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''Who Framed Roger Rabbit'' is a 1988 American live-action/animated comedy mystery film directed by Robert Zemeckis, produced by Frank Marshall and Robert Watts, and written by Jeffrey Price and Peter S. Seaman. Loosely based on the 1981 novel ''Who Censored Roger Rabbit?'' by Gary K. Wolf, the film stars Bob Hoskins, Christopher Lloyd, Charles Fleischer, Stubby Kaye, and Joanna Cassidy. Set in a 1947 version of Hollywood where cartoon characters (commonly referred as "toons") and people co-exist, the film follows Eddie Valiant, a private investigator who must exonerate Roger Rabbit, a toon who has been accused of murdering a wealthy businessman. Walt Disney Pictures purchased the film rights for the film's story in 1981. Price and Seaman wrote two drafts of the script before Disney brought in executive producer Steven Spielberg and his production company, Amblin Entertainment. Zemeckis was brought on to direct the film while Canadian animator Richard Williams was hired to supervise the animation sequences. Production was moved from Los Angeles to Elstree Studios in England to accommodate Williams and his group of animators. While filming, the production budget began to rapidly expand and the shooting schedule ran longer than expected. The film was released through Disney's Touchstone Pictures banner on June 22, 1988. It received acclaim from critics, who praised its visuals, humor, writing and performances, with critics and audiences considering it to be "groundbreaking". It grossed $329.8 million worldwide, becoming one of the highest-grossing films in the year. It brought a renewed interest in the Golden age of American animation, spearheading modern American animation and the Disney Renaissance. It won three Academy Awards for Best Film Editing, Best Sound Effects Editing and Best Visual Effects and received a Special Achievement Academy Award for its animation direction by Williams. In 2016, it was selected for the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".

Plot

In 1947 Los Angeles, "toons" act in theatrical cartoon shorts as with live-action films; they regularly interact with real people and animals and reside in Toontown. Private detective Eddie Valiant and his brother, Teddy, once worked closely with the toons on several famous cases, but after Teddy was killed by a toon, Eddie lapsed into alcoholism, lost his sense of humor, and vowed never to work for toons again. R.K. Maroon, head of Maroon Cartoon Studios, is concerned about the recent poor performances of one of his biggest stars, Roger Rabbit. Maroon hires Eddie to investigate rumors about Roger's attractive toon wife Jessica being romantically involved with businessman Marvin Acme, owner of both Acme Corporation and Toontown. After watching Jessica perform at an underground nightclub, Eddie secretly photographs her and Acme playing patty-cake in her dressing room, which he shows to Roger. Roger angrily declares that he and his wife will be happy, and he flees. The next morning, Acme is discovered dead at his factory, and evidence points to Roger being responsible. While investigating, Eddie meets Judge Doom, Toontown's sinister superior court judge, who has created a chemical substance capable of killing the otherwise invulnerable toons: a toxic "dip". Eddie later runs into Roger's toon co-star, Baby Herman, who believes Roger is innocent and that Acme's missing will, which will give the toons ownership of Toontown, may be the key to his murder. In his office, Eddie finds Roger, who begs him to help exonerate him. Eddie reluctantly hides Roger in a local bar, where his girlfriend Dolores works. Jessica approaches Eddie and says that Maroon forced her to pose for the photographs so he could blackmail Acme. Doom and his toon weasel henchmen discover Roger, but he and Eddie escape with Benny, an anthropomorphic taxicab. They flee to a theater, where Eddie tells Roger that a toon killed Teddy when they were investigating a bank robbery. As they leave with Dolores, Eddie sees a newsreel detailing the sale of Maroon Cartoons to Cloverleaf, a mysterious corporation that bought the city's trolley network shortly before Acme's murder. Eddie goes to the studio to interrogate Maroon, leaving Roger to guard outside, but Jessica knocks Roger out and puts him inside the trunk of Eddie's car. Maroon tells Eddie that he blackmailed Acme into selling his company so he could sell the studio, then admits he only did so out of fear for the safety of the toons. Maroon is killed by an unseen assailant before he can explain the consequences of the missing will. Eddie spots Jessica fleeing the scene, and assuming she is the culprit, follows her into Toontown. Once he apprehends her, Jessica reveals that Doom killed Acme and Maroon and that Acme gave her his will for safekeeping, but she discovered that the will was blank. She and Eddie are then captured by Doom and the weasels. At the Acme factory, Doom reveals his plot to destroy Toontown with a machine loaded with dip to build a freeway, the only way past Toontown since Cloverleaf (which Doom owns) has bought out Los Angeles' Pacific Electric Railway. Roger unsuccessfully attempts to save Jessica, and the couple is tied onto a hook in front of the machine's hose. Eddie performs a comedic vaudeville act full of pratfalls, causing the weasels to die of laughter; Eddie kicks their leader into the machine's dip vat. Eddie fights Doom, who is flattened by a steamroller but survives, exposing himself as the very toon who killed Teddy. Eddie empties the machine's dip supply onto Doom and he dissolves. The empty machine crashes through the wall into Toontown, where it is destroyed by a train. Toons run in to see Doom's remains, and Eddie reveals him to the arriving police officers as Acme's murderer, thus clearing Roger's name. Eddie discovers that Roger inadvertently wrote a love letter for Jessica on Acme's will, which was written in disappearing/reappearing ink, and Toontown is handed over to the toons. Having regained his sense of humor, Eddie happily enters Toontown with Dolores alongside Roger, Jessica, and the other toons.


