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Vladimir-Suzdal (russian: Владимирско-Су́здальская, ''Vladimirsko-Suzdal'skaya''), also Vladimir-Suzdalian Rus', formally known as the Grand Duchy of Vladimir (1157–1331) (russian: Владимиро-Су́здальское кня́жество, lit=Vladimiro-Suzdalian principalty, translit=Vladimiro-Suzdal'skoye knyazhestvo; la, Volodimeriae), was one of the major principalities that succeeded
Kievan Rus' Kievan Rus' ( orv, , Rusĭ, or , , "Rus' land") or Kyivan Rus', was a loose federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a ...
in the late 12th century, centered in
Vladimir-on-Klyazma Vladimir ( rus, Влади́мир, p=vlɐ'dʲimʲɪr, a=Ru-Владимир.ogg) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ...
. With time the principality grew into a grand duchy divided into several smaller principalities. After being conquered by the
Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries was the List of largest empires, largest contiguous land empire in history and the second largest empire by landmass, second only to the British Empire. Originating in Mongolia in East Asia, the ...
, the principality became a self-governed state headed by its own nobility. A governorship of principality, however, was prescribed by a Khan declaration (
jarlig A jarlig ( mn, зарлиг, zarlig; russian: ярлык, ''jarlyk'', also transliterated yarlyk in Russian and Turkic, or even more correctly yarlıq, and the Tatar: yarlığ) is an edict or written commandant of Mongol Empire , Mongol and Chi ...
) issued from the
Golden Horde The Golden Horde, self-designated as Ulug Ulus, 'Great State' in Turkic, was originally a Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an ethnic group to the , and the of Russia. ...
to a noble family of any of smaller principalities. Vladimir-Suzdal is traditionally perceived as a cradle of the
Great Russian language Great Russian language (Russian: Великорусский язык, ''Velikorusskiy yazyk'') is a name given in the 19th century to the Russian language as opposed to the other two major East Slavic languages: Belarusian language, Belarusian ("Whi ...
and nationality, and it gradually evolved into the
Grand Duchy of Moscow The Grand Duchy of Moscow, Muscovite Russia, Muscovite Rus' or Grand Principality of Moscow (russian: Великое княжество Московское, Velikoye knyazhestvo Moskovskoye; also known in simply as Muscovy from the ) was a ...
.


Origin


Rostov principality

The first notable administrators in the
Rostov Rostov ( rus, Ростов, p=rɐˈstof) is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, town in Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, one of the oldest in the country and a tourist center of the Golden Ring of Russia, Golden Ring. It is located on the shore ...
region presumably were the sons of
Vladimir the Great Vladimir Sviatoslavich ( orv, Володимѣръ Свѧтославичь, ''Volodiměrъ Svętoslavičь''; ''Uladzimir'', russian: Владимир ''Vladimir'', uk, Володимир ''Volodymyr''. See Vladimir (name) Vladimir (russi ...
, Boris and Gleb, and later
Yaroslav the Wise Yaroslav the Wise or Yaroslav I; russian: Ярослав Мудрый, ; uk, Ярослав Мудрий; non, Jarizleifr Valdamarsson; la, Iaroslaus Sapiens. (c. 978 – 20 February 1054) was the Grand Prince of Kiev from 1019 until his death. ...

Yaroslav the Wise
. The principality occupied a vast territory in the northeast of
Kievan Rus' Kievan Rus' ( orv, , Rusĭ, or , , "Rus' land") or Kyivan Rus', was a loose federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a ...
, approximately bounded by the
Volga The Volga (; russian: Во́лга, a=Ru-Волга.ogg, p=ˈvoɫɡə) is the longest river in Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention ra ...
, Oka, and
Northern Dvina , image = dvina.jpg , image_size = , image_caption = Northern Dvina starts as the confluence of Yug River , image =Yug Podosinovets.jpg , image_size = , image_caption =The Yug in Podosino ...
rivers. According to the archeologist Andrei Leontiev, who specializes in the history of the region, the Rostov land until the 10th century was already under the control of Rostov city, while
Sarskoye Gorodishche Sarskoye Gorodishche or Sarsky fort (russian: Сарское городище, literally "Citadel on the Sara") was a medieval fortified settlement in the Yaroslavl Oblast of Russia. It was situated on the bank of the Sara River (Russia), Sara Riv ...
was a tribal center of the native
MeryaMerya may refer to: * Merya people * Merya language, an extinct language * Merya (Tanzanian ward) See also

