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The Vietnamese people ( vi, người Việt) or Kinh people ( vi, người Kinh) are a
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions that are south of China, south-east of the Indian sub ...

Southeast Asia
n
ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousn ...
originally native to modern-day
Northern Vietnam 200px, Regions of Vietnam Northern Vietnam ( vi, Bắc Bộ) is one of three geographical regions within Vietnam , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Hanoi , coordinates ...
and
Southern China Northern China () and Southern China () are two approximate regions within China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most ...
. The native language is
Vietnamese Vietnamese may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Vietnam, a country in Southeast Asia ** A citizen of Vietnam. See Demographics of Vietnam. * Vietnamese people, or Kinh people, a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to Vietnam ** Oversea ...
, the most widely spoken
Austroasiatic language The Austroasiatic languages , also known as Mon–Khmer , are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout parts of India, Bangladesh, Nepal, and southern China. There are around 117 million speakers of Austroasi ...
. Its vocabulary was influenced by Chinese early on. During the French colonial era, French was an official language in Vietnam. Afterwards, the
Vietnamese language Vietnamese ( vi, tiếng Việt, links=no) is an that originated in , where it is the and . Vietnamese is spoken natively by over 70 million people, several times as many as the rest of the Austroasiatic family combined. It is the of the , a ...
codified in the Latin alphabet emerged. Vietnamese Kinh people account for just over 85.32% of the population of
Vietnam , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Hanoi , coordinates = , largest_city = Ho Chi Minh City , languages_type = National language , languages ...

Vietnam
in the 2019 census, and are officially known as Kinh people (người Kinh) to distinguish them from the other
minority group A minority group, by its original definition, refers to a group of people whose practices, race, religion, ethnicity, or other characteristics are fewer in numbers than the main groups of those classifications. However, in present-day sociology, ...
s residing in the country such as the
Hmong Hmong may refer to: * Hmong people #REDIRECT Hmong people#REDIRECT Hmong people The Hmong people ( RPA: ''Hmoob'', Nyiakeng Puachue: "𞄀𞄩𞄰", Pahawh Hmong: "𖬌𖬣𖬵" ) are an ethnic group living mainly in southern China, Vietna ...

Hmong
,
Cham Cham or CHAM may refer to: Ethnicities and languages *Chams, people in Vietnam and Cambodia **Cham language, the language of the Cham people ***Cham script ***Cham (Unicode block), a block of Unicode characters of the Cham script *Cham Albanian ...
or Muong. The earliest recorded name for the ancient Kinh people in Vietnamese history books is '' Lạc'' or ''
Lạc Việt The Lạc Việt or Luoyue ( ~ ; pinyin: ''Luòyuè'' ← Middle Chinese: *''lɑk̚-ɦʉɐt̚'' ← Old Chinese *''râk-wat'') were an ancient conglomeration of Baiyue, Yue tribes that inhabited what is today Guangxi in Southern China and the lowla ...
''. The Vietnamese are one of the four main groups of
Vietic The Vietic languages are a branch of the Austroasiatic languages, Austroasiatic language family. The branch was once referred to by the terms ''Việt–Mường'', ''Annamese–Muong'', and ''Vietnamuong''; the term ''Vietic'' was proposed by L ...
speakers in Vietnam, the others being the Muong, Thổ and
Chứt people The Chut (Vietnamese: ''Người Chứt'', Chut language: ''Caku'' / Bear) are a small ethnic group located in the Minh Hóa District, Minh Hóa and Tuyên Hóa District, Tuyên Hóa districts of Quảng Bình Province, in Vietnam's North Central C ...
. They are related to the
Gin , United States, 2010) Gin is a Liquor, distilled alcoholic drink that derives its predominant flavour from juniper berries (''Juniperus communis''). Gin originated as a medicinal liquor made by monks and alchemists across Europe, particularly ...
or the
Jing__NOTOC__ Jing can refer to: * Jing (software), formerly Jing Project * Jing (surname), a Chinese surname * Jing River, in China * Jing (instrument), a large gong used in Korean traditional music Concepts * Chinese classics (, ''jīng'') * Jing (C ...
people, a Vietnamese ethnic group in China.


Terminology


Việt

The term "" (Yue) () in
Early Middle Chinese Middle Chinese (formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese recorded in the ''Qieyun The ''Qieyun'' () is a Chinese rhyme dictionary, published in 601 during the Sui dynasty. The book wa ...
was first written using the
logograph In a written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language by means of a writing system. Written language is an invention in that it must be taught to children, who will pick up spoken language or sign ...
"戉" for an axe (a homophone), in
oracle bone Oracle bones () are pieces of ox scapula In anatomy, the scapula (plural scapulae or scapulas), also known as the shoulder bone, shoulder blade, wing bone, speal bone or blade bone, is the bone that connects the humerus (upper arm bone) with t ...

oracle bone
and bronze inscriptions of the late
Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynasty (), was a Chinese dynasty Dynasties in Chinese history, or Chinese dynasties, were hereditary monarchical regimes that ruled over China during much of its history. From ...

