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''Watership Down'' is an
adventure novel Adventure An adventure is an exciting experience that is typically bold, sometimes risky or undertaking. Adventures may be activities with some potential for physical danger such as traveling, exploring, skydiving, mountain climbing, scuba d ...
by English author
Richard Adams Richard George Adams (9 May 1920 – 24 December 2016) was an English novelist and writer of the books ''Watership Down ''Watership Down'' is an adventure novel by English author Richard Adams, published by Rex Collings Ltd of London ...
, published by
Rex Collings Ltd Rex Collings (1925-1996) was an English publisher who specialized in books relating to Africa and children's books. He ensured the publication of Wole Soyinka's plays, and was the first to publish ''Watership Down'' by Richard Adams.
of London in 1972. Set in southern England, around
Berkshire Berkshire ( ; in the 17th century sometimes spelt phonetically as Barkeshire; abbreviated Berks.) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers ...

Berkshire
, the story features a small group of rabbits. Although they live in their natural wild environment, with
burrow An Eastern chipmunk at the entrance of its burrow A burrow is a hole or tunnel excavated into the ground by an animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an orga ...

burrow
s, they are
anthropomorphised Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, or intentions to non-human entities. It is considered to be an innate tendency of human psychology. Personification is the related attribution of human form and characteristics to ...
, possessing their own culture,
language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the ...
,
proverb A proverb (from la, proverbium) is a simple and insightful, traditional saying A saying is any concisely written or spoken expression (linguistics), expression that is especially memorable because of its meaning or style. Sayings are categorize ...

proverb
s, poetry, and
mythology Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the ca ...

mythology
. Evoking
epic Epic commonly refers to: * Epic poetry, a long narrative poem celebrating heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation * Epic film, a genre of film with heroic elements Epic or EPIC may also refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media ...
themes, the novel follows the rabbits as they escape the destruction of their
warren A warren is a network of wild rodent Rodents (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. ...

warren
and seek a place to establish a new home (the hill of
Watership Down ''Watership Down'' is an adventure novel Adventure fiction is a genre of fiction that usually presents danger, or gives the reader a sense of excitement. History In the Introduction to the ''Encyclopedia of Adventure Fiction'', Critic ...
), encountering perils and temptations along the way. ''Watership Down'' was Richard Adams'
debut novel A debut novel is the first novel A novel is a relatively long work of narrative fiction, typically written in prose and published as a book. The present English word for a long work of prose fiction derives from the for "new", "news", or "sh ...
. It was rejected by several publishers before Collings accepted the
manuscript A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand – or, once practical typewriter A typewriter is a or machine for characters. Typically, a typewriter has an array ...
; the published book then won the annual Carnegie Medal (UK), annual
Guardian Prize The Guardian Children's Fiction Prize or Guardian Award is a literary award that annually recognises one fiction book written for children or young adults (at least age eight) and published in the United Kingdom. It is conferred upon the author ...
(UK), and other book awards. The novel was adapted into an
animated feature film Animation is a method in which figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation on the reverse side of an already inked cel. Traditional animation (or classical animation, cel animation, hand-drawn animation, 2D a ...
in 1978 and, from 1999 to 2001, an animated children's
television series A television show – or simply TV show – is any content produced for viewing on a television set A television set or television receiver, more commonly called the television, TV, TV set, tube, telly, or tele, is a device that combines a ...
. In 2018, a
drama Drama is the specific Mode (literature), mode of fiction Mimesis, represented in performance: a Play (theatre), play, opera, mime, ballet, etc., performed in a theatre, or on Radio drama, radio or television.Elam (1980, 98). Considered as a ...
of the story was made, which both aired in the UK and was made available on
Netflix Netflix, Inc. is an American subscription The subscription business model is a business model in which a customer In sales Sales are activities related to selling or the number of goods sold in a given targeted time period. Th ...

Netflix
. Adams completed a sequel almost 25 years later, in 1996, ''
Tales from Watership Down ''Tales from Watership Down'' is a collection of 19 short stories by Richard Adams, published in 1996 as a follow-up to Adams's highly successful 1972 novel about rabbits, ''Watership Down''. It consists of a number of short stories of rabbit mytho ...
'', constructed as a collection of 19 short stories about El-ahrairah and the rabbits of the Watership Down warren.. Retrieved 8 September 2012.


Origin and publication history

The story began as tales that Richard Adams told his young daughters Juliet and Rosamund during long car journeys. He recounted in 2007 that he "began telling the story of the rabbits... improvised off the top of head, as
hey Hey or Hey! may refer to: Music * Hey (band), a Polish rock band Albums * Hey (Andreas Bourani album), ''Hey'' (Andreas Bourani album) or the title song (see below), 2014 * Hey! (Julio Iglesias album), ''Hey!'' (Julio Iglesias album) or the ti ...

hey
were driving along". The daughters insisted he write it down—"they were very, very persistent". After some delay he began writing in the evenings and completed it 18 months later. The book is dedicated to the two girls. Adams's descriptions of wild rabbit behaviour were based on ''The Private Life of the Rabbit'' (1964), by British naturalist
Ronald Lockley Ronald Mathias Lockley (8 November 1903 – 12 April 2000) was a Welsh Ornithology, ornithologist and natural history, naturalist. He wrote over fifty books on natural history, including a major study of shearwaters, and many articles. He is pe ...
. The two later became friends, embarking on an
Antarctic The Antarctic (US English or , UK English or and or ) is a around 's , opposite the region around the . The Antarctic comprises the continent of , the and other located on the or south of the . The Antarctic region includes the , wa ...

Antarctic
tour that became the subject of a co-authored book, ''Voyage Through the Antarctic'' (A. Lane, 1982). ''Watership Down'' was rejected seven times before it was accepted by Rex Collings. The one-man London publisher Collings wrote to an associate, "I've just taken on a novel about rabbits, one of them with extra-sensory perception. Do you think I'm mad?" The associate did call it "a mad risk," in her obituary of Collings, to accept "a book as bizarre by an unknown writer which had been turned down by the major London publishers; but," she continued, "it was also dazzlingly brave and intuitive."Quigly, Isabel (8 June 1996)
"Obituary: Rex Collings"
''The Independent''. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
Collings had little capital and could not pay an advance but "he got a review copy onto every desk in London that mattered." Adams wrote that it was Collings who gave ''Watership Down'' its title. There was a second edition in 1973.
Macmillan USA Macmillan Inc. is a now mostly defunct United States, American publishing company. Once the American division of the United Kingdom, British Macmillan Publishers, remnants of the original American Macmillan are present in McGraw-Hill Education's ...
, then a media giant, published the first U.S. edition in 1974 and a
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
edition was also published that year by
Het Spectrum Uitgeverij Lannoo Groep is a Belgian publishing group, based in Tielt Tielt (; french: Thielt) is a Belgium, Belgian Municipalities in Belgium, municipality in the Provinces of Belgium, province of West Flanders. The municipality comprises the ci ...
. . Retrieved 31 July 2012. According to
WorldCat #REDIRECT WorldCat#REDIRECT WorldCat WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 15,600 libraries A library is a curated collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community ...
, participating libraries hold copies in 18 languages of translation.