* Meryan (disambiguation) * Merja (disambiguation), pronounced "Merya" * Meria (disambiguation) * Marya, a tribe of Eritria {{Disambig ...
people. In the 10th century an
eparchy ''Eparchy'' is an anglicize Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice of modifying foreign words, names, and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand ...

eparchy
was established in Rostov. One of the first known princes was Yaroslav the Wise and later Boris Vladimirovich. At that time Rostov was the major center of the
Eastern Orthodox The Eastern Orthodox Church, also called the Orthodox Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptised members. It operates as a communion Communion may refer to: Religion * The Eucharist (also cal ...
Christianity in the region dominated mostly by paganism. Until the 11th century Rostov was often associated with the
Great Novgorod Veliky Novgorod ( rus, links=no, Великий Новгород, p=vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj ˈnovɡərət), also known as Novgorod the Great, or Novgorod Veliky, or just Novgorod (meaning "newtown"), is one of the oldest historic cities of Russia ...
. Evidently the spread of Eastern Orthodox Christianity to the lands of the
Great Perm Great Perm, or simply Perm, in Latin ''Permia'', was a medieval historical region in what is now the Perm Krai Perm Krai ( rus, Пе́рмский край, r=Permsky kray, p=ˈpʲɛrmskʲɪj ˈkraj) is a federal subjects of Russia, federal s ...
was successfully conducted from Rostov. Rostov was the regional capital, including other important towns included
Suzdal Suzdal ( rus, Суздаль, p=ˈsuzdəlʲ) is a town A town is a . Towns are generally larger than s and smaller than , though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and ...

Suzdal
,
Yaroslavl Yaroslavl ( rus, Ярослáвль, p=jɪrɐˈsɫavlʲ) is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, city and the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, located northeast of Moscow. The historic part of the city, a World Heritag ...

Yaroslavl
, and
Belozersk Belozersk (russian: Белозе́рск) is a town A town is a . Towns are generally larger than s and smaller than , though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and use The w ...
.


Rostov-Suzdal

Vladimir Monomakh Vladimir II Monomakh ( Old East Slavic: Володимѣръ Мономахъ, ''Volodiměrŭ Monomakh''; russian: Владимир Мономах; uk, Володимир Мономах, translit=Volodymyr Monomakh; Christian name: ''Vasiliy'', ...
, son of the Grand Prince of
Vsevolod I
Vsevolod I
, inherited the rights to the principality in 1093. As the Grand Prince of Kiev he appointed his son
George IGeorge I or 1 may refer to: People * Patriarch George I of Alexandria (floruit, fl. 621–631) * George I of Constantinople (d. 686) * George I of Antioch (d. 790) * George I of Abkhazia (ruled 872/3–878/9) * George I of Georgia (d. 1027) * Yuri D ...
to rule the northeastern lands and in 1125 moved its capital from
Rostov Rostov ( rus, Ростов, p=rɐˈstof) is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, town in Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, one of the oldest in the country and a tourist center of the Golden Ring of Russia, Golden Ring. It is located on the shore ...
to
Suzdal Suzdal ( rus, Суздаль, p=ˈsuzdəlʲ) is a town A town is a . Towns are generally larger than s and smaller than , though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and ...

Suzdal
, after which the Principality was referred to as Rostov-Suzdal.Yury Dolgoruky in Grand Soviet Encyclopedia
/ref> During the 11th and 12th centuries when southern parts of Rus' were systematically raided by Turkic nomads, their inhabitants began to migrate northward. In the formerly wooded areas, known as
Zalesye Zalesye ( rus, Зале́сье, p=zɐˈlʲesʲjə, ''area beyond the forest'') or Opolye ( rus, Опо́лье, p=ɐˈpolʲjə, ''area in the fields'') is a historical region of Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the R ...
, many new settlements were established. The foundations of
Pereslavl Pereslavl-Zalessky ( rus, Переславль-Залесский, p=pʲɪrʲɪˈslavlʲ zɐˈlʲɛskʲɪj, lit. ''Pereslavl beyond the woods''), also known as Pereyaslavl-Zalessky, is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, town in Yaroslavl ...
,
Kostroma Kostroma ( rus, Кострома́, p=kəstrɐˈma) is a historic city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science ...
,
Dmitrov Dmitrov ( rus, Дмитров, p=ˈdmʲitrəf) is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in di ...
,
Moscow Moscow ( , American English, US chiefly ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐˈskva, a=Москва.ogg) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities and towns in Russia by population, largest city of Russia. The city stands on the ...