Cast


* Bob Hoskins as Eddie Valiant * Christopher Lloyd as Judge Doom * Charles Fleischer as the voices of Roger Rabbit, Benny the Cab, Greasy, and Psycho * Stubby Kaye as Marvin Acme * Joanna Cassidy as Dolores * Alan Tilvern as R.K. Maroon * Richard LeParmentier as Lt. Santino * Richard Ridings as Angelo * Lou Hirsch as the voice of Baby Herman * David Lander as the voice of Smart Ass * Fred Newman as the voice of Stupid * Kathleen Turner as the voice of Jessica Rabbit (uncredited) ** Amy Irving as the singing voice of Jessica Rabbit * June Foray as the voices of Wheezy and Lena Hyena Mel Blanc voiced Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Porky Pig, Tweety Bird, and Sylvester the Cat. The film was one of the final productions in which he voiced his ''Looney Tunes'' characters before his death one year later in 1989. Joe Alaskey voiced Yosemite Sam (in place of Blanc), Wayne Allwine voiced Mickey Mouse, Tony Anselmo voiced Donald Duck, Tony Pope voiced Goofy (also partially voiced by Bill Farmer) and Disney's Big Bad Wolf, Mae Questel reprised her role of Betty Boop, Russi Taylor voiced Minnie Mouse and some birds, Pat Buttram, Jim Cummings (imitating Andy Devine), and Jim Gallant (imitating Walter Brennan) voiced Eddie's toon bullets, Les Perkins voiced Mr. Toad, Mary Radford voiced Hyacinth Hippo from ''Fantasia'', Nancy Cartwright voiced the toon shoe, Cherry Davis voiced Woody Woodpecker, Peter Westy voiced Pinocchio, and Frank Welker voiced Dumbo. Animation director Richard Williams voiced Droopy. April Winchell voiced Mrs. Herman and the "baby noises". Archival recordings of Frank Sinatra were used for the Singing Sword, whose character design is based on Sinatra.


