Early life: 1901–1920Disney was born on December 5, 1901, at 1249 Tripp Avenue, in Chicago's Hermosa neighborhood. He was the fourth son of Elias Disneyborn in the , to Irish parentsand Flora ( Call), an American of German and English descent. Aside from Walt, Elias and Flora's sons were Herbert, Raymond and Roy; and the couple had a fifth child, Ruth, in December 1903. In 1906, when Disney was four, the family moved to a farm in , where his uncle Robert had just purchased land. In Marceline, Disney developed his interest in drawing when he was paid to draw the horse of a retired neighborhood doctor. Elias was a subscriber to the '' Appeal to Reason'' newspaper, and Disney practiced drawing by copying the front-page cartoons of Ryan Walker. He also began to develop an ability to work with watercolors and crayons. He lived near the line and became enamored with trains. He and his younger sister Ruth started school at the same time at the Park School in Marceline in late 1909. In 1911, the Disneys moved to . There, Disney attended the Benton Grammar School, where he met fellow-student Walter Pfeiffer, who came from a family of theatre fans and introduced him to the world of and motion pictures. Before long, Disney was spending more time at the Pfeiffers' house than at home. Elias had purchased a newspaper delivery route for '' '' and '' ''. Disney and his brother Roy woke up at 4:30 every morning to deliver the ''Times'' before school and repeated the round for the evening ''Star'' after school. The schedule was exhausting, and Disney often received poor grades after falling asleep in class, but he continued his paper route for more than six years. He attended Saturday courses at the and also took a in cartooning. In 1917, Elias bought stock in a Chicago jelly producer, the O-Zell Company, and moved back to the city with his family. Disney enrolled at McKinley High School and became the cartoonist of the school newspaper, drawing patriotic pictures about World War I; he also took night courses at the . In mid-1918, he attempted to join the to , but he was rejected as too young. After forging the date of birth on his birth certificate, he joined the in September 1918 as an ambulance driver. He was shipped to France but arrived in November, after the armistice. He drew cartoons on the side of his ambulance for decoration and had some of his work published in the army newspaper '' Stars and Stripes''. He returned to Kansas City in October 1919, where he worked as an apprentice artist at the Pesmen-Rubin Commercial Art Studio, where he drew commercial illustrations for advertising, theater programs and catalogs, and befriended fellow artist .
Early career: 1920–1928In January 1920, as Pesmen-Rubin's revenue declined after Christmas, Disney, aged 18, and Iwerks were laid off. They started their own business, the short-lived Iwerks-Disney Commercial Artists. Failing to attract many customers, Disney and Iwerks agreed that Disney should leave temporarily to earn money at the Kansas City Film Ad Company, run by A. V. Cauger; the following month Iwerks, who was not able to run their business alone, also joined. The company produced commercials using the technique. Disney became interested in animation, although he preferred drawn cartoons such as '' '' and '' ''. With the assistance of a borrowed book on animation and a camera, he began experimenting at home. He came to the conclusion that was more promising than the cutout method. Unable to persuade Cauger to try animation at the company, Disney opened a new business with a co-worker from the Film Ad Co, . Their main client was the local Newman Theater, and the short cartoons they produced were sold as "Newman's Laugh-O-Grams". Disney studied Paul Terry's '' '' as a model, and the first six "Laugh-O-Grams" were modernized fairy tales. In May 1921, the success of the "Laugh-O-Grams" led to the establishment of , for which he hired more animators, including Fred Harman's brother Hugh, and Iwerks. The Laugh-O-Grams cartoons did not provide enough income to keep the company solvent, so Disney started production of '' ''based on '' ''which combined live action with animation; he cast in the title role. The result, a 12-and-a-half-minute, one-reel film, was completed too late to save Laugh-O-Gram Studio, which went into bankruptcy in 1923. Disney moved to Hollywood in July 1923 at 21 years old. Although New York was the center of the cartoon industry, he was attracted to Los Angeles because his brother Roy was convalescing from there, and he hoped to become a live-action film director. Disney's efforts to sell ''Alice's Wonderland'' were in vain until he heard from New York film distributor Margaret J. Winkler. She was losing the rights to both the '' '' and '' '' cartoons, and needed a new series. In October, they signed a contract for six ''Alice'' comedies, with an option for two further series of six episodes each. Disney and his brother Roy formed the Disney Brothers Studiowhich later became to produce the films; they persuaded Davis and her family to relocate to to continue production, with Davis on contract at $100 a month. In July 1924, Disney also hired Iwerks, persuading him to relocate to Hollywood from Kansas City. Early in 1925, Disney hired an ink artist, . They married in July of that year, at her brother's house in her hometown of . The marriage was generally happy, according to Lillian, although according to Disney's biographer she did not "accept Walt's decisions meekly or his status unquestionably, and she admitted that he was always telling people 'how henpecked he is'." Lillian had little interest in films or the Hollywood social scene and she was, in the words