency (BAT delivers 47%). According to that same impact assessment by the European Commission, raising the efficiency of all new plants and the majority of existing plants, through the setting of authorisation and permit conditions, to an average generation efficiency of 52% in 2020 would lead to a reduction in annual consumption of of natural gas and of coal.


See also

* Cubic mile of oil * Domestic energy consumption * Earth's energy budget * Electric energy consumption * Energy demand management * Energy development * Energy intensity * Energy policy * Environmental impact of aviation * Energy security and renewable technology * Kardashev scale * Life-cycle greenhouse-gas emissions of energy sources * Peak oil * Renewable energy commercialization * Sustainable energy * World Energy Outlook * World energy resources ;Lists * List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions * List of countries by electricity consumption * List of countries by electricity production * List of countries by total primary energy consumption and production * List of countries by energy consumption per capita * List of countries by energy intensity * List of countries by greenhouse gas emissions * List of countries by renewable electricity production * List of renewable energy topics by country


References


External links


World Energy Outlook



BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2017

Energy Statistics and News from the European Union

Official Energy Statistics from the US government

Annual Energy Review
by the U.S. Department of Energy's
Energy Information Administration The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public ...
(PDF)
International Energy Outlook 2019
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