Shang dynasty
( BC), and later as "越". At that time it referred to a people or chieftain to the northwest of the Shang. In the early 8th century BC, a tribe on the middle
Yangtze The Yangtze or Yangzi ( or ) is the longest river in Asia, the third-longest in the world and the longest in the world to flow entirely within one country. It rises at Jari Hill in the Tanggula Mountains The Tanggula ( Chinese:  ...
were called the
YangyueYangyue () is a tribe of the Yue people, one of the Ethnic groups in Chinese history, ancient peoples in the South China. In the Chinese classics, Chinese historical books, the description about Yangyue earliest appeared in the Warring States period ...
, a term later used for peoples further south. Between the 7th and 4th centuries BC Yue/Việt referred to the
State of Yue Yue (, Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a co ...
in the lower Yangtze basin and its people. From the 3rd century BC the term was used for the non-Chinese populations of south and southwest China and northern Vietnam, with particular ethnic groups called
Minyue Minyue () was an ancient kingdom in what is now the Fujian Fujian (; alternately romanized as Fukien or Hokkien) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unit ...
, Ouyue (Vietnamese: Âu Việt), Luoyue (Vietnamese:
Lạc Việt The Lạc Việt or Luoyue ( ~ ; pinyin: ''Luòyuè'' ← Middle Chinese: *''lɑk̚-ɦʉɐt̚'' ← Old Chinese *''râk-wat'') were an ancient conglomeration of Baiyue, Yue tribes that inhabited what is today Guangxi in Southern China and the lowla ...
), etc., collectively called the
Baiyue The Baiyue ( zh, t=百越), Hundred Yue, or simply Yue, was a blanket term historically used by ancient China, ancient Chinese to describe various indigenous ethnic groups inhabiting sporadic regions in Southern China and Northern Vietnam during ...

Baiyue
(Bách Việt, ; ). The term Baiyue/Bách Việt first appeared in the book ''
Lüshi Chunqiu The ''Lüshi Chunqiu'', also known in English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which h ...
'' compiled around 239 BC. By the 17th and 18th centuries AD, educated Vietnamese apparently referred to themselves as ''người Việt'' (Viet people) or ''người Nam'' (southern people).


Kinh

Beginning in the 10th and 11th centuries, a strand of Proto-Viet-Muong with influence from Annamese Middle Chinese started to become what is now the
Vietnamese language Vietnamese ( vi, tiếng Việt, links=no) is an that originated in , where it is the and . Vietnamese is spoken natively by over 70 million people, several times as many as the rest of the Austroasiatic family combined. It is the of the , a ...
. Its speakers called themselves the "Kinh" people, meaning people of the "metropolitan" centered around the Red River Delta with
Hanoi , population_total = 8,053,663 ( 2nd) , population_as_of = 2019 , population_demonym = Hanoian , population_density_km2 = auto , population_urban = 3,962,310 , population_density_urban_km2 = 14708.8 , popula ...

Hanoi
as its capital. Historic and modern Chữ Nôm scripture classically uses the Han character '京', pronounced "Jīng" in Mandarin, and "Kinh" with Sino-Vietnamese pronunciation. Other variants of Proto-Viet-Muong were driven to the lowlands by the Kinh and were called ''Trại'' (寨 Mandarin: ''Zhài''), or "outpost" people," by the 13th century. These became the modern
Muong people The Mường () are an ethnic group native to northern Vietnam Northern Vietnam ( vi, Bắc Bộ) is one of three geographical regions within Vietnam Vietnam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,, gr ...
. According to Victor Lieberman, ''người Kinh'' may be a colonial-era term for Vietnamese speakers inserted anachronistically into translations of pre-colonial documents, but literature on 18th century ethnic formation is lacking.


History


Origins and pre-history

The forerunners of the ethnic Vietnamese were Proto-Vietic people who descended from
Proto-Austroasiatic Proto-Austroasiatic is the reconstructed ancestor of the Austroasiatic languages The Austroasiatic languages , also known as Mon–Khmer , are a large language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, i ...
people who may have originated from somewhere in Southern China,
Yunnan Yunnan () is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in Southwest China, the southwest of the People's Republic of China. The province spans approximately and has a population of 48.3 million (as of 2018). The capital of the province is Ku ...