of the historian Steven Watts, "content with household management and providing support for her husband". Their marriage produced two daughters, Diane (born December 1933) and Sharon (adopted in December 1936, born six weeks previously). Within the family, neither Disney nor his wife hid the fact Sharon had been adopted, although they became annoyed if people outside the family raised the point. The Disneys were careful to keep their daughters out of the public eye as much as possible, particularly in the light of the ; Disney took steps to ensure his daughters were not photographed by the press. By 1926, Winkler's role in the distribution of the ''Alice'' series had been handed over to her husband, the film producer , although the relationship between him and Disney was sometimes strained. The series ran until July 1927, by which time Disney had begun to tire of it and wanted to move away from the mixed format to all animation. After Mintz requested new material to distribute through , Disney and Iwerks created , a character Disney wanted to be "peppy, alert, saucy and venturesome, keeping him also neat and trim". In February 1928, Disney hoped to negotiate a larger fee for producing the ''Oswald'' series, but found Mintz wanting to reduce the payments. Mintz had also persuaded many of the artists involved to work directly for him, including Harman, Ising, and . Disney also found out that Universal owned the to Oswald. Mintz threatened to start his own studio and produce the series himself if Disney refused to accept the reductions. Disney declined Mintz's ultimatum and lost most of his animation staff, except Iwerks, who chose to remain with him.
Creation of Mickey Mouse to the first Academy Awards: 1928–1933To replace Oswald, Disney and Iwerks developed , possibly inspired by a pet mouse that Disney had adopted while working in his Laugh-O-Gram studio, although the origins of the character are unclear. Disney's original choice of name was Mortimer Mouse, but Lillian thought it too pompous, and suggested Mickey instead. Iwerks revised Disney's provisional sketches to make the character easier to animate. Disney, who had begun to distance himself from the animation process, provided Mickey's voice until 1947. In the words of one Disney employee, "Ub designed Mickey's physical appearance, but Walt gave him his soul." Mickey Mouse first appeared in May 1928 as a single test screening of the short '' '', but it, and the second feature, '' '', failed to find a distributor. Following the 1927 sensation '' '', Disney used synchronized sound on the third short, '' '', to create the first post-produced sound cartoon. After the animation was complete, Disney signed a contract with the former executive of Universal Pictures, Pat Powers, to use the "Powers Cinephone" recording system; Cinephone became the new distributor for Disney's early sound cartoons, which soon became popular. To improve the quality of the music, Disney hired the professional composer and arranger , on whose suggestion the '' '' series was developed, providing stories through the use of music; the first in the series, '' '' (1929), was drawn and animated entirely by Iwerks. Also hired at this time were several local artists, some of whom stayed with the company as core animators; the group later became known as the Disney's Nine Old Men, Nine Old Men. Both the Mickey Mouse and ''Silly Symphonies'' series were successful, but Disney and his brother felt they were not receiving their rightful share of profits from Powers. In 1930, Disney tried to trim costs from the process by urging Iwerks to abandon the practice of animating every separate cel in favor of the more efficient technique of drawing key poses and letting lower-paid assistants Inbetweening, sketch the poses. Disney asked Powers for an increase in payments for the cartoons. Powers refused and signed Iwerks to work for him; Stalling resigned shortly afterwards, thinking that without Iwerks, the Disney Studio would close. Disney had a nervous breakdown in October 1931which he blamed on the machinations of Powers and his own overworkso he and Lillian took an extended holiday to Cuba and a cruise to Panama to recover. With the loss of Powers as distributor, Disney studios signed a contract with Columbia Pictures to distribute the Mickey Mouse cartoons, which became increasingly popular, including internationally. Disney, always keen to embrace new technology, filmed ''Flowers and Trees'' (1932) in full-color three-strip ; he was also able to negotiate a deal giving him the sole right to use the three-strip process until August 31, 1935. All subsequent ''Silly Symphony'' cartoons were in color. ''Flowers and Trees'' was popular with audiences and won the inaugural Academy Award for best Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film, Short Subject (Cartoon) at the 5th Academy Awards, 1932 ceremony. Disney had been nominated for another film in that category, ''Mickey's Orphans'', and received an Academy Honorary Award, Honorary Award "for the creation of Mickey Mouse". In 1933, Disney produced ''The Three Little Pigs (film), The Three Little Pigs'', a film described by the media historian Adrian Danks as "the most successful short animation of all time". The film won Disney another Academy Award in the Short Subject (Cartoon) category. The film's success led to a further increase in the studio's staff, which numbered nearly 200 by the end of the year. Disney realized the importance of telling emotionally gripping stories that would interest the audience, and he invested in a "story department" separate from the animators, with storyboard artists who would detail the plots of Disney's films.