Plot summary


Part 1

In the
Sandleford Sandleford is a hamlet (place), hamlet and former parish in the English county of Berkshire. Since at least 1924, the settlement has been within the civil parish of Greenham, and is located approximately south of the town of Newbury, Berkshire ...
warren A warren is a network of wild rodent Rodents (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. ...

warren
,The map in the front of the book indicates the story begins in the real-life
Wash Common Wash Common is a small suburb to the south of Newbury, Berkshire. It is built on the former Newbury Wash, which was flat open heathland overlooking Newbury, and until the 19th century there was just a small group of houses separated from Newbury by ...
, just beyond the western tip of the park and parish of
Sandleford Sandleford is a hamlet (place), hamlet and former parish in the English county of Berkshire. Since at least 1924, the settlement has been within the civil parish of Greenham, and is located approximately south of the town of Newbury, Berkshire ...
, on the Berkshire-Hampshire border.
Fiver, a
runt In a group of animals (usually a litter Litter consists of waste products that have been discarded incorrectly, without consent, at an unsuitable location. Litter can also be used as a verb; to litter means to drop and leave objects, often ...

runt
y buck rabbit who is a
seer The efficiency of air conditioners is often rated by the seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) which is defined by the Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute The Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI), fo ...

seer
, receives a frightening vision of his warren's imminent destruction. He and his brother Hazel fail to convince the Threarah, their Chief Rabbit, of the need to evacuate; they then try to convince the other rabbits, but only succeed in gaining nine followers, all bucks. Captain Holly of the Sandleford Owsla (the warren's military
caste Caste is a form of social stratification Social stratification refers to a society's categorization Categorization is the ability and activity to recognize shared features or similarities between the elements of the experience of the ...
) accuses the group of fomenting dissension against the Threarah and tries to stop them leaving, but is driven off. Once out in the world, the travelling group of rabbits finds itself following the leadership of Hazel, who had been considered an unimportant member of the warren before. The group travels far through dangerous territory. Bigwig and Silver, both former Owsla and the strongest rabbits among them, keep the others protected, helped by the ingenuity of Blackberry (the cleverest rabbit) and Hazel's good judgment. Along the way, they cross the
River Enborne The River Enborne is a river that rises near the villages of Inkpen and West Woodhay, to the West of Newbury, Berkshire and flows into the River Kennet. Its source is in the county of Hampshire, and part of its course forms the border between Be ...
, and evade a badger, a dog, a car, and a crow. Hazel and Bigwig also stop three rabbits from attempting to return to the Sandleford warren. They meet a rabbit named Cowslip, who invites them to join his own warren. The majority of Hazel's group are relieved to finally be able to sleep and feed well, and therefore decide to overlook the strange and evasive behavior of the new rabbits. Fiver, however, senses nothing but death in the new warren. Later, Bigwig is caught in a
snare Snare most often refers to: * Snare drum The snare drum or side drum is a percussion instrument that produces a sharp staccato sound when the head is struck with a drum stick, due to the use of a series of stiff wires held under tension against ...
, only surviving the ordeal thanks to Blackberry and Hazel's quick thinking. Fiver deduces the new warren is managed by a farmer, who protects and feeds the rabbits but also harvests a number of them for their meat and skins. He admonishes the others in a crazed lecture for not realizing the residents of Cowslip's warren were simply using Hazel and the others to increase their own odds of survival. The Sandleford rabbits, badly shaken, continue on their journey. They are soon joined by Strawberry, a buck who leaves Cowslip's warren after his doe is killed by one of the snares.


Part 2

Fiver's visions instruct the rabbits to seek a home atop the hills. The group eventually finds and settles in a beech hangar on Watership Down. While digging the new warren, they are joined by Captain Holly and his friend Bluebell. Holly is severely wounded, and both rabbits are ill from exhaustion, having escaped both the violent human destruction of the Sandleford Warren and an attack by Cowslip's rabbits along the way. Holly's ordeal has left him a changed rabbit, and after telling the others that Fiver's terrible vision has come true, he offers to join Hazel's band in whatever way they will have him. Although Watership Down is a peaceful habitat, Hazel realizes there are no does, making the future of the new warren certain to end with the inevitable deaths of the buck rabbits present. With the help of their useful new friend, a
black-headed gull The black-headed gull (''Chroicocephalus ridibundus'') is a small gull that breeds in much of the Palearctic including Europe and also in coastal eastern Canada. Most of the population is bird migration, migratory and winters further south, bu ...

black-headed gull
named Kehaar, they locate a nearby warren called Efrafa, which is overcrowded. Hazel sends a small embassy, led by Holly, to Efrafa to present their request for does. Meanwhile, Hazel and Pipkin, the smallest member of the group, scout the nearby Nuthanger Farm, where they find a hutch with rabbits inside. Despite their uncertainty about living wild, the hutch rabbits are willing to come to Watership. Two nights later, Hazel leads a raid on the farm, which frees three of the hutch rabbits before the farmer returns. Hazel's leg is wounded by a
shotgun A shotgun (also known as a scattergun, or historically as a fowling piece) is a long gun, long-barreled firearm designed to shoot a straight-walled cartridge (firearms), cartridge known as a shotshell, which usually discharges numerous small ...

shotgun
blast, and he is rescued by Fiver and Blackberry. When the embassy returns soon after, Hazel and his rabbits learn that Efrafa is a
police state A police state describes a state where its government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government n ...
led by the
despotic Despotism ( el, Δεσποτισμός, ''despotismós'') is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and medi ...
General Woundwort, who refuses to allow anyone to leave his range of control. Holly and the other rabbits dispatched have managed to escape with little more than their lives intact.