Yunnan
, the
Lingnan Lingnan (; Vietnamese Vietnamese may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Vietnam, a country in Southeast Asia ** A citizen of Vietnam. See Demographics of Vietnam. * Vietnamese people, or Kinh people, a Southeast Asian ethnic group n ...
, or the
Yangtze River The Yangtze or Yangzi ( or ) is the longest river in Asia, the third-longest in the world and the longest in the world to flow entirely within one country. It rises at Jari Hill in the Tanggula Mountains The Tanggula ( Chinese:  ...
, together with the Monic, who settled further to the west and the Khmeric migrated further south. Most archaeologists and linguists, and other specialists like Sinologists and crop experts, believe that they arrived no later than 2000 BC bringing with them the practice of riverine agriculture and in particular the cultivation of wet rice.Blench, Roger. 2018
Waterworld: lexical evidence for aquatic subsistence strategies in Austroasiatic
In ''Papers from the Seventh International Conference on Austroasiatic Linguistics'', 174-193. Journal of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society Special Publication No. 3. University of Hawaii Press.
Blench, Roger. 2017.
Waterworld: lexical evidence for aquatic subsistence strategies in Austroasiatic
'. Presented at ICAAL 7, Kiel, Germany.
Sidwell, Paul. 2015b. ''Phylogeny, innovations, and correlations in the prehistory of Austroasiatic''. Paper presented at the workshop ''Integrating inferences about our past: new findings and current issues in the peopling of the Pacific and South East Asia'', 22–23 June 2015, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany. Some linguists (James Chamberlain, Joachim Schliesinger) suggested that the Vietic-speaking people migrated from North Central Region to the
Red River Delta The Red River Delta or Hong River Delta ( vi, Châu thổ sông Hồng) is the flat low-lying plain formed by the Red River and its distributaries merging with the Thái Bình River in northern Vietnam , image_map = , m ...
, which had originally been inhabited by Tai-
speakers Speaker may refer to: Roles * Speaker (politics), the presiding officer in a legislative assembly * Public speaker, one who gives a speech or lecture * A person producing speech Electronics * Loudspeaker, a device that produces sound ** Computer ...
. However, Michael Churchman found no records of population shifts in
Jiaozhi Jiaozhi (standard Chinese Standard Chinese (), in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a dialect of Mandarin that emerged as the lingua franca among the speakers of various Man ...
(centered around the
Red River Delta The Red River Delta or Hong River Delta ( vi, Châu thổ sông Hồng) is the flat low-lying plain formed by the Red River and its distributaries merging with the Thái Bình River in northern Vietnam , image_map = , m ...
) in Chinese sources, indicating that a fairly stable population of Austroasiatic speakers, ancestral to modern Vietnamese, inhabited in the delta during the
Han Han may refer to: Ethnic groups * Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on ...

Han
- Tang periods. Another theory, based on linguistic diversity, locates the most probable homeland of the Vietic languages in modern-day
Bolikhamsai Province Bolikhamsai (also Borikhamxay, Lao: ບໍລິຄໍາໄຊ) is a province of Laos. Pakxan, Thaphabat, Pakkading, Borikhane, Viengthong, and Khamkeut are its districts and Pakxan is its capital city. The province is the site of the Nam Th ...
and
Khammouane Province Khammouane Province (''Khammouan'') ( Lao: ຄໍາມ່ວນ) is a province in the center of Laos. Its capital lies at Thakhek. Khammouane Province covers an area of and is mostly of forested mountainous terrain. Many streams flow through ...

Khammouane Province
in
Laos , national_anthem = "Pheng Xat Lao "Pheng Sat Lāo" () is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that officially symbolizes a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often r ...

Laos
as well as parts of
Nghệ An Province Nghệ An () is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roman Empire's ...
and
Quảng Bình Province Quảng Bình (), formerly Tiên Bình under the reign of Lê Trung Hưng of the Lê dynasty (this province was renamed Quảng Bình in 1604), is a Provinces of Vietnam, province along North Central Coast, Vietnam's north-central coast. The provi ...
in
Vietnam , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Hanoi , coordinates = , largest_city = Ho Chi Minh City , languages_type = National language , languages ...

Vietnam
. In the 1930s, clusters of Vietic-speaking communities were discovered in the hills of eastern
Laos , national_anthem = "Pheng Xat Lao "Pheng Sat Lāo" () is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that officially symbolizes a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often r ...