Golden age of animation: 1934–1941By 1934, Disney had become dissatisfied with producing formulaic cartoon shorts, and believed a feature-length cartoon would be more profitable. The studio began the four-year production of '' '', based on Snow White, the fairy tale. When news leaked out about the project, many in the film industry predicted it would bankrupt the company; industry insiders nicknamed it "Disney's Folly". The film, which was the first animated feature made in full color and sound, cost $1.5 million to producethree times over budget. To ensure the animation was as realistic as possible, Disney sent his animators on courses at the Chouinard Art Institute; he brought animals into the studio and hired actors so that the animators could study realistic movement. To portray the changing perspective of the background as a camera moved through a scene, Disney's animators developed a multiplane camera which allowed drawings on pieces of glass to be set at various distances from the camera, creating an illusion of depth. The glass could be moved to create the impression of a camera passing through the scene. The first work created on the cameraa ''Silly Symphony'' called ''The Old Mill'' (1937)won the Academy Award for Animated Short Film because of its impressive visual power. Although ''Snow White'' had been largely finished by the time the multiplane camera had been completed, Disney ordered some scenes be re-drawn to use the new effects. ''Snow White'' premiered in December 1937 to high praise from critics and audiences. The film became the most successful motion picture of 1938 and by May 1939 its total gross of $6.5 million made it the most successful sound film made to that date. Disney won another Honorary Academy Award, which consisted of one full-sized and seven miniature Oscar statuettes. The success of ''Snow White'' heralded one of the most productive eras for the studio; the Walt Disney Family Museum calls the following years "the 'Golden Age of Animation'". With work on ''Snow White'' finished, the studio began producing '' '' in early 1938 and '' Fantasia'' in November of the same year. Both films were released in 1940, and neither performed well at the box officepartly because revenues from Europe had dropped following the start of World War II in 1939. The studio made a loss on both pictures and was deeply in debt by the end of February 1941. In response to the financial crisis, Disney and his brother Roy started the company's Initial public offering, first public stock offering in 1940, and implemented heavy salary cuts. The latter measure, and Disney's sometimes high-handed and insensitive manner of dealing with staff, led to Disney animators' strike, a 1941 animators' strike which lasted five weeks. While a federal mediator from the National Labor Relations Board negotiated with the two sides, Disney accepted an offer from the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs to make a goodwill trip to South America, ensuring he was absent during a resolution he knew would be unfavorable to the studio. As a result of the strikeand the financial state of the companyseveral animators left the studio, and Disney's relationship with other members of staff was permanently strained as a result. The strike temporarily interrupted the studio's next production, '' '' (1941), which Disney produced in a simple and inexpensive manner; the film received a positive reaction from audiences and critics alike.