Part 3

However, Holly's group has managed to identify an Efrafan doe named Hyzenthlay, who wishes to leave the warren and can recruit other does to join in the escape. Hazel and Blackberry devise a plan to rescue Hyzenthlay's group and bring them to Watership Down. Bigwig is sent to do the mission, and infiltrates Efrafa in the guise of a member of the Owsla, while Hazel and the rest wait by a nearby river. With help from Kehaar, Bigwig manages to free Hyzenthlay and nine other does, as well as a condemned prisoner named Blackavar. Woundwort and his officers pursue, but the Watership rabbits and the escapees use a
punt Punt or punting may refer to: Boats *Punt (boat), a flat-bottomed boat with a square-cut bow developed on the River Thames *Falmouth Quay Punt, a small sailing vessel hired by ships anchored in Falmouth harbour *Norfolk Punt, a type of racing ding ...
to escape down the
River Test The River Test is a chalk stream at Winterbourne Gunner, a typical chalk stream Chalk streams are rivers that rise from springs in landscapes with chalk bedrock Bedrock in geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ( ...
, though one doe is killed when the punt strikes a bridge. Once clear of Efrafa, they make the long journey home, losing one more rabbit to a fox along the way. They eventually reach Watership, unaware they are being shadowed by one of Woundwort's patrols, which reports back to Efrafa.


Part 4

Later that autumn, the Owsla of Efrafa, led by Woundwort himself, unexpectedly arrives to destroy the warren at Watership Down and take back the escapees. Through Bigwig's bravery and loyalty, Fiver's visions, and Hazel's ingenuity, the Watership Down rabbits ensure the defeat of the Efrafans by holding off the attack and unleashing the Nuthanger Farm watchdog on them. Despite being gravely wounded by Bigwig, Woundwort refuses to back down; his followers flee the dog in terror, leaving Woundwort to stand his ground against the dog unobserved. His body is never found, and Groundsel, one of his former followers, continues to fervently believe in his survival. After loosing the dog, Hazel is nearly killed by one of the farmhouse cats. He is saved by young Lucy, the former owner of the escaped hutch rabbits. Upon returning to Watership, Hazel effects a lasting peace and friendship between the remaining Efrafans and his own rabbits. Some time later, Hazel and Campion, the intelligent new chief of Efrafa, send rabbits to start a new warren a
Caesar's Belt
to relieve the effects of overcrowding at both their warrens.


Epilogue

As time goes on, the three warrens on the downs prosper under Hazel, Campion, and Groundsel (their respective chiefs). Woundwort never returns, and becomes a heroic legend to some rabbits, and a sort of
bogeyman The Bogeyman (; also spelled boogeyman, bogyman, bogieman, boogie monster, boogie man, or boogie woogie) is a type of mythical creature used by adults to frighten children into good behavior. Bogeymen have no specific appearance, and conceptions ...
to frighten children, to others. Kehaar rejoins his flock, but continues to visit the rabbits every winter. However, he refuses to search for Woundwort, showing even he still fears him. Many years later, on a cold March morning, an elderly Hazel is visited by El-ahrairah, the spiritual overseer of all rabbits and the hero of the traditional rabbit stories told over the course of the book. El-ahrairah invites Hazel to join his own Owsla, reassuring Hazel of Watership's future success and prosperity. Leaving his friends and no-longer-needed physical body behind, Hazel departs Watership Down with the spirit guide.


Characters

*Hazel: Fiver's elder brother, he is the novel's main
protagonist 200px, Shakespeare's ''Hamlet, Prince of Denmark.'' William Morris Hunt, oil on canvas, c. 1864 A protagonist (from grc, πρωταγωνιστής, translit=prōtagōnistḗs, lit=one who plays the first part, chief actor) is the main character ...
and leads the others to Watership Down, eventually becoming their Chief Rabbit. Though Hazel is not particularly large or powerful, he is loyal, brave, mature, caring and a quick thinker. He sees the good in each individual, and what they bring to the table; in so doing, he makes sure no one gets left behind, thus earning the respect and loyalty of his warren. He often relies on Fiver's advice, and he trusts his brother's instincts. His name eventually becomes ''Hazel-rah'' ("Chief Hazel" or "Prince Hazel"). *Fiver: Hazel's younger brother, a
runt In a group of animals (usually a litter Litter consists of waste products that have been discarded incorrectly, without consent, at an unsuitable location. Litter can also be used as a verb; to litter means to drop and leave objects, often ...