Moscow
, Yuriev-Polsky,
Uglich Uglich ( rus, Углич, p=ˈuɡlʲɪtɕ) is a historic types of inhabited localities in Russia, town in Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, located on the Volga River. Population: History A local tradition dates the town's origins to 937. It was first ...

Uglich
,
Tver Tver ( rus, Тверь, p=tvʲerʲ) is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, city and the administrative centre of Tver Oblast, Russia. Population: 414,606 (2015 est.); 403,606 (Russian Census (2010), 2010 Census); 408,903 (Russian Census (20 ...

Tver
,
Dubna Dubna ( rus, Дубна́, p=dʊbˈna) is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, town in Moscow Oblast, Russia. It has a status of ''naukograd'' (i.e. town of science), being home to the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, an international ...

Dubna
, and many others were assigned (either by chronicle or popular legend) to George I, whose sobriquet ("the Long-Armed") alludes to his dexterity in manipulating the politics of far-away
Kiev Kyiv ( uk, Київ) or Kiev . is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also share ...

Kiev
. Sometime in 1108 Monomakh strengthened and rebuilt the town of
Vladimir Vladimir or Wladimir may refer to: Names * Vladimir (name) for the Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Macedonian, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Slovak and Slovenian spellings of a Slavic name * Uladzimir for the Belarusian version of the name * Volodymyr f ...
on the
Klyazma River The Klyazma (, ''Klyaz'ma''), a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its cou ...
, 31 km south of Suzdal. During the rule of George I the principality gained military strength, and in the Suzdal-Ryazan war of 1146 it conquered the
Ryazan Principality The Grand Duchy of Ryazan existed from 1078 when it was separated from the Chernigov Principality as the provincial Murom Principality. Prior to the invasion of Batu Khan Sometime between 1097 and 1155, the principality became a sovereign state ...
. Later in the 1150s Yuri occupied Kiev a couple of times as well. From that time the lands of the northeastern Rus' played an important role in the politics of Kievan Rus'.


Rise of Vladimir

George's son
Andrew the Pious Andrei I Yuryevich, commonly known under his sobriquet Andrei the Pious (russian: Андрей Боголюбский) (c. 1111 – June 28, 1174), was Grand prince of Vladimir-Suzdal from 1157 until his death. His reign saw a complete decline ...
significantly increased Vladimir's power at the expense of the nearby princely states, which he treated with contempt. After burning down Kiev, then the metropolitan seat of Rus', in 1169, he enthroned his younger brother. For Andrew, his capital of Vladimir was a far greater concern, as he embellished it with white stone churches and monasteries. Prince Andrew was murdered by boyars in his suburban residence at
BogolyubovoBogolyubovo (russian: Боголюбово, translated as "God-loving") is the name of several rural localities in Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northe ...

Bogolyubovo
in 1174. After a brief interregnum, Andrew's brother
Vsevolod III Vsevolod III Yuryevich, or Vsevolod the Big Nest (russian: Все́волод III Ю́рьевич Большо́е Гнездо́ ''Vsévolod Trétij Júr'jevich Bol'shóje Gnezdó'') (1154–1212), was the Grand Prince of Vladimir, Russia, Vladi ...

Vsevolod III
secured the throne. He continued most of his brother's policies and once again subjugated Kiev in 1203. Vsevolod's chief enemies, however, were the Southern
Ryazan Principality The Grand Duchy of Ryazan existed from 1078 when it was separated from the Chernigov Principality as the provincial Murom Principality. Prior to the invasion of Batu Khan Sometime between 1097 and 1155, the principality became a sovereign state ...
, which appeared to stir discord in the princely family, and the mighty Turkic state of
Volga Bulgaria Volga Bulgaria ( tt, Идел Болгар, chv, Атӑлçи Пӑлхар) or Volga–Kama Bulghar, was a historic Bulgar state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga The Volga (; russian: Во ...