World War II and beyond: 1941–1950Shortly after the release of ''Dumbo'' in October 1941, the U.S. entered World War II. Disney formed the Walt Disney Training Films Unit within the company to produce instruction films for the military such as ''Four Methods of Flush Riveting'' and ''Aircraft Production Methods''. Disney also met with Henry Morgenthau Jr., the United States Secretary of the Treasury, Secretary of the Treasury, and agreed to produce short Donald Duck cartoons to promote Series E bond, war bonds. Disney also produced several Walt Disney's World War II propaganda production, propaganda productions, including shorts such as ''Der Fuehrer's Face''which won an Academy Awardand the 1943 feature film ''Victory Through Air Power (film), Victory Through Air Power''. The military films generated only enough revenue to cover costs, and the feature film '' ''which had been in production since 1937underperformed on its release in April 1942, and lost $200,000 at the box office. On top of the low earnings from ''Pinocchio'' and ''Fantasia'', the company had debts of $4 million with the Bank of America in 1944. At a meeting with Bank of America executives to discuss the future of the company, the bank's chairman and founder, Amadeo Giannini, told his executives, "I've been watching the Disneys' pictures quite closely because I knew we were lending them money far above the financial risk. ... They're good this year, they're good next year, and they're good the year after. ... You have to relax and give them time to market their product." Disney's production of short films decreased in the late 1940s, coinciding with increasing competition in the animation market from Warner Bros. Cartoons, Warner Bros. and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer cartoon studio, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Roy Disney, for financial reasons, suggested more combined animation and live-action productions. In 1948, Disney initiated a series of popular live-action nature films, titled ''True-Life Adventures'', with ''Seal Island (film), Seal Island'' the first; the film won the Academy Award in the Academy Award for Best Live Action Short Film, Best Short Subject (Two-Reel) category. Disney grew more politically conservative as he got older. A Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Party supporter until the 1940 United States presidential election, 1940 presidential election, when he switched allegiance to the Republican Party (United States), Republican Party, he became a generous donor to Thomas E. Dewey's 1944 United States presidential election, 1944 bid for the presidency. In 1946, he was a founding member of the Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals, an organization who stated they "believ[ed] in, and like, the American Way of Life ... we find ourselves in sharp revolt against a rising tide of Communism, Fascism and kindred beliefs, that seek by subversive means to undermine and change this way of life". In 1947, during the Second Red Scare, Disney testified before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), where he branded Herbert Sorrell, David Hilberman and William Pomerance, former animators and trade union, labor union organizers, as communist agitators; Disney stated that the 1941 strike led by them was part of an organized communist effort to gain influence in Hollywood. It was alleged by ''The New York Times'' in 1993 that Disney had been passing secret information to the FBI from 1940 until his death in 1966. In return for this information, J. Edgar Hoover allowed Disney to film in FBI headquarters in Washington. Disney was made a "full Special Agent in Charge Contact" in 1954. In 1949, Disney and his family moved to a new home in the Holmby Hills district of Los Angeles. With the help of his friends Ward Kimball, Ward and Betty Kimball, who already had their own Grizzly Flats Railroad, backyard railroad, Disney developed blueprints and immediately set to work on creating a miniature live steam railroad for his backyard. The name of the railroad, Carolwood Pacific Railroad, came from his home's location on Carolwood Drive. The miniature working steam locomotive was built by Disney Studios engineer Roger E. Broggie, and Disney named it ''Lilly Belle'' after his wife; after three years Disney ordered it into storage due to a series of accidents involving his guests.