runt
rabbit whose name literally means "Little Thousand" (Rabbits have a single word, "hrair", for all numbers greater than four; Fiver's name in Lapine, ''Hrairoo'', indicates that he is the smallest of a litter of five or more rabbits.) As a seer, he has visions and strong instincts. He is shy, kind, and intelligent, and though he does not directly act as a leader, the others listen to and follow his advice. Vilthuril becomes his mate. *Bigwig: An ex-Owsla officer, and the largest, strongest, and bravest rabbit of the group. His name in Lapine is ''Thlayli'', which literally means "Fur-head" and refers to the shock of fur on the back of his head. Though he is initially harsh and cynical, he learns to show compassion and be less impulsive. He is also shown to be cunning in his own way when he rescues the does from Efrafa, and later devises a plan to defeat the larger and stronger General Woundwort. This final confrontation leaves him severely wounded, but he survives and becomes the leader of Hazel's Owsla. *Blackberry: A clever buck rabbit with black-tipped ears. He is often capable of understanding concepts the other rabbits find incomprehensible. He realizes, for instance, that wood floats, and the rabbits use this tactic twice to travel on water. He also works out how to dismantle the snare that almost kills Bigwig, saving him. He is one of Hazel's most trusted advisors, and he and Kehaar devise the plan to rescue does from Efrafa. *Dandelion: Described as a "dashing" and "gallant" buck rabbit, notable for his storytelling ability and speed. He is the first to recognize Watership Down as their best new home, and is instrumental in luring the Nuthanger Farm dog into the Efrafan army, during Woundwort's siege. *Holly: Former captain of the Sandleford Warren Owsla, escapes with Bluebell when his warren is destroyed by men. He is near death when he finds the warren at Watership Down, but is nursed back to health and welcomed by the fugitives. He leads the first embassy to Efrafa, but this second trauma causes him to strongly oppose the plan to rescue the does. He and Blackavar later become scouts for the Watership warren. *Bluebell: Buck rabbit who escapes with Holly during the destruction of Sandleford. He tells jokes (often in rhyme) to cope, and to help himself and Holly recover from the mental strain of seeing the Sandleford warren destroyed and Pimpernel killed by Cowslip's rabbits. He, like Dandelion, is also a storyteller. *Pimpernel: A Sandleford rabbit, who helps Bluebell to escape the poisoning of the Sandleford warren but becomes very ill and weak in the process. He travels towards Watership with Holly and Bluebell, but is murdered by Cowslip's rabbits. *Cowslip: While not chief rabbit of his warren, he is the first to meet Hazel and the others, and tricks them into staying in the Warren of the Snares, which is why they refer to it as "Cowslip's Warren" afterwards. He and the others refuse to answer any questions or discuss the snares. After Fiver exposes and ruins their blissful denial, and Strawberry defects to Fiver's side, Cowslip leads some other rabbits to attack Holly's group as it passes through their territory. *Strawberry: A large, sleek buck from Cowslip's warren who leaves with the Watership Down rabbits after his doe, ''Nildro-hain'', ("Blackbird's Song", in Lapine) is killed by a snare. While not as hardy as the other rabbits, he learns quickly, knows a good deal about digging a warren, and is very diplomatic and good with words. It is for this last reason that he is selected to go with Holly on the first embassy to Efrafa. He later becomes an advisor to Groundsel when the new warren is started at Caesar's Belt. *Haystack: One of the hutch does, who escapes in order to live with the wild rabbits. *Clover: One of the hutch does, who escapes in order to live with the wild rabbits. Her mate, Laurel, does not escape with her and allows himself to be taken back to the hutch by the farmer. She is the most hardy of the hutch rabbits, and bears the first litter of kittens at the Watership warren. Holly becomes her new mate. *Boxwood: A hutch buck who escapes in order to live with the wild rabbits. He is taken under Strawberry's wing, as he initially does not know how to survive in the wild. He is Haystack's mate. *Buckthorn: A strong half-grown buck who was expected to be part of the Sandleford Owsla once he reached maturity. He joins Bigwig and Silver as a fighter and suffers several serious injuries during the story. He is also sent with Holly on the first embassy to Efrafa, and later becomes one of Groundsel's advisors at the warren on Caesar's Belt. *Hawkbit: Described in the book as a "rather slow, stupid rabbit", but is accepted by Hazel regardless. He at one point defies Hazel and is bitten by Bigwig in retaliation, but later becomes a valued member of the warren. *Speedwell and Acorn: Pair of rank-and-file rabbits who are friends of Hawkbit. They become frightened and want to turn back on the journey to Watership, but eventually become sentries and burrow diggers in the new warren. *Silver: The sturdy and level-headed nephew of Sandleford's Chief Rabbit. At Sandleford, he is teased for his pale grey fur (his namesake) and accused of getting his position in the Owsla through
nepotism Nepotism is a form of favoritism which is granted to relatives and friends in various fields, including business, politics, entertainment, sports, fitness, religion, and other activities. The term originated with the assignment of nephews to im ...
, prompting him to join the fugitives. He, Bigwig and Buckthorn frequently defend the other rabbits along their journey, and he later accompanies Holly on the embassy to Efrafa. He also is instrumental in the Efrafan escape, planning a route for Bigwig and the does back to the river. *Pipkin: A small and initially timid buck rabbit. Hazel refuses to leave him behind when he is wounded, and Pipkin grows fiercely loyal to Hazel. He serves as a comforter to Holly, and becomes very brave, offering to go into Efrafa himself when Bigwig is late in returning. He also is the first to jump into the River Test, when Hazel orders the rabbits to do so. His name is ''Hlao-roo'' ("Little dimple in the grass") in Lapine. *Hyzenthlay: A doe who lives in Efrafa and assists Bigwig in arranging for the liberation of its inhabitants. General Woundwort, who suspects her of fomenting dissension, orders his guards to keep a close eye on her. She escapes Efrafa with Bigwig. Like Fiver, she has visions. Her name means literally "shine-dew-fur", or "fur shining like dew". She becomes Hazel's mate. *Thethuthinnang - In Lapine, "Movement of Leaves". A very sturdy, sensible doe and Hyzenthlay's friend and lieutenant in organizing the rebellion among the Efrafan does. *Vilthuril: An Efrafan doe - her name's translation is never given. She escapes Efrafa with Bigwig, Hyzenthlay and the other does. She becomes Fiver's mate, and is said to be the only one to understand him as well as Hazel. One of their kittens, Threar, becomes a seer like his father. *Blackavar: A rabbit with dark fur who tries to escape from Efrafa but is apprehended, mutilated, and put on display to discourage further escape attempts. When he is liberated by Bigwig, he quickly proves himself an expert tracker and ranger, and also shows himself to be an effective fighter when the Efrafan rabbits attack the warren. *Kehaar: A
black-headed gull The black-headed gull (''Chroicocephalus ridibundus'') is a small gull that breeds in much of the Palearctic including Europe and also in coastal eastern Canada. Most of the population is bird migration, migratory and winters further south, bu ...

black-headed gull
who is forced, by an injured wing, to take refuge on Watership Down, and befriends the rabbits when they help him. He is characterized by his frequent impatience, guttural accent and unusual phrasing. After discovering the Efrafa warren and helping the rabbits, he rejoins his colony, but visits frequently. According to Adams, Kehaar was based on a fighter from the
Norwegian Resistance The Norwegian resistance (Norwegian Norwegian, Norwayan, or Norsk may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Norway, a country in northwestern Europe *Norwegians, both a nation and an ethnic group native to Norway *Demographics of Norwa ...
in
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
.Adams, Richard. "Introduction." ''Watership Down'', Scribner U.S. edition, 2005. . *The Mouse: Never named, the mouse is a resident of Watership Down before the arrival of the rabbits. While rabbits usually despise rodents and view them as untrustworthy, Hazel kindly saves the mouse from a
kestrel The name kestrel (from french: crécerelle, derivative from , i.e. ratchet) is given to several members of the falcon Falcons () are birds of prey Birds of prey, also known as raptors, include species of bird that primarily hunt and feed ...