Production





Development


Walt Disney Productions purchased the film rights to Gary K. Wolf's novel ''Who Censored Roger Rabbit?'' shortly after its publication in 1981. Ron W. Miller, then president of Disney, saw it as a perfect opportunity to produce a blockbuster.Stewart, p.72 Jeffrey Price and Peter S. Seaman were hired to write the script, penning two drafts. Robert Zemeckis offered his services as director in 1982, but Disney declined as his two previous films (''I Wanna Hold Your Hand'' and ''Used Cars'') had been box-office bombs.Robert Zemeckis, Jeffrey Price and Peter S. Seaman, Ken Ralston, Frank Marshall, Steve Starkey, DVD audio commentary, 2003, Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment Between 1981 and 1983 Disney developed test footage with Darrell Van Citters as animation director, Paul Reubens voicing Roger Rabbit, Peter Renaday as Eddie Valiant, and Russi Taylor as Jessica Rabbit. The project was revamped in 1985 by Michael Eisner, the then-new CEO of Disney. Amblin Entertainment, which consisted of Steven Spielberg, Frank Marshall and Kathleen Kennedy, were approached to produce ''Who Framed Roger Rabbit'' alongside Disney. The original budget was projected at $50 million, which Disney felt was too expensive. The film was finally green-lit when the budget decreased to $30 million, which at the time still made it the most expensive animated film ever green-lit. Walt Disney Studios chairman Jeffrey Katzenberg argued that the hybrid of live-action and animation would "save" Disney's animation department. Spielberg's contract included an extensive amount of creative control and a large percentage of the box-office profits. Disney kept all merchandising rights. Spielberg convinced Warner Bros., Fleischer Studios, King Features Syndicate, Felix the Cat Productions, Turner Entertainment, and Universal Pictures/Walter Lantz Productions to "lend" their characters to appear in the film with (in some cases) stipulations on how those characters were portrayed; for example, Disney's Donald Duck and Warner Bros.' Daffy Duck appear as equally talented dueling pianists, and Mickey Mouse and Bugs Bunny also share a scene. Apart from this agreement, Warner Bros. and the various other companies were not involved in the production of ''Roger Rabbit''. However Executives at Warner Bros. expressed displeasure at the animators using the Daffy design by Bob Clampett and demanded they use the design by Chuck Jones, in response to this, Zemeckis had separate artists animate Daffy using Jones' design to satisfy Warner Bros. in order to use Clampett's design in the final film. The producers were unable to acquire the rights to use Popeye, Tom and Jerry, Little Lulu, Casper, or the Terrytoons for appearances from their respective owners (King Features, Turner, Western Publishing, Harvey Comics, and Viacom). Terry Gilliam was offered the chance to direct, but he found the project too technically challenging. ("Pure laziness on my part," he later admitted, "I completely regret that decision.") Robert Zemeckis was hired to direct in 1985, based on the success of ''Romancing the Stone'' and ''Back to the Future''. Disney executives were continuing to suggest Darrell Van Citters to direct the animated sequences, but Spielberg and Zemeckis decided against it. Richard Williams was eventually hired to direct the animation. Zemeckis wanted the film to imbue "Disney's high quality of animation, Warner Bros.' characterization, and Tex Avery humor."Don Hahn, Peter Schneider, ''Waking Sleeping Beauty'' DVD commentary, 2010, Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment


Casting


Harrison Ford was Spielberg's original choice to play Eddie Valiant, but his price was too high. Chevy Chase was the second choice, but was not interested. Bill Murray was also considered for the role, but due to his idiosyncratic method of receiving offers for roles, Murray missed out on it. Eddie Murphy reportedly turned down the role as he misunderstood the concept of cartoon characters and human beings co-existing; he later regretted this decision. Several other actors were also considered for it, including Robin Williams, Robert Redford, Jack Nicholson, Sylvester Stallone, Wallace Shawn, Ed Harris, Charles Grodin, and Don Lane. To facilitate Hoskins' performance, Charles Fleischer dressed in a Roger Rabbit costume and "stood in" behind camera for most scenes. Animation director Williams explained Roger was a combination of "Tex Avery's cashew nut-shaped head, the swatch of red hair... like Droopy's, Goofy's overalls, Porky Pig's bow tie, Mickey Mouse's gloves, and Bugs Bunny-like cheeks and ears." Kathleen Turner provided the uncredited voice of Jessica Rabbit, Roger Rabbit's wife. Tim Curry originally auditioned for the role of Judge Doom, but afterward, the producers found him too terrifying. Christopher Lee was also considered for it, but turned it down. John Cleese also expressed interest for the role, but was deemed not scary enough. Several other actors were also considered, including Peter O’Toole, F. Murray Abraham, Roddy McDowall, Eddie Deezen, and Sting. Christopher Lloyd was cast because he previously worked with Zemeckis and Spielberg on ''Back to the Future''. He compared his part as Doom to his previous role as the Klingon commander Kruge in ''Star Trek III: The Search for Spock'', both being overly evil characters which he considered being "fun to play". He avoided blinking his eyes while on camera to perfectly portray the character. Fleischer also voiced Benny the Cab, Psycho, and Greasy. Lou Hirsch, who voiced Baby Herman, was the original choice for Benny the Cab, but was replaced by Fleischer.Robert Zemeckis, Richard Williams, Bob Hoskins, Charles Fleischer, Frank Marshall, Alan Silvestri, Ken Ralston, ''Behind the Ears: The True Story of Roger Rabbit'', 2003, Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment


Writing


Price and Seaman were brought aboard to continue writing the script once Spielberg and Zemeckis were hired. For inspiration, the two writers studied the work of Walt Disney and Warner Bros. Cartoons from the Golden Age of American animation, especially Tex Avery and Bob Clampett cartoons. The Cloverleaf streetcar subplot was inspired by ''Chinatown''. Price and Seaman said that "the Red Car plot, suburb expansion, urban and political corruption really did happen," Price stated. "In Los Angeles, during the 1940s, car and tire companies teamed up against the Pacific Electric Railway system and bought them out of business. Where the freeway runs in Los Angeles is where the Red Car used to be." In Wolf's novel ''Who Censored Roger Rabbit?'', the toons were comic-strip characters rather than movie stars. During the writing process, Price and Seaman were unsure of whom to include as the villain in the plot. They wrote scripts that had either Jessica Rabbit or Baby Herman as the villain, but they made their final decision with newly created character Judge Doom. Doom was supposed to have an animated vulture sit on his shoulder, but this was deleted due to the technical challenges this posed. Doom would also have a suitcase of 12 small animated kangaroos that act as a jury, by having their joeys pop out of their pouches, each with letters, when put together would spell YOU ARE GUILTY. This was also cut for budget and technical reasons.Who Shot Roger Rabbit, 1986 script by Jeffrey Price and Peter S. Seaman The Toon Patrol (Stupid, Smart Ass, Greasy, Wheezy, and Psycho) satirizes the Seven Dwarfs (Doc, Grumpy, Happy, Sleepy, Bashful, Sneezy, and Dopey), who appeared in ''Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs'' (1937). Originally, seven weasels were to mimic the dwarfs complement, but eventually, two of them, Slimey and Sleazy, were written out of the script. Further references included The "Ink and Paint Club" resembling the Harlem Cotton Club, while Zemeckis compared Judge Doom's invention of the dip to eliminate all the toons as Hitler's Final Solution. Doom was originally the hunter who killed Bambi's mother. Benny the Cab was first conceived to be a Volkswagen Beetle before being changed to a taxi cab. Ideas originally conceived for the story also included a sequence set at Marvin Acme's funeral, whose attendees included Eddie, Foghorn Leghorn, Mickey Mouse, Minnie Mouse, Tom and Jerry, Heckle and Jeckle, Chip n' Dale, Felix the Cat, Herman and Katnip, Mighty Mouse, Superman, Popeye, Olive Oyl, Bluto, Clarabelle Cow, Horace Horsecollar, the Seven Dwarfs, Baby Huey, and Casper the Friendly Ghost in cameo appearances. However, the scene was cut for pacing reasons and never made it past the storyboard stage. Before finally agreeing on ''Who Framed Roger Rabbit'' as the film's title, working titles included ''Murder in Toontown'', ''Toons'', ''Dead Toons Don't Pay Bills'', ''The Toontown Trial'', ''Trouble in Toontown'', and ''Eddie Goes to Toontown''.


Filming


Animation director Richard Williams admitted he was "openly disdainful of the Disney bureaucracy" and refused to work in Los Angeles. To accommodate him and his animators, production moved to England where a studio, Walt Disney Animation UK (subsuming Richard Williams Animation), was created for this purpose; located at The Forum, 74-80 Camden Street, in Camden Town, London, while the live-action production was based at Elstree Studios. Disney and Spielberg also told Williams that in return for doing the film, they would help distribute his unfinished film ''The Thief and the Cobbler''. Supervising animators included Dale Baer, Michael Peraza, Joe Ranft, Tom Sito, Darrell Van Citters, James Baxter, David Bowers, Andreas Deja, Mike Gabriel, Chris Jenkins, Phil Nibbelink, Nik Ranieri, and Simon Wells, along with Bruce W. Smith, while Williams and associate producer Don Hahn spearheaded the animation production. The animation production was split between Walt Disney Animation UK and a specialized unit in Los Angeles, set up by Walt Disney Feature Animation and supervised by Dale Baer. The production budget continued to escalate, while the shooting schedule ran longer than expected. When the budget reached $40 million, Disney CEO Michael Eisner seriously considered shutting down production, but studio chairman Jeffrey Katzenberg talked him out of it.Stewart, p.87 Despite the budget escalating to over $50 million, Disney moved forward on production because they were enthusiastic to work with Spielberg. VistaVision cameras installed with motion-control technology were used for the photography of the live-action scenes, which would be composited with animation. Rubber mannequins of Roger Rabbit, Baby Herman, and the Toon Patrol portrayed the animated characters during rehearsals to teach the actors where to look when acting with "open air and imaginative cartoon characters". Many of the live-action props held by cartoon characters were shot on set with the props either held by robotic arms or manipulated with strings, similar to a marionette. The actor who played the voice of Roger, Charles Fleischer, insisted on wearing a Roger Rabbit costume while on the set, to get into character. Filming began on November 2, 1986, and lasted for seven and a half months at Elstree Studios, with an additional month in Los Angeles and at Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) for blue screen effects of Toontown. The entrance of Desilu Studios served as the fictional Maroon Cartoon Studio lot.