Theme parks, television and other interests: 1950–1966In early 1950, Disney produced '' '', his studio's first animated feature in eight years. It was popular with critics and theater audiences. Costing $2.2 million to produce, it earned nearly $8 million in its first year. Disney was less involved than he had been with previous pictures because of his involvement in his first entirely live-action feature, ''Treasure Island (1950 film), Treasure Island'' (1950), which was shot in Britain, as was ''The Story of Robin Hood and His Merrie Men'' (1952). Other all-live-action features followed, many of which had patriotic themes. He continued to produce full-length animated features too, including ''Alice in Wonderland (1951 film), Alice in Wonderland'' (1951) and ''Peter Pan (1953 film), Peter Pan'' (1953). From the early to mid-1950s, Disney began to devote less attention to the animation department, entrusting most of its operations to his key animators, the Nine Old Men, although he was always present at story meetings. Instead, he started concentrating on other ventures. For several years Disney had been considering building a theme park. When he visited Griffith Park in Los Angeles with his daughters, he wanted to be in a clean, unspoiled park, where both children and their parents could have fun. He visited the Tivoli Gardens in Copenhagen, Denmark, and was heavily influenced by the cleanliness and layout of the park. In March 1952 he received zoning permission to build a theme park in Burbank, near the Disney studios. This site proved too small, and a larger plot in Anaheim, California, Anaheim, south of the studio, was purchased. To distance the project from the studiowhich might attract the criticism of shareholdersDisney formed WED Enterprises (now Walt Disney Imagineering) and used his own money to fund a group of designers and animators to work on the plans; those involved became known as "Imagineers". After obtaining bank funding he invited other stockholders, American Broadcasting-Paramount Theatrespart of American Broadcasting Company (ABC)and Western Publishing, Western Printing and Lithographing Company. In mid-1954, Disney sent his Imagineers to every amusement park in the U.S. to analyze what worked and what pitfalls or problems there were in the various locations and incorporated their findings into his design. Construction work started in July 1954, and opened in July 1955; the opening ceremony was broadcast on ABC, which reached 70 million viewers. The park was designed as a series of themed lands, linked by the central Main Street, U.S.A.a replica of the main street in his hometown of Marceline. The connected themed areas were Adventureland (Disney), Adventureland, Frontierland, Fantasyland and Tomorrowland. The park also contained the Narrow-gauge railway, narrow gauge Disneyland Railroad that linked the lands; around the outside of the park was a high berm to separate the park from the outside world. An editorial in ''The New York Times'' considered that Disney had "tastefully combined some of the pleasant things of yesterday with fantasy and dreams of tomorrow". Although there were early minor problems with the park, it was a success, and after a month's operation, Disneyland was receiving over 20,000 visitors a day; by the end of its first year, it attracted 3.6 million guests. The money from ABC was contingent on Disney television programs. The studio had been involved in a successful television special on Christmas Day 1950 about the making of ''Alice in Wonderland''. Roy believed the program added millions to the box office takings. In a March 1951 letter to shareholders, he wrote that "television can be a most powerful selling aid for us, as well as a source of revenue. It will probably be on this premise that we enter television when we do". In 1954, after the Disneyland funding had been agreed, ABC broadcast '' Walt Disney's Disneyland'', an anthology consisting of animated cartoons, live-action features and other material from the studio's library. The show was successful in terms of ratings and profits, earning an audience share of over 50%. In April 1955, ''Newsweek'' called the series an "American institution". ABC was pleased with the ratings, leading to Disney's first daily television program, '' '', a variety show catering specifically to children. The program was accompanied by merchandising through various companies (Western Printing, for example, had been producing coloring books and comics for over 20 years, and produced several items connected to the show). One of the segments of ''Disneyland'' consisted of the five-part miniseries ''Davy Crockett (miniseries), Davy Crockett'' which, according to Gabler, "became an overnight sensation". The show's theme song, "The Ballad of Davy Crockett", became internationally popular, and ten million records were sold. As a result, Disney formed his own record production and distribution entity, Walt Disney Records, Disneyland Records. As well as the construction of Disneyland, Disney worked on other projects away from the studio. He was consultant to the 1959 American National Exhibition in Moscow; Disney Studios' contribution was ''America the Beautiful (Disney), America the Beautiful'', a 19-minute film in the 360-degree Circle-Vision 360°, Circarama theater that was one of the most popular attractions. The following year he acted as the chairman of the Pageantry Committee for the 1960 Winter Olympics in Squaw Valley, Placer County, California, Squaw Valley, California, where he designed the Olympic Games ceremony, opening, closing and medal ceremonies. Despite the demands wrought by non-studio projects, Disney continued to work on film and television projects. In 1955, he was involved in "Man in Space", an episode of the ''Disneyland'' series, which was made in collaboration with NASA rocket designer Wernher von Braun. Disney also oversaw aspects of the full-length features ''Lady and the Tramp'' (the first animated film in CinemaScope) in 1955, ''Sleeping Beauty (1959 film), Sleeping Beauty'' (the first animated film in Technirama 70 mm film) in 1959, ''One Hundred