Volga Bulgaria
, which bordered Vladimir-Suzdal to the east. After several military campaigns, Ryazan was burnt to the ground, and the Bulgars were forced to pay tribute. Vsevolod's death in 1212 precipitated a serious dynastic conflict. His eldest son
Konstantin The first name Konstantin () is a derivation from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as ...
gained the support of powerful Rostovan boyars and
Mstislav the Bold Mstislav Mstislavich the Daring (russian: Мстисла́в II Мстисла́вич Удатный, uk, Мстислав Мстиславич Удатний, translit=Mstyslav Mstyslavych Udatnyi; died c. 1228) prince A prince is a Monarc ...
of Kiev and expelled the lawful heir, his brother
George George may refer to: People * George (given name) George (, ) is a masculine given name derived from the Greek language, Greek Georgios, Geōrgios (; , ). The name gained popularity due to its association with the Christian martyrs, Christian ...
, from Vladimir to
Rostov Rostov ( rus, Ростов, p=rɐˈstof) is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, town in Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, one of the oldest in the country and a tourist center of the Golden Ring of Russia, Golden Ring. It is located on the shore ...
. George managed to return to the capital six years later, upon Konstantin's death. George proved to be a shrewd ruler who decisively defeated Volga Bulgaria and installed his brother Yaroslav in
Novgorod Veliky Novgorod ( rus, links=yes, Великий Новгород, p=vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj ˈnovɡərət), also known as just Novgorod (russian: Новгород, lit=newtown, links=yes), is the largest city and administrative center of Novgorod O ...

Novgorod
. His reign, however, ended when the Mongol hordes under
Batu Khan Batu Khan (c. 1205–1255),; mn, Бат хаан, ''Bat haan'', tt, Бату хан, ''Bá dū'', russian: хан Баты́й also known as Tsar BatuJack Weatherford ''Genghis Khan'', p. 150. in the Russian historiography, was a Mongols, Mo ...
took and burnt Vladimir in 1238. Thereupon they proceeded to devastate other major cities of Vladimir-Suzdal during the
Mongol invasion of Kievan Rus' The Mongol invasion of Kievan Rus' was part of the Mongol invasion of Europe The Mongol invasion of Europe in the 13th century occurred from the 1220s into the 1240s. In Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the European continent ...
.


Mongol yoke

None of the cities of the principality managed to regain the power of the Great Kievan Rus' after the Mongol invasion. Vladimir became a vassal of the
Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries was the List of largest empires, largest contiguous land empire in history and the second largest empire by landmass, second only to the British Empire. Originating in Mongolia in East Asia, the ...
, later succeeded by the
Golden Horde The Golden Horde, self-designated as Ulug Ulus, 'Great State' in Turkic, was originally a Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an ethnic group to the , and the of Russia. ...
, with the Grand Prince appointed by the
Great Khan Khagan or Qaghan ( otk, 𐰴𐰍𐰣, Kaɣan, mn, Xаан or ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ, Khaan, ota, خواقين, Ḫākan, or خان ''Ḫān'', tr, Kağan or ''Hakan'', ug, قاغان, Qaghan) ''Khāqān'', alternatively spelled Kağan, Kagan, Kh ...
. Even the popular
Alexander Nevsky Alexander Yaroslavich Nevsky (russian: link=no, Александр Ярославич Невский; ; 13 May 1221 – 14 November 1263), or Alexander Nevskii, served as Prince of Novgorod (1236–40, 1241–56 and 1258-1259), Grand Prin ...

Alexander Nevsky
of Pereslavl had to go to the Khan's capital in
Karakorum Karakorum ( Khalkha Mongolian: Хархорум, ''Kharkhorum''; Mongolian Script The classical or traditional Mongolian script, also known as the , was the first Mongolian alphabet, writing system created specifically for the Mongolian l ...
in order to be installed as the Grand Prince in Vladimir. As many factions strove for power, the principality rapidly disintegrated into eleven tiny states:
Moscow Moscow ( , American English, US chiefly ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐˈskva, a=Москва.ogg) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities and towns in Russia by population, largest city of Russia. The city stands on the ...