kestrel
. This action allies the mice and rabbits on Watership Down, and the same mouse later warns them of General Woundwort's intended surprise attack, thus saving many lives. *General Woundwort: The main
antagonist An antagonist is a character in a story who is presented as the chief foe of the protagonist 200px, Shakespeare's ''Hamlet, Prince of Denmark.'' William Morris Hunt, oil on canvas, c. 1864 A protagonist (from grc, πρωταγωνιστής, ...
of the novel. A fearless, cunning and brutally efficient rabbit who was orphaned at a young age and raised by humans, Woundwort escaped, founded the Efrafa warren, and is its tyrannical chief. Though larger and stronger than Bigwig, he lacks mercy and kindness. He even leads an attack to destroy the Watership warren as an act of revenge against Bigwig's stealing does from Efrafa, an attack defeated by Hazel's ingenuity and Bigwig's bravery. After fighting the Nuthanger farm dog, he disappears completely, and many rabbits remain unsure if he still lives or not. *Captain Campion: Woundwort's most trusted subordinate, Campion is a loyal, brave and clever officer. Despite being on opposite sides, Bigwig and Hazel like Campion and twice refuse to kill him when they have him at their mercy. After Woundwort disappears, Campion becomes the Chief Rabbit of Efrafa and reforms it, making peace with the Watership rabbits. *Vervain: The sadistic and callous head of the Owslafa (Council Police) in Efrafa, said to be one of the most hated rabbits in the warren. He is ordered to kill Fiver during the Watership attack, but Fiver calmly prophesies his death, and he flees in terror, never to be seen again. *Groundsel: A calm, sensible member of Woundwort's Owsla, he rescues an Efrafan patrol when their Captain is killed by a fox. He accompanies Woundwort to Watership with the rest of the Owsla, though he is wisely hesitant to attack Hazel's rabbits after their earlier displays of cleverness. He and four others surrender to Fiver after the dog incident, and he is accepted into Watership as a friend, eventually becoming the Chief Rabbit at the new warren in Caesar's Belt. *Threarah - "Lord Rowan Tree" or "Prince Rowan Tree", in Lapine. Silver's Uncle, and the ruler of the Sandleford Warren, who is wiser and less impulsive than most rabbits. He understands Fiver's warning, but believes the warren, which has weathered other disasters, can survive whatever Fiver foresees. He is presumed killed in the destruction of the warren. *Frith: A god-figure in rabbit folklore, said to have created the world. While forced to create ''elil'' (predators) because of the rabbits'
overpopulation Overpopulation or overabundance is a phenomenon that occurs when a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A speci ...

overpopulation
of the Earth, he promised that rabbits would never be allowed to go extinct. In Lapine, the word ''Frith'' means "the sun/sunrise". *El-ahrairah: A rabbit
trickster In mythology Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that som ...

trickster
folk hero, who is the protagonist of nearly all of the rabbits' stories. He represents what every rabbit wants to be; smart, devious, tricky, and devoted to the well-being of his warren. In Lapine, his name is a contraction of the phrase ''Elil-hrair-rah'', which means "prince with a thousand enemies". His stories of cleverness (and excessive hubris) are similar to
Br'er Rabbit Br'er Rabbit (Brother Rabbit), also spelled Bre'r Rabbit or Brer Rabbit, is a central figure in an oral tradition passed down by African-Americans African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic grou ...
and
Anansi Anansi ( literally means ''spider'') is an AkanAkan may refer to: People and languages *Akan people The Akan () are a meta-ethnicity living in the countries of present-day Ghana and Ivory Coast. The Akan language (also known as ''Twi/Fa ...
. *Prince Rainbow: A lesser deity in rabbit folklore, tasked by Frith to organize the world. He often abuses his power to try to harm or rein in El-ahrairah and the rabbits, but is always outsmarted. *Rabscuttle: Another mythical folk hero, Rabscuttle is El-ahrairah's second-in-command and Owsla Captain. He participates in many of El-ahrairah's capers. He is considered to be almost as clever as his chief. His name may be a reference to a rabbit's "scut", or tail. *Black Rabbit of Inlé: Known as ''Inlé-rah'' ("Prince/Chief of the Moon" or "Prince/Chief of the Dead") to his ghostly Owsla, he is a sombre servant of the god Frith who appears in rabbit
folklore Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psycholog ...

folklore
as a kind of analogue to the
grim reaper Death is frequently imagined as a personification, personified force. In some mythologies, a character known as the Grim Reaper (often depicted as a robed skeleton) causes the victim's death by coming to collect that person's soul. Other belief ...
. His duty is to ensure all rabbits die at their predestined time, and he avenges any rabbit killed without his consent. ''Inlé'' is the Lapine term for the moon/moonrise, as well as the word for the Land of the Dead.


Lapine language

"Lapine" is a
fictional language Fictional languages are a subset of constructed languages, and are distinct from the former in that they have been created as part of a fictional setting (i.e. for use in a book, movie, television show, or video game). Typically they are the crea ...
created by author
Richard Adams Richard George Adams (9 May 1920 – 24 December 2016) was an English novelist and writer of the books ''Watership Down ''Watership Down'' is an adventure novel by English author Richard Adams, published by Rex Collings Ltd of London ...
for the novel, where it is spoken by the rabbit characters. The language was again used in Adams' 1996 sequel, ''
Tales from Watership Down ''Tales from Watership Down'' is a collection of 19 short stories by Richard Adams, published in 1996 as a follow-up to Adams's highly successful 1972 novel about rabbits, ''Watership Down''. It consists of a number of short stories of rabbit mytho ...
'', and has appeared in both the
film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, ...
and television adaptations. The language fragments in the books consist of a few dozen distinct words, used mainly for the naming of rabbits, their mythological characters, and objects in their world. The name "Lapine" comes from the French word for rabbit.


Themes

''Watership Down'' has been described as an
allegory As a literary device A narrative technique (known for literary fiction Literary fiction is a term used in the book-trade to distinguish novels that are regarded as having literary merit, from most commercial or "genre" fiction. However, the b ...

allegory
, with the labours of Hazel, Fiver, Bigwig, and Silver "mirrorthe timeless struggles between tyranny and freedom, reason and blind emotion, and the individual and the corporate state." Adams draws on
classical Classical may refer to: European antiquity *Classical antiquity, a period of history from roughly the 7th or 8th century B.C.E. to the 5th century C.E. centered on the Mediterranean Sea *Classical architecture, architecture derived from Greek and ...
heroic and
quest A quest is a journey toward a specific mission or a goal. The word serves as a plot Plot or Plotting may refer to: Art, media and entertainment * Plot (narrative), the story of a piece of fiction Music * The Plot (album), ''The Plot'' (albu ...

quest
themes from
Homer Homer (; grc, Ὅμηρος , ''Hómēros'') was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally re ...

Homer
and
Virgil Publius Vergilius Maro (; traditional dates 15 October 7021 September 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil ( ) in English, was an ancient Rome, ancient Roman poet of the Augustan literature (ancient Rome), Augustan period. He composed three ...

Virgil
, creating a story with
epic Epic commonly refers to: * Epic poetry, a long narrative poem celebrating heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation * Epic film, a genre of film with heroic elements Epic or EPIC may also refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media ...
motifs.