and One Dalmatians'' (the first animated feature film to use Traditional animation#Xerography, Xerox cels) in 1961, and ''The Sword in the Stone (1963 film), The Sword in the Stone'' in 1963. In 1964, Disney produced '' '', based on Mary Poppins (book series), the book series by P. L. Travers; he had been trying to acquire the rights to the story since the 1940s. It became the most successful Disney film of the 1960s, although Travers disliked the film intensely and regretted having sold the rights. The same year he also became involved in plans to expand the California Institute of the Arts (colloquially called CalArts), and had an architect draw up blueprints for a new building. Disney provided four exhibits for the , for which he obtained funding from selected corporate sponsors. For PepsiCo, who planned a tribute to UNICEF, Disney developed It's a Small World, a boat ride with audio-animatronic dolls depicting children of the world; Great Moments with Mr. Lincoln contained an animatronic Abraham Lincoln giving excerpts from his speeches; Walt Disney's Carousel of Progress, Carousel of Progress promoted the importance of electricity; and Ford's Magic Skyway portrayed the progress of mankind. Elements of all four exhibitsprincipally concepts and technologywere re-installed in Disneyland, although It's a Small World is the ride that most closely resembles the original. During the early to mid-1960s, Disney developed plans for a ski resort in Mineral King, a glacial valley in California's Sierra Nevada. He hired experts such as the renowned Olympic ski coach and ski-area designer Willy Schaeffler. With income from Disneyland accounting for an increasing proportion of the studio's income, Disney continued to look for venues for other attractions. In late 1965, he announced plans to develop another theme park to be called "Disney World" (now Walt Disney World), a few miles southwest of Orlando, Florida. Disney World was to include the "Magic Kingdom"a larger and more elaborate version of Disneylandplus golf courses and resort hotels. The heart of Disney World was to be the "Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow" (EPCOT (concept), EPCOT), which he described as:
an experimental prototype community of tomorrow that will take its cue from the new ideas and new technologies that are now emerging from the creative centers of American industry. It will be a community of tomorrow that will never be completed, but will always be introducing and testing and demonstrating new materials and systems. And EPCOT will always be a showcase to the world for the ingenuity and imagination of American free enterprise.During 1966, Disney cultivated businesses willing to sponsor EPCOT. He received a story credit in the 1966 film ''Lt. Robin Crusoe, U.S.N.'' as Retlaw Yensid, his name spelt backwards. He increased his involvement in the studio's films, and was heavily involved in the story development of ''The Jungle Book (1967 film), The Jungle Book'', the live-action musical feature ''The Happiest Millionaire'' (both 1967) and the animated short ''Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day'' (1968).
Illness, death and aftermathDisney had been a Chain smoking, heavy smoker since World War I. He did not use cigarettes with cigarette filter, filters and had smoked a pipe as a young man. In early November 1966, he was diagnosed with lung cancer and was treated with cobalt therapy. On November 30, he felt unwell and was taken by ambulance from his home to Providence Saint Joseph Medical Center, St. Joseph Hospital where, on December 15, 1966, ten days after his 65th birthday, he died of circulatory collapse caused by the cancer. His remains were cremated two days later and his ashes interred at the Forest Lawn Memorial Park (Glendale), Forest Lawn Memorial Park in Glendale, California. The release of ''The Jungle Book'' and ''The Happiest Millionaire'' in 1967 raised the total number of feature films that Disney had been involved in to 81. When ''Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day'' was released in 1968, it earned Disney an Academy Award in the Short Subject (Cartoon) category, awarded posthumously. After Disney's death, his studios continued to produce live-action films prolifically but largely abandoned animation until the late 1980s, after which there was what ''The New York Times'' describes as the "Disney Renaissance" that began with ''The Little Mermaid (1989 film), The Little Mermaid'' (1989). Disney's companies continue to produce successful film, television and stage entertainment. Disney's plans for the futuristic city of EPCOT did not come to fruition. After Disney's death, his brother Roy deferred his retirement to take full control of the Disney companies. He changed the focus of the project from a town to an attraction. At the inauguration in 1971, Roy dedicated Walt Disney World to his brother. Walt Disney World expanded with the opening of Epcot Center in 1982; Walt Disney's vision of a functional city was replaced by a park more akin to a permanent world's fair. In 2009, the Walt Disney Family Museum, designed by Disney's daughter Diane and her son Walter E. D. Miller, opened in the Presidio of San Francisco. Thousands of artifacts from Disney's life and career are on display, including numerous awards that he received. In 2014, the Disney theme parks around the world hosted approximately 134 million visitors. Disney has been portrayed numerous times in fictional works. H. G. Wells references Disney in his 1938 novel ''The Holy Terror (Wells novel), The Holy Terror'', in which World Dictator Rud fears that Donald Duck is meant to lampoon the dictator. Disney was portrayed by Len Cariou in the 1995 made-for-TV film ''A Dream Is a Wish Your Heart Makes: The Annette Funicello Story'', and by Tom Hanks in the 2013 film ''Saving Mr. Banks''. In 2001, the German author Peter Stephan Jungk published (trans: ''The King of America''), a fictional work of Disney's later years that re-imagines him as a power-hungry racist. The composer Philip Glass later adapted the book into the opera ''The Perfect American'' (2013).