Moscow
,
Tver Tver ( rus, Тверь, p=tvʲerʲ) is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, city and the administrative centre of Tver Oblast, Russia. Population: 414,606 (2015 est.); 403,606 (Russian Census (2010), 2010 Census); 408,903 (Russian Census (20 ...

Tver
,
Pereslavl Pereslavl-Zalessky ( rus, Переславль-Залесский, p=pʲɪrʲɪˈslavlʲ zɐˈlʲɛskʲɪj, lit. ''Pereslavl beyond the woods''), also known as Pereyaslavl-Zalessky, is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, town in Yaroslavl ...
,
Rostov Rostov ( rus, Ростов, p=rɐˈstof) is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, town in Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, one of the oldest in the country and a tourist center of the Golden Ring of Russia, Golden Ring. It is located on the shore ...
,
Yaroslavl Yaroslavl ( rus, Ярослáвль, p=jɪrɐˈsɫavlʲ) is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, city and the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, located northeast of Moscow. The historic part of the city, a World Heritag ...

Yaroslavl
,
Uglich Uglich ( rus, Углич, p=ˈuɡlʲɪtɕ) is a historic types of inhabited localities in Russia, town in Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, located on the Volga River. Population: History A local tradition dates the town's origins to 937. It was first ...

Uglich
,
Belozersk Belozersk (russian: Белозе́рск) is a town A town is a . Towns are generally larger than s and smaller than , though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and use The w ...
,
Kostroma Kostroma ( rus, Кострома́, p=kəstrɐˈma) is a historic city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science ...
,
Nizhny Novgorod Nizhny Novgorod ( ; rus, links=no, Нижний Новгород, a=Ru-Nizhny Novgorod.ogg, p=ˈnʲiʐnʲɪj ˈnovɡərət), colloquially shortened to Nizhny, known as Gorky () between 1932 and 1990, is the administrative centre of Nizhny Novgo ...

Nizhny Novgorod
, Starodub-upon-Klyazma, and Yuriev-Polsky. All of them nominally acknowledged the suzerainty of the Grand Prince of Vladimir, but his effective authority became progressively weaker. By the end of the century, only three cities — Moscow, Tver, and Nizhny Novgorod — still contended for the title of Grand Prince of Vladimir. Once installed, however, they chose to remain in their own cities rather than moving to Vladimir. The
Grand Duchy of Moscow The Grand Duchy of Moscow, Muscovite Russia, Muscovite Rus' or Grand Principality of Moscow (russian: Великое княжество Московское, Velikoye knyazhestvo Moskovskoye; also known in simply as Muscovy from the ) was a ...
gradually came to eclipse its rivals. When the moved his chair from Vladimir to Moscow in 1325, it became clear that Moscow had effectively succeeded Vladimir as the chief centre of power in the north-east remnant of Kievan Rus'.


Further reading

* William Craft Brumfield. ''A History of Russian Architecture'' (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993) (Chapter Three: "Vladimir and Suzdal Before the Mongol Invasion")


See also

*
Zalesye Zalesye ( rus, Зале́сье, p=zɐˈlʲesʲjə, ''area beyond the forest'') or Opolye ( rus, Опо́лье, p=ɐˈpolʲjə, ''area in the fields'') is a historical region of Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the R ...
* List of early East Slavic states *
Grand Duke of Vladimir Image:Vladimir assumption.jpg, Assumption Cathedral in Vladimir was built in 1158-60 and functioned as the mother church of Russia in the 13th century. The Grand Duke of Vladimir was a principality during the Kievan Rus' and after its collapse. It r ...
/ :ru:Список князей Владимирских *
Darughachi ''Darughachi'' (Mongol form) or ''Basqaq'' (Turkic form) which originally designated officials in the Mongol Empire in charge of taxes and administration in a certain province, is the plural form of the Mongolian word ''darugha''. They were someti ...


References


External links

*
History of Vladimir-Suzdal Principality in the Grand Soviet Encyclopedia
{{Authority control Former monarchies of Europe Former principalities Vladimir Oblast Former Slavic countries Medieval Russia Subdivisions of Kievan Rus' Former countries