The Hero, the ''Odyssey'', and the ''Aeneid''

The book explores the themes of exile, survival, heroism, leadership, political responsibility, and the "making of a hero and a community". Joan Bridgman's analysis of Adams's works in ''
The Contemporary Review ''The Contemporary Review'' is a British biannual, formerly quarterly, magazine. It has an uncertain future as of 2013. History The magazine was established in 1866 by Alexander Strahan and a group of intellectuals anxious to promote intelligen ...
'' identifies the community and hero motifs: " e hero's journey into a realm of terrors to bring back some boon to save himself and his people" is a powerful element in Adams's tale. This theme derives from the author's exposure to the works of
mythologist Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or origin myths. The main characters in myths are usually non-humans, such as gods, demigods, and other supernatural figures ...
Joseph Campbell Joseph John Campbell (March 26, 1904 – October 30, 1987) was an American professor of literature at Sarah Lawrence College who worked in comparative mythology and comparative religion. His work covers many aspects of the human experience ...
, especially his study of
comparative mythology Comparative mythology is the comparison of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitu ...
, ''
The Hero with a Thousand Faces #REDIRECT The Hero with a Thousand Faces ''The Hero with a Thousand Faces'' (first published in 1949) is a work of comparative mythology by Joseph Campbell, in which the author discusses his theory of the mythological structure of the journey of t ...
'' (1949), and in particular, Campbell's "
monomyth In narratology Narratology is the study of narrative and narrative structure and the ways that these affect human perception. It is an anglicisation of French ''narratologie'', coined by Tzvetan Todorov (''Grammaire du Décaméron'', 1969). I ...
" theory, also based on
Carl Jung Carl Gustav Jung ( ; born Karl Gustav Jung, ; 26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961), was a Swiss psychiatrist A psychiatrist is a physician A physician (American English), medical practitioner (English in the Commonwealth of Nations ...

Carl Jung
's view of the unconscious mind, that "all the stories in the world are really one story." The concept of the hero has invited comparisons between ''Watership Down's'' characters and those in
Homer Homer (; grc, Ὅμηρος , ''Hómēros'') was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally re ...

Homer
's ''
Odyssey The ''Odyssey'' (; grc, Ὀδύσσεια, Odýsseia, ) is one of two major ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí ...
'' and
Virgil Publius Vergilius Maro (; traditional dates 15 October 7021 September 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil ( ) in English, was an ancient Rome, ancient Roman poet of the Augustan literature (ancient Rome), Augustan period. He composed three ...

Virgil
's ''
Aeneid The ''Aeneid'' ( ; la, Aenē̆is ) is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the p ...
''. Hazel's courage, Bigwig's strength, Blackberry's ingenuity and craftiness, and Dandelion's and Bluebell's poetry and storytelling all have parallels in the
epic poem An epic poem is a lengthy narrative poem Narrative poetry is a form of poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek language, Greek ''poiesis'', "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetics, aesthetic and often rhythmic qualities of l ...
''Odyssey''. Kenneth Kitchell declared, "Hazel stands in the tradition of
Odysseus Odysseus ( ; grc-gre, Ὀδυσσεύς, Ὀδυσεύς, OdysseúsOdyseús, ), also known by the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken ...

Odysseus
,
Aeneas In Greco-Roman mythology, Aeneas (, ; from Greek language, Greek: Αἰνείας, ''Aineíās'') was a Trojan hero, the son of the Trojan prince Anchises and the goddess Aphrodite (equivalent to the Roman Venus (mythology), Venus). His father ...
, and others".
Tolkien John Ronald Reuel Tolkien (; 3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English writer, poet, philologist Philology is the study of language in oral and writing, written historical sources; it is the intersection of textual criticism, l ...
scholar John Rateliff calls Adams's novel an ''Aeneid'' "what-if" book: what if the
seer The efficiency of air conditioners is often rated by the seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) which is defined by the Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute The Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI), fo ...

seer
Cassandra Cassandra or Kassandra (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Gr ...

Cassandra
(Fiver) had been believed and she and a company had fled
Troy Troy (Greek language, Greek: Τροία) or Ilium (Greek language, Greek: Ίλιον) was an ancient city located at Hisarlik in present-day Turkey, south-west of Çanakkale. It is known as the setting for the Greek mythology, Greek myth of the ...

Troy
(Sandleford Warren) before its destruction? What if Hazel and his companions, like Odysseus, encounter a seductive home at Cowslip's Warren (Land of the Lotus Eaters)? Rateliff goes on to compare the rabbits' battle with Woundwort's Efrafans to Aeneas's fight with
Turnus Turnus ( grc, Τυρρηνός, Tyrrhênós) was the legendary King of the Rutuli The Rutuli or Rutulians were an ancient people in Italy. The Rutuli were located in a territory whose capital was the ancient town of , located about 35 k ...

Turnus
's
Latins The Latins were originally an Italic tribe The Italic peoples were an ethnolinguistic group An ethnolinguistic group (or ethno-linguistic group) is a group that is unified by both a common ethnicity An ethnic group or ethnicity is a groupi ...
. "By basing his story on one of the most popular books of the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
and
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

Renaissance
, Adams taps into a very old myth: the flight from disaster, the heroic refugee in search of a new home, a story that was already over a thousand years old when Virgil told it in 19 BC."


Religious symbolism

It has been suggested that ''Watership Down'' contains symbolism of several religions, or that the stories of El-ahrairah were meant to mimic some elements of real-world religion. When asked in a 2007 BBC Radio interview about the religious symbolism in the novel, Adams said the story was "nothing like that at all". He said the rabbits in Watership Down did not worship; however, "they believed passionately in El-ahrairah." Adams explained that he meant the book to be "only a made-up story... in no sense an allegory or parable or any kind of political myth. I simply wrote down a story I told to my little girls." Instead, he explained, the "let-in" religious stories of El-ahrairah were meant more as legendary tales, similar to a rabbit
Robin Hood Robin Hood is a legendary hero File:Wilhelm Tell Denkmal Altdorf um 1900.jpeg, upWilliam Tell, a popular folk hero of Switzerland. A hero (heroine in its feminine form) is a real person or a main fictional character who, in the face ...

Robin Hood
, and these stories were interspersed throughout the book as humorous interjections to the often "grim" tales of the "real story".