Awards and honorsDisney received 59 Academy Award nominations, including 22 awards: both totals are records. He was nominated for three Golden Globe Awards, but did not win, but he was presented with two Special Achievement Awardsfor ''Bambi'' (1942) and ''The Living Desert'' (1953)and the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award, Cecil B. DeMille Award. He also received four nominations, winning once, for Best Producer for the ''Disneyland'' television series. Several of his films are included in the United States by the as "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant": ''Steamboat Willie'', ''The Three Little Pigs'', ''Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs'', ''Fantasia'', ''Pinocchio'', ''Bambi'', ''Dumbo'' and ''Mary Poppins''. In 1998, the American Film Institute published a list of the 100 greatest American films, according to industry experts; the list included ''Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs'' (at number 49), and ''Fantasia'' (at 58). In February 1960, Disney was inducted to the Hollywood Walk of Fame with two stars, one for motion pictures and the other for his television work; Mickey Mouse was given his own star for motion pictures in 1978. Disney was also inducted into the Television Hall of Fame in 1986, the California Hall of Fame in December 2006, and was the inaugural recipient of a star on the Anaheim/Orange County Walk of Stars, Anaheim walk of stars in 2014. The Walt Disney Family Museum records that he "along with members of his staff, received more than 950 honors and citations from throughout the world". He was made a in the French in 1935, and in 1952 he was awarded the country's highest artistic decoration, the . Other national awards include Thailand's Order of the Crown of Thailand, Order of the Crown (1960); Germany's Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany, Order of Merit (1956), Brazil's Order of the Southern Cross (1941),
Personality and reputationDisney's public persona was very different from his actual personality. Playwright Robert E. Sherwood described him as "almost painfully shy ... diffident" and self-deprecating. According to his biographer Richard Schickel, Disney hid his shy and insecure personality behind his public identity. Kimball argues that Disney "played the role of a bashful tycoon who was embarrassed in public" and knew that he was doing so. Disney acknowledged the façade and told a friend that "I'm not Walt Disney. I do a lot of things Walt Disney would not do. Walt Disney does not smoke. I smoke. Walt Disney does not drink. I drink." Critic Otis Ferguson, in ''The New Republic'', called the private Disney: "common and everyday, not inaccessible, not in a foreign language, not suppressed or sponsored or anything. Just Disney." Many of those with whom Disney worked commented that he gave his staff little encouragement due to his exceptionally high expectations. Norman recalls that when Disney said "That'll work", it was an indication of high praise. Instead of direct approval, Disney gave high-performing staff financial bonuses, or recommended certain individuals to others, expecting that his praise would be passed on. Views of Disney and his work have changed over the decades, and there have been polarized opinions. Mark Langer, in the ''American Dictionary of National Biography'', writes that "Earlier evaluations of Disney hailed him as a patriot, folk artist, and popularizer of culture. More recently, Disney has been regarded as a paradigm of and intolerance, as well as a debaser of culture." Steven Watts wrote that some denounce Disney "as a cynical manipulator of cultural and commercial formulas", while PBS records that critics have censured his work because of its "smooth façade of sentimentality and stubborn optimism, its feel-good re-write of American history". Although Disney's films have been highly praised, very popular and commercially successful over time, there were criticisms by reviewers. C. A. Lejeune, Caroline Lejeune comments in ''The Observer'' that ''Snow White'' (1937) "has more faults than any earlier Disney cartoon. It is vulnerable again and again to the barbed criticisms of the experts. Sometimes it is, frankly, badly drawn." Robin Allen, writing for ''The Times'', notes that ''Fantasia'' (1940) was "condemned for its vulgarity and lurches into bathos", while Lejeune, reviewing ''Alice in Wonderland'' (1951), feels the film "may drive lovers of Lewis Carroll to frenzy". ''Peter Pan'' (1953) was criticized in ''The Times'' as "a children's classic vulgarized" with "Tinker Bell ... a Blond#Varieties, peroxided American cutie". The reviewer opined that Disney "has slaughtered good J. M. Barrie, Barrie and has only second-rate Disney to put in its place". Disney has been accused of antisemitism, anti-Semitism for having given Nazi