Animation and post-production


Post-production lasted for 14 months. Because the film was made before computer animation and digital compositing were widely used, all the animation was done using cels and optical compositing. First, the animators and layout artists were given black-and-white printouts of the live-action scenes (known as "photo stats"), and they placed their animation paper on top of them. The artists then drew the animated characters in relationship to the live-action footage. Due to Zemeckis' dynamic camera moves, the animators had to confront the challenge of ensuring the characters were not "slipping and slipping all over the place." After rough animation was complete, it was run through the normal process of traditional animation until the cels were shot on the rostrum camera with no background. The animated footage was then sent to ILM for compositing, where technicians animated three lighting layers (shadows, highlights, and tone mattes) separately, to make the cartoon characters look three-dimensional and give the illusion of the characters being affected by the lighting on set. Finally, the lighting effects were optically composited on to the cartoon characters, who were, in turn, composited into the live-action footage. One of the most difficult effects in the film was Jessica's dress in the nightclub scene, because it had flashing sequins, an effect accomplished by filtering light through a plastic bag scratched with steel wool.


Music


Regular Zemeckis collaborator Alan Silvestri composed the film score, performed by the London Symphony Orchestra (LSO) under the direction of Silvestri. Zemeckis joked that "the British usicianscould not keep up with Silvestri's jazz tempo". The performances of the music themes written for Jessica Rabbit were entirely improvised by the LSO. The work of American composer Carl Stalling heavily influenced Silvestri's work on ''Who Framed Roger Rabbit''. The film's soundtrack was originally released by Buena Vista Records on June 22, 1988, and reissued by Walt Disney Records on CD on April 16, 2002. On January 23, 2018, Intrada Records released a three-CD set with the complete score, alternates, and a remastered version of the original 1988 album, plus music from three Roger Rabbit short films, composed and conducted by Bruce Broughton and James Horner.


Release


Michael Eisner, then-CEO, and Roy E. Disney, vice chairman of The Walt Disney Company, felt the film was too risqué with sexual references. Eisner and Zemeckis disagreed over various elements of it but since Zemeckis had final cut privilege, he refused to make alterations. Roy E. Disney, head of Feature Animation along with studio chief Jeffrey Katzenberg, felt it was appropriate to release the film under their Touchstone Pictures banner instead of the traditional Walt Disney Pictures banner. The film opened in the United States on June 22, 1988, grossing $11,226,239 in 1,045 theaters during its opening weekend, ranking first place at the US box office. It was Buena Vista's biggest opening weekend ever. It went on to gross $156,452,370 in the United States and Canada and $173,351,588 internationally, coming to a worldwide total of $329,803,958. At the time of release, it was the 20th-highest-grossing film of all time. It was also the second-highest-grossing film of 1988, behind only ''Rain Man''. The film was accompanied by the NFB short, ''The Cat Came Back''. In the United Kingdom, the film also set a record opening for a Disney film.


Home media


The film was first released on VHS on October 12, 1989. A LaserDisc edition was also released. A DVD version was first available on September 28, 1999. On March 25, 2003, Buena Vista Home Entertainment released it as a part of the "Vista Series" line in a two-disc collection with many extra features including a documentary, ''Behind the Ears: The True Story of Roger Rabbit''; a deleted scene in which a pig's head is "tooned" onto Eddie's; the three Roger Rabbit shorts, ''Tummy Trouble'', ''Roller Coaster Rabbit'', and ''Trail Mix-Up''; as well as a booklet and interactive games. The only short on the 2003 VHS release was ''Tummy Trouble''. The 2003 DVD release presents the film in Full Screen (1.33:1) on Disc 1 and Widescreen (1.85:1) on Disc 2. On March 12, 2013, the film was released by Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment on Blu-ray and DVD combo pack special edition for the film's 25th anniversary. The film was also digitally restored by Disney for its 25th anniversary. Frame-by-frame digital restoration was done by Prasad Studios removing dirt, tears, scratches, and other defects.