Reception

''
The Economist ''The Economist'' is an international weekly newspaper A weekly newspaper is a general-news or current affairsCurrent affairs may refer to: Media * Current Affairs (magazine), ''Current Affairs'' (magazine), a bimonthly magazine of cult ...
'' heralded the book's publication, saying "If there is no place for ''Watership Down'' in children's bookshops, then children's literature is dead." Peter Prescott, senior book reviewer at ''
Newsweek ''Newsweek'' is an American weekly news magazine A news magazine is a typed, printed, and published , radio or , usually published weekly, consisting of articles about current events. News magazines generally discuss stories, in greater de ...
'', gave the novel a glowing review: "Adams handles his suspenseful narrative more dextrously than most authors who claim to write adventure novels, but his true achievement lies in the consistent, comprehensible and altogether enchanting civilisation that he has created." Kathleen J. Rothen and Beverly Langston identified the work as one that "subtly speaks to a child", with "engaging characters and fast-paced action
hat A collection of 18th and 19th century men's beaver felt hats A hat is a head covering which is worn for various reasons, including protection against weather conditions, ceremonial reasons such as university graduation, religious reasons, safet ...

hat
make it readable." This echoed
Nicholas Tucker Nicholas Tucker is an English academic and writer who is an honorary Senior Lecturer in Cultural Studies at the University of Sussex , mottoeng = Be Still and Know , established = 1959 - University College of Sussex 1961 - royal charter granted ...
's praise for the story's suspense in the ''
New Statesman The ''New Statesman'' is a British political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations bet ...
'': "Adams... has bravely and successfully resurrected the big
picaresque The picaresque novel (Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (dis ...
adventure story, with moments of such tension that the helplessly involved reader finds himself checking whether things are going to work out all right on the next page before daring to finish the preceding one." D. Keith Mano, a science fiction writer and conservative social commentator writing in the ''
National Review ''National Review'' is an American semi-monthly conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), taste, as well as the p ...
'', declared that the novel was "pleasant enough, but it has about the same intellectual firepower as Dumbo." He pilloried it further: "''Watership Down'' is an adventure story, no more than that: rather a swashbuckling crude one to boot. There are virtuous rabbits and bad rabbits: if that's allegory, ''
Bonanza ''Bonanza'' is an American Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Austr ...
'' is an allegory."
John Rowe Townsend John Rowe Townsend (19 May 1922 – 24 March 2014) was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern ...
notes that the book quickly achieved such a high popularity despite the fact that it "came out at a high price and in an unattractive jacket from a publisher who had hardly been heard of." Fred Inglis, in his book ''The Promise of Happiness: Value and meaning in children's fiction'', praises the author's use of prose to express the strangeness of ordinary human inventions from the rabbits' perspective. ''Watership Downs universal motifs of liberation and self-determination have been identified with by readers from a diversity of backgrounds; the author
Rachel Kadish Rachel Kadish is an American writer of fiction and non-fiction and the author of several novels and a novella. Her novel ''The Weight of Ink (novel), The Weight of Ink'' won the National Jewish Book Award in 2017. Personal life Born in New York ...
, reflecting on her own superimposition of the founding of Israel onto ''Watership Down'', has remarked "Turns out plenty of other people have seen their histories in that book... some people see it as an allegory for struggles against the Cold War, fascism, extremism... a protest against materialism, against the corporate state. ''Watership Down'' can be Ireland after the famine, Rwanda after the massacres." Kadish has praised both the fantasy genre and ''Watership Down'' for its "motifs
hat A collection of 18th and 19th century men's beaver felt hats A hat is a head covering which is worn for various reasons, including protection against weather conditions, ceremonial reasons such as university graduation, religious reasons, safet ...

hat
hit home in every culture... all passersby are welcome to bring their own subplots and plug into the archetype."


Awards

Adams won the 1972 Carnegie Medal from the CILIP, Library Association, recognising the year's best children's book by a British subject. He also won the annual Guardian Children's Fiction Prize, a similar award that authors may not win twice. In 1977 California schoolchildren selected it for the inaugural California Young Reader Medal in the Young Adult category, which annually honours one book from the last four years. In The Big Read, a 2003 survey of the British public, it was voted the forty-second greatest book of all time.


Criticism of gender roles

The 1993 Puffin Modern Classics edition of the novel contains an afterword by
Nicholas Tucker Nicholas Tucker is an English academic and writer who is an honorary Senior Lecturer in Cultural Studies at the University of Sussex , mottoeng = Be Still and Know , established = 1959 - University College of Sussex 1961 - royal charter granted ...
, who wrote that stories such as ''Watership Down'' "now fit rather uneasily into the modern world of consideration of both sexes". He contrasted Hazel's sensitivity to Fiver with the "far more mechanical" attitude of the bucks towards the does portrayed as "little more than passive baby-factories".Nicholas Tucker, Tucker, Nicholas (1993). "Afterword". In Richard Adams, ''Watership Down''. London: Puffin Modern Classics. . In later printings of the same edition, however, this part of the afterword is excised. In the ''New York Times Book Review'' essay "Male Chauvinist Rabbits", Selma G. Lanes alleges that the does are only "instruments of reproduction to save his male rabbits' triumph from becoming a hollow victory." Lanes argued that this view of female rabbits came from Adams rather than his source text, Ronald Lockley's ''The Private Life of the Rabbit'' in which the rabbit world is matriarchal, and new warrens are initiated by dissatisfied young females., p. 198 In similar vein, literary critic Jane Resh Thomas said ''Watership Down'' "draws upon... an anti-feminist social tradition which, removed from the usual human context and imposed upon rabbits, is eerie in its clarity". Thomas also called it a "splendid story" in which "anti-feminist bias... damages the novel in only a minor way". Adams' 1996 sequel, ''
Tales from Watership Down ''Tales from Watership Down'' is a collection of 19 short stories by Richard Adams, published in 1996 as a follow-up to Adams's highly successful 1972 novel about rabbits, ''Watership Down''. It consists of a number of short stories of rabbit mytho ...
'' includes stories where the female rabbits play a more prominent role in the Watership Down warren.


Ownership controversy

On 27 May 2020, the high court in London ruled that Martin Rosen (director), Martin Rosen, the director of the 1978 film adaptation, had wrongly claimed that he owned all rights to the book, as well as terminating his contract for rights to the film. Rosen had entered into adaptation contracts worth more than $500,000 (£400,000), including licences for an audiobook adaptation and the 2018 television adaptation. In his ruling, Judge Richard Hacon ordered Rosen to pay over $100,000 in damages for copyright infringement, unauthorised licence deals, and denying royalty payments to the Adams estate. Rosen was also directed to provide a record of all licence agreements involving ''Watership Down'', and pay court costs and the Adams estate's legal fees totalling £28,000.


Adaptations


Music

In the early 70's Bo Hansson was introduced to the book by his then girlfriend. This gave him an idea to a new album in the same style as his Music Inspired by Lord of the Rings (Bo Hansson album), Lord of the Rings album. In 1977 he released the all instrumental Music Inspired by Watership Down, El-Ahrairah. The title was taken directly from the pages of Watership Down, with El-Ahrairah being the name of a trickster, folk-hero/deity rabbit, known as ''The Prince with a Thousand Enemies''. In other countries the album was released as ''Music Inspired by Watership Down''.