propagandist Leni Riefenstahl a tour of his studio a month after , although none of his employees—including the animator Art Babbitt, who disliked Disney intensely—ever accused him of making anti-Semitic slurs or taunts. The Walt Disney Family Museum acknowledges that ethnic stereotypes common to films of the 1930s were included in some early cartoons. Disney donated regularly to Jewish charities, he was named "1955 Man of the Year" by the B'nai B'rith chapter in Beverly Hills, and his studio employed a number of Jews, some of whom were in influential positions. Gabler, the first writer to gain unrestricted access to the Disney archives, concludes that the available evidence does not support accusations of anti-Semitism and that Disney was "not [anti-Semitic] in the conventional sense that we think of someone as being an anti-Semite". Gabler concludes that "though Walt himself, in my estimation, was not anti-Semitic, nevertheless, he willingly allied himself with people who were anti-Semitic [meaning some members of the Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals, MPAPAI], and that reputation stuck. He was never really able to expunge it throughout his life". Disney distanced himself from the Motion Picture Alliance in the 1950s. Disney has also been accused of other forms of racism because some of his productions released between the 1930s and 1950s contain racially insensitive material. The feature film ''Song of the South'' was criticized by contemporary film critics, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and others for its perpetuation of Stereotypes of African Americans, black stereotypes, but Disney later campaigned successfully for an Honorary Academy Award for its star, James Baskett, the first black actor so honored. Gabler argues that "Walt Disney was no racist. He never, either publicly or privately, made disparaging remarks about blacks or asserted white superiority. Like most white Americans of his generation, however, he was racially insensitive." Floyd Norman, the studio's first black animator who worked closely with Disney during the 1950s and 1960s, said, "Not once did I observe a hint of the racist behavior Walt Disney was often accused of after his death. His treatment of peopleand by this I mean all peoplecan only be called exemplary." Watts argues that many of Disney's post-World War II films "legislated a kind of cultural Marshall Plan. They nourished a genial cultural imperialism that magically overran the rest of the globe with the values, expectations, and goods of a prosperous middle-class United States." Film historian Jay P. Telotte acknowledges that many see Disney's studio as an "agent of manipulation and repression", although he observes that it has "labored throughout its history to link its name with notions of fun, family, and fantasy". John Tomlinson, in his study ''Cultural Imperialism'', examines the work of Ariel Dorfman and Armand Mattelart, whose 1971 book (trans: ''How to Read Donald Duck'') identifies that there are "imperialist ... values 'concealed' behind the innocent, wholesome façade of the world of Walt Disney"; this, they argue, is a powerful tool as "it presents itself as harmless fun for consumption by children." Tomlinson views their argument as flawed, as "they simply ''assume'' that reading American comics, seeing adverts, watching pictures of the affluent ... ['Yankee'] lifestyle has a direct pedagogic effect". Several commentators have described Disney as a . On Disney's death, journalism professor Ralph S. Izard comments that the values in Disney's films are those "considered valuable in American Christian society", which include "individualism, decency, ... love for our fellow man, fair play and toleration". Disney's obituary in ''The Times'' calls the films "wholesome, warm-hearted and entertaining ... of incomparable artistry and of touching beauty". Journalist Bosley Crowther argues that Disney's "achievement as a creator of entertainment for an almost unlimited public and as a highly ingenious merchandiser of his wares can rightly be compared to the most successful industrialists in history." Correspondent Alistair Cooke calls Disney a "folk-hero ... the Pied Piper of Hollywood", while Gabler considers Disney "reshaped the culture and the American consciousness". In the ''American Dictionary of National Biography'', Langer writes:
Disney remains the central figure in the history of animation. Through technological innovations and alliances with governments and corporations, he transformed a minor studio in a marginal form of communication into a multinational leisure industry giant. Despite his critics, his vision of a modern, corporate utopia as an extension of traditional American values has possibly gained greater currency in the years after his death.
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