Reception





Critical response


''Who Framed Roger Rabbit'' received near-universal acclaim from critics, making ''Business Insider''s "best comedy movies of all time, according to critics" list. Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes gives the film an approval rating of 97% based on 65 reviews, and an average rating of 8.43/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "''Who Framed Roger Rabbit'' is an innovative and entertaining film that features a groundbreaking mix of live action and animation, with a touching and original story to boot." Aggregator Metacritic has calculated a weighted average score of 83 out of 100 based on 15 reviews, indicating "universal acclaim". ''Who Framed Roger Rabbit'' was placed on 43 critics' top ten lists, third to only ''The Thin Blue Line'' and ''Bull Durham'' in 1988. Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "A" on an A+ to F scale. Roger Ebert of the ''Chicago Sun-Times'' gave the film four stars out of four, predicting it would carry "the type of word of mouth that money can't buy. This movie is not only great entertainment but lsoa breakthrough in craftsmanship." Gene Siskel of the ''Chicago Tribune'' praised the film's "dazzling, jaw-dropping four-minute sequence", while noting that the sequence alone took nearly nine months to animate. In reviewing the film, Siskel gave the film three-and-a-half stars out of four. Ebert and his colleague Siskel spent a considerable amount of time in the ''Siskel & Ebert'' episode in which they reviewed the film analyzing its painstaking filmmaking. In evaluating their top ten films of the year, Siskel ranked it number two while Ebert ranked it as number eight. Janet Maslin of ''The New York Times'' commented, "although this isn't the first time that cartoon characters have shared the screen with live actors, it's the first time they've done it on their own terms and make it look real". Desson Thomson of ''The Washington Post'' considered ''Roger Rabbit'' to be "a definitive collaboration of pure talent. Zemeckis had Walt Disney Pictures' enthusiastic backing, producer Steven Spielberg's pull, Warner Bros.'s blessing, Canadian animator Richard Williams' ink and paint, Mel Blanc's voice, Jeffrey Price and Peter S. Seaman's witty, frenetic screenplay, George Lucas' Industrial Light and Magic, and Bob Hoskins' comical performance as the burliest, shaggiest private eye." Gene Shalit on the ''Today Show'' also praised the film, calling it "one of the most extraordinary movies ever made". Filmsite.org called it "a technically-marvelous film" and a "landmark" that resulted from "unprecedented cooperation" between Warner Bros. and Disney. Richard Corliss, writing for ''Time'', gave a mixed review. "The opening cartoon works just fine but too fine. The opening scene upstages the movie that emerges from it," he said. Corliss was mainly annoyed by the homages to the Golden Age of American animation. Animation legend Chuck Jones made a rather scathing attack on the film in his book ''Chuck Jones Conversations''. Among his complaints, Jones accused Robert Zemeckis of robbing Richard Williams of any creative input and ruining the piano duel that both Williams and he storyboarded.


Accolades


The film won 3 competitive Academy Awards and a Special Achievement Award. It became the first live-action/animation hybrid film to win multiple Academy Awards since ''Mary Poppins'' in 1964. It won Academy Awards for Best Sound Effects Editing (Charles L. Campbell and Louis Edemann), Best Visual Effects and Best Film Editing. Other nominations included Best Art Direction (Art Direction: Elliot Scott; Set Decoration: Peter Howitt), Best Cinematography and Best Sound (Robert Knudson, John Boyd, Don Digirolamo and Tony Dawe). Richard Williams received a Special Achievement Academy Award "for animation direction and creation of the cartoon characters". ''Roger Rabbit'' won the Saturn Award for Best Fantasy Film, as well as Best Direction for Zemeckis and Special Visual Effects. Hoskins, Lloyd, and Cassidy were nominated for their performances, while Alan Silvestri and the screenwriters received nominations. The film was nominated for four categories at the 42nd British Academy Film Awards and won for Best Visual Effects. ''Roger Rabbit'' was nominated for the Golden Globe for Best Motion Picture (Musical or Comedy), while Hoskins was also nominated for his performance. The film also won the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation and the Kids' Choice Award for Favorite Movie.


Legacy


The critical and commercial success of the film rekindled an interest in the Golden Age of American animation, and sparked the modern animation scene, as well as the Disney Renaissance. In November 1988, a few months after the film's release, Roger Rabbit made his guest appearance in the live-action and animated television special broadcast on NBC called ''Mickey's 60th Birthday'' in which to celebrate the 60th anniversary of Mickey Mouse. In 1991, Walt Disney Imagineering began to develop Mickey's Toontown for Disneyland, based on the Toontown that appeared in the film. The attraction also features a ride called Roger Rabbit's Car Toon Spin.Stewart, p.88 Three theatrical animated shorts were also produced: ''Tummy Trouble'' was shown before ''Honey, I Shrunk the Kids''; ''Roller Coaster Rabbit'' was shown before ''Dick Tracy''; and ''Trail Mix-Up'' was shown before ''A Far Off Place''. The film also inspired a short-lived comic book and video game spin-offs, including two PC games, the Japanese version of ''The Bugs Bunny Crazy Castle'' (which features Roger instead of Bugs), a 1989 game released on the Nintendo Entertainment System, and a 1991 game released on the Game Boy. In December 2016, the film was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".