Film

In 1978 Martin Rosen (director), Martin Rosen wrote and directed Watership Down (film), an animated film adaptation of ''Watership Down''. The voice cast included John Hurt, Richard Briers, Harry Andrews, Simon Cadell, Nigel Hawthorne, and Roy Kinnear. The film featured the song "Bright Eyes (Art Garfunkel song), Bright Eyes", sung by Art Garfunkel. Released as a single, the song became a UK number one hit, although Richard Adams said that he hated it. Although the essentials of the plot remained relatively unchanged, the film omitted several side plots. Though the Watership Down warren eventually grew to seventeen rabbits, with the additions of Strawberry, Holly, Bluebell, and three hutch rabbits liberated from the farm, the movie includes a band of only eight. Rosen's adaptation was praised for "cutting through Adams' book... to get to the beating heart". The film has also seen some positive critical attention. In 1979 the film received a nomination for the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation. Additionally, British television station Channel 4's 2006 documentary ''100 Greatest Cartoons'' named it the 86th greatest cartoon of all time.


Television

From 1999 to 2001, the book was also adapted as an animated television series, broadcast on CITV in the UK and on YTV (TV channel), YTV in Canada. But only the first two series were aired in the UK, while all three series were aired in Canada. It was produced by Martin Rosen (director), Martin Rosen and starred several well-known British actors, including Stephen Fry, Rik Mayall, Dawn French, John Hurt, and Richard Briers, running for a total of 39 episodes over three seasons. Although the story was broadly based on the novel and most characters and events retained, some of the story lines and characters (especially in later episodes) were entirely new. In 2003, the second season was nominated for a Gemini Award for Best Original Music Score for a Dramatic Series.


2018 animated series

In July 2014, it was announced that the BBC would be airing a new animated series based on the book and in April 2016 that the series would be a co-production between the BBC and
Netflix Netflix, Inc. is an American subscription The subscription business model is a business model in which a customer In sales Sales are activities related to selling or the number of goods sold in a given targeted time period. Th ...

Netflix
, consisting of four one-hour episodes, with a budget of £20 million. The four episode serial premiered on the BBC and Netflix on 23 December 2018, with the voices of James McAvoy as Hazel, John Boyega as Bigwig, and Ben Kingsley as General Woundwort. It received generally positive reviews, with praise for the performances of its voice cast, but receiving criticism for its tone and the quality of the computer animation.


Theatre

In 2006, ''Watership Down'' was again adapted for the stage, this time by Rona Munro. It ran at the Lyric Hammersmith in London. Directed by Melly Still, the cast included Matthew Burgess, Joseph Traynor, and Richard Simons. The tone of the production was inspired by the tension of war: in an interview with ''The Guardian'', Still commented, "The closest humans come to feeling like rabbits is under war conditions... We've tried to capture that anxiety." A reviewer at ''The Times'' called the play "an exciting, often brutal tale of survival" and said that "even when it's a muddle, it's a glorious one." In 2011, ''Watership Down'' was adapted for the Lifeline Theatre in Chicago by John Hildreth. This production was directed by Katie McLean Hainsworth and the cast included Scott T. Barsotti, Chris Daley, Paul S. Holmquist, and Mandy Walsh.


Role-playing game

''Watership Down'' inspired the creation of ''Bunnies & Burrows'', an early role-playing game in which the main characters are talking rabbits, published in 1976 by Fantasy Games Unlimited.''GURPS Bunnies & Burrows'' (1992), Steve Jackson Games, It introduced several innovations to role-playing game design, being the first game to allow players to have non-humanoid roles, as well as the first with detailed martial arts and skill systems. Fantasy Games Unlimited published a second edition of the game in 1982, and the game was modified and republished by Steve Jackson Games as an official GURPS Bunnies & Burrows, ''GURPS'' supplement in 1992.


Radio

In 2002, a two-part, two-hour dramatisation of ''Watership Down'' by Neville Teller was broadcast by BBC Radio 4. In November 2016, a new two-part two-hour dramatisation, written by Brian Sibley, was broadcast on BBC Radio 4.


Audiobooks

In the 1970s, the book was released by Argo Records (UK), Argo Records read by Roy Dotrice, with musical background—music by George Butterworth performed by Academy of St Martin in the Fields under the direction of Neville Marriner. Alexander Scourby narrated an unabridged edition, originally published on LP in the 1970s by the Talking Books program of the American Foundation for the Blind (National Library Service for the Blind and Print Disabled, NLSB). The LPs have been destroyed by NLSB and are very rare. In 1984, ''Watership Down'' was adapted into a four-cassette audiobook by John Maher in association with the Australian Broadcasting Company's Renaissance Players. Produced by John Hannaford and narrated by Kerry Francis, the audiobook was distributed by The Mind's Eye (radio company), The Mind's Eye. In 1990, a 16-hour, 11-cassette recording read by John MacDonald was published by Books on Tape, Inc. of Santa Ana, CA. Andrew Sachs recorded a five and a half-hour abridged version of the story for Puffin Audiobooks. In 2010, Audible.com released an unabridged digital download of the book, narrated by the multiple award-winning Ralph Cosham. In 2019, Blackstone Audio Inc. released an unabridged version of ''Watership Down'' with a foreword by the author, Richard Adams. Peter Capaldi narrated the 17-hour, 31-minute book.


Parodies

In the American stop motion TV show ''Robot Chicken'', a parody of the book is done with the Fraggles, the main characters of the 80s show ''Fraggle Rock'', in place of the rabbits. The November 1974 issue of ''National Lampoon (magazine), National Lampoon'' magazine, released shortly after the resignation and pardon of President Richard Nixon, featured a satirical parody of the novel entitled "Watergate Down", written by Sean Kelly, in which rabbits are replaced by rats, described as animals with "the morals of a Democrat and the ethics of a Republican."


See also

* Animal Farm * FernGully: The Last Rainforest * Arrietty * Epic (2013 film), Epic


Explanatory notes


Citations


External links

* * *
"Life and Society on ''Watership Down''"
editorial by Rich Policz
Review of ''Watership Down''
by John D. Rateliff
Review of ''Watership Down''
by Jo Walton
Analysis of ''Watership Down'' on Lit React
{{Authority control Watership Down, 1972 British novels 1972 children's books 1972 debut novels 1972 fantasy novels Adventure novels Books about birds Books about mice and rats Books about rabbits and hares British children's novels British novels adapted into films British novels adapted into plays British novels adapted into television shows Carnegie Medal in Literature winning works Debut fantasy novels Epic novels Guardian Children's Fiction Prize-winning works Novels about death Novels adapted into radio programs Novels by Richard Adams Novels set in Berkshire Novels set in Hampshire Survival fiction