Controversies


With the film's LaserDisc release, ''Variety'' first reported in March 1994 that observers uncovered several scenes of antics from the animators that supposedly featured brief nudity of Jessica Rabbit. While undetectable when played at the usual rate of 24 film frames per second, the LaserDisc player allowed the viewer to advance frame-by-frame to uncover these visuals. Whether or not they were actually intended to depict the nudity of the character remains unknown. Many retailers said that within minutes of the LaserDisc debut, their entire inventory was sold out. The run was fueled by media reports about the controversy, including stories on CNN and various newspapers. Another frequently debated scene includes one in which Baby Herman extends his middle finger as he passes under a woman's dress and re-emerges with drool on his lip. Also, controversy exists over the scene where Daffy Duck and Donald Duck are playing a piano duel, and during his trademark ranting gibberish, it is claimed that Donald calls Daffy a "goddamn stupid nigger"; however, this is a misinterpretation, with the line from the script being "doggone stubborn little—."


Legal issue


Gary K. Wolf, author of the novel ''Who Censored Roger Rabbit?'', filed a lawsuit in 2001 against The Walt Disney Company. He claimed he was owed royalties based on the value of "gross receipts" and merchandising sales. In 2002, the trial court in the case ruled that these only referred to actual cash receipts Disney collected and denied Wolf's claim. In its January 2004 ruling, the California Court of Appeal disagreed, finding that expert testimony introduced by Wolf regarding the customary use of "gross receipts" in the entertainment business could support a broader reading of the term. The ruling vacated the trial court's order in favor of Disney and remanded the case for further proceedings. In a March 2005 hearing, Wolf estimated he was owed $7 million. Disney's attorneys not only disputed the claim but also said Wolf actually owed Disney $500,000–$1 million because of an accounting error discovered in preparing for the lawsuit. Wolf won the decision in 2005, receiving between $180,000 and $400,000 in damages.


Proposed sequel


Spielberg discussed a sequel in 1989 with J. J. Abrams as writer and Zemeckis as producer. Abrams's outline was eventually abandoned. Nat Mauldin was hired to write a prequel titled ''Roger Rabbit: The Toon Platoon'', set in 1941 to 1943. Similar to the previous film, ''Toon Platoon'' featured many cameo appearances by characters from The Golden Age of American Animation. It began with Roger Rabbit's early years, living on a farm in the midwestern United States. With human Ritchie Davenport, Roger travels west to seek his mother, in the process meeting Jessica Krupnick (his future wife), a struggling Hollywood actress. While Roger and Ritchie are enlisting in the Army, Jessica is kidnapped and forced to make pro-Nazi German broadcasts. Roger and Ritchie must save her by going into Nazi-occupied Europe accompanied by several other Toons in their Army platoon. After their triumph, Roger and Ritchie are given a Hollywood Boulevard parade, and Roger is finally reunited with his mother and father, Bugs Bunny. Mauldin later retitled his script ''Who Discovered Roger Rabbit''. Spielberg left the project when deciding he could not satirize Nazis after directing ''Schindler's List''. Eisner commissioned a rewrite in 1997 with Sherri Stoner and Deanna Oliver. Although they kept Roger's search for his mother, Stoner and Oliver replaced the WWII subplot with Roger's inadvertent rise to stardom on Broadway and Hollywood. Disney was impressed and Alan Menken was hired to write five songs for the film and offered his services as executive producer. One of the songs, "This Only Happens in the Movies", was recorded in 2008 on the debut album of Broadway actress Kerry Butler. Eric Goldberg was set to be the new animation director, and began to redesign Roger's new character appearance. Spielberg became busy establishing DreamWorks, while Frank Marshall and Kathleen Kennedy decided to remain as producers. Test footage for ''Who Discovered Roger Rabbit'' was shot sometime in 1998 at the Disney animation unit in Lake Buena Vista, Florida; the results were a mix of CGI, traditional animation, and live-action that did not please Disney. A second test had the toons completely converted to CGI; but this was dropped as the film's projected budget would escalate past $100 million. Eisner felt it was best to cancel the film. In March 2003, producer Don Hahn was doubtful about a sequel being made, arguing that public tastes had changed since the 1990s with the rise of computer animation. "There was something very special about that time when animation was not as much in the forefront as it is now." In December 2007, Marshall stated that he was still "open" to the idea, and in April 2009, Zemeckis revealed he was still interested. According to a 2009 MTV News story, Jeffrey Price and Peter S. Seaman were writing a new script for the project, and the animated characters would be in traditional two-dimensional, while the rest would be in motion capture. However, in 2010, Zemeckis said that the sequel would remain hand-drawn animated and live-action sequences will be filmed, just like in the original film, but the lighting effects on the cartoon characters and some of the props that the toons handle will be done digitally. Also in 2010, Hahn, who was the film's original associate producer, confirmed the sequel's development in an interview with ''Empire''. He stated, "Yeah, I couldn't possibly comment. I deny completely, but yeah... if you're a fan, pretty soon you're going to be very, very, very happy." In 2010, Bob Hoskins stated he was interested in the project, reprising his role as Eddie Valiant. However, he retired from acting in 2012 after being diagnosed with Parkinson's disease a year earlier, and died from pneumonia in 2014. Marshall has confirmed that the film is a prequel, similar to earlier drafts, and that the writing was almost complete. During an interview at the premiere of ''Flight'', Zemeckis stated that the sequel was still possible, despite Hoskins' absence, and the script for the sequel was sent to Disney for approval from studio executives. In February 2013, Gary K. Wolf, writer of the original novel, said Erik Von Wodtke and he were working on a development proposal for an animated Disney buddy comedy starring Mickey Mouse and Roger Rabbit called ''The Stooge'', based on the 1952 film of the same name. The proposed film is set to a prequel, taking place five years before ''Who Framed Roger Rabbit'' and part of the story is about how Roger met Jessica. Wolf has stated the film is currently wending its way through Disney. In November 2016, while promoting his film ''Allied'' in England, Zemeckis stated that the sequel "moves the story of Roger and Jessica Rabbit into the next few years of period film, moving on from film noir to the world of the 1950s". He also stated that the sequel would feature a "digital Bob Hoskins", as Eddie Valiant would return in "ghost form". While the director went on to state that the script is "terrific" and the film would still use hand-drawn animation, Zemeckis thinks that the chances of Disney green-lighting the sequel are "slim". As he explained more in detail, "The current corporate Disney culture has no interest in Roger, and they certainly don't like Jessica at all". In December 2018, while promoting ''Welcome to Marwen'', his latest film, and given the 30th anniversary of ''Who Framed Roger Rabbit'', Zemeckis reiterated in an interview with Yahoo! Movies that though the sequel's script is "wonderful", Disney is still unlikely to ever produce it, and he doesn't see the possibility of producing it as an original film for the streaming service Disney+, as he feels that it doesn't make any sense as there is no "Princess" in it.


Notes





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Further reading


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External links


* ''Who Framed Roger Rabbit'' essa

by Alexis Ainsworth at National Film Registry * * * * * * * * * * {{DEFAULTSORT:Who Framed Roger Rabbit Category:1988 films Category:English-language films Category:1988 animated films Category:1988 comedy films Category:1980s American animated films Category:1980s crime comedy films Category:1980s fantasy-comedy films Category:1980s comedy mystery films Category:American films Category:American animated fantasy films Category:American crime comedy films Category:American detective films Category:American fantasy-comedy films Category:Animated films about rabbits and hares Category:American comedy mystery films Category:BAFTA winners (films) Category:Animated crossover films Category:Comedy crossover films Category:Disney controversies Category:Film controversies Category:Films about animation Category:Films about films Category:Films about Hollywood Category:Films adapted into comics Category:Films based on American novels Category:Films featuring Bugs Bunny Category:Films featuring Daffy Duck Category:Films featuring Porky Pig Category:Films set in 1947 Category:Films set in the 1940s Category:Films set in Los Angeles Category:Films set in California Category:Films set in studio lots Category:Films shot in Hertfordshire Category:Films shot in Los Angeles Category:Films shot in California Category:Films about prejudice Category:Films with live action and animation Category:Looney Tunes films Category:Mickey Mouse films Category:Pacific Electric Railway Category:Rotoscoped films Category:Amblin Entertainment films Category:Amblin Entertainment animated films Category:Disney animated films Category:Films shot at Elstree Studios Category:Obscenity controversies in film Category:Touchstone Pictures films Category:Touchstone Pictures animated films Category:Walt Disney Records soundtracks Category:Films that won the Best Sound Editing Academy Award Category:Films that won the Best Visual Effects Academy Award Category:Films whose editor won the Best Film Editing Academy Award Category:Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation winning works Category:Films scored by Alan Silvestri Category:Films directed by Robert Zemeckis Category:Films produced by Frank Marshall Category:Films produced by Steven Spielberg Category:Films with screenplays by Jeffrey Price and Peter S. Seaman Category:United States National Film Registry films Category:American alternate history films Category:American children's fantasy films Category:American children's comedy films