Laos
, are believed to be the earliest inhabitants of that region. Archaeogenetics demonstrated that before the Dong Son period, the Red River Delta's inhabitants were predominantly Austroasiatic: genetic data from Phùng Nguyên culture's Mán Bạc burial site (dated 1,800 BC) have close proximity to modern Austroasiatic speakers; meanwhile, "mixed genetics" from
Đông Sơn culture The Dong Son culture or the Lạc Việt culture (named for Đông Sơn, a village in Thanh Hóa, Vietnam , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Hanoi , coordinates = , ...
's Núi Nấp site showed affinity to " Dai from China, from Thailand, and Austroasiatic speakers from Vietnam, including the
Kinh The Vietnamese people ( vi, người Việt) or Kinh people ( vi, người Kinh) are a Southeast Asian ethnic group originally native to modern-day Northern Vietnam and South China, Southern China. The native language is Vietnamese language, ...
". According to Vietnamese legend ''The Tale the Hồng Bàng Clan'' written in the 15th century, the first Vietnamese descended from the
dragon A dragon is a large, serpent Serpent or The Serpent may refer to: * Snake Snakes are elongated, limbless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes . Like all other squamates, snakes are ectothermic, amniote Amniotes (fro ...
lord
Lạc Long Quân Lạc Long Quân (Chữ Hán During ancient times, the ancestors of the Vietnamese were considered to have been Proto-Austroasiatic (also called ''Proto-Mon–Khmer'') speaking people, possibly traced to the ancient Dong Son culture. Modern l ...
and the fairy
Âu Cơ Âu Cơ (嫗姬) was, according to the creation myth of the Vietnamese people, an Immortality, immortal mountain snow fairy who married Lạc Long Quân (), and bore an egg sac that hatched a hundred children known collectively as Baiyue, Bách Vi ...
. They married and had one hundred eggs, from which hatched one hundred children. Their eldest son ruled as the
Hùng king Hùng king (c. 2524 BC – ?; ; vi, Hùng Vương (雄王) or ''vua Hùng'' (𤤰雄); both ''Vương'' and ''vua'' mean "king") is the title given to the ancient Vietnamese rulers of the Hồng Bàng Dynasty, Hồng Bàng period. Tradition ...
. The
Hùng king Hùng king (c. 2524 BC – ?; ; vi, Hùng Vương (雄王) or ''vua Hùng'' (𤤰雄); both ''Vương'' and ''vua'' mean "king") is the title given to the ancient Vietnamese rulers of the Hồng Bàng Dynasty, Hồng Bàng period. Tradition ...
s were claimed to be descended from the mythical figure
Shen Nong Shennong (), variously translated as "Divine Farmer" or "Divine Husbandman", was a mythological Chinese ruler who has become a deity in Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republ ...
.


Early history and Chinese rule

The earliest reference of the proto-Vietnamese or the Vietic in Chinese annals was the ''Lạc'' (Chinese: Luo), ''
Lạc Việt The Lạc Việt or Luoyue ( ~ ; pinyin: ''Luòyuè'' ← Middle Chinese: *''lɑk̚-ɦʉɐt̚'' ← Old Chinese *''râk-wat'') were an ancient conglomeration of Baiyue, Yue tribes that inhabited what is today Guangxi in Southern China and the lowla ...
'', or the Dongsonian, an ancient ethnic group of Mon-Khmer (
Austroasiatic The Austroasiatic languages , also known as Mon–Khmer , are a large language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and wri ...
) stock occupied the
Red River Delta The Red River Delta or Hong River Delta ( vi, Châu thổ sông Hồng) is the flat low-lying plain formed by the Red River and its distributaries merging with the Thái Bình River in northern Vietnam , image_map = , m ...
. The Lạc developed the sophisticated metal age
Dong Son Culture #REDIRECT Dong Son culture The Dong Son culture or the Lạc Việt culture (named for Đông Sơn, a village in Thanh Hóa, Vietnam , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Hanoi , coor ...
and the
chiefdom A chiefdom is a form of hierarchical political organization in non-industrial societies usually based on kinship In , kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, alth ...
, ruled by the semi-mythical
Hùng king Hùng king (c. 2524 BC – ?; ; vi, Hùng Vương (雄王) or ''vua Hùng'' (𤤰雄); both ''Vương'' and ''vua'' mean "king") is the title given to the ancient Vietnamese rulers of the Hồng Bàng Dynasty, Hồng Bàng period. Tradition ...
s. To the south of the Dongsonians was the
Sa Huynh Culture Sa, SA, S.A. or s.a. may refer to: Arts, media and entertainment Music * SA, an initialism of the soprano and alto voice types for which a piece of music was written * SA (Samurai Attack), a Japanese punk rock band * SA Martinez, a vocalist and DJ ...
of the
Austronesian Austronesian may refer to: *The Austronesian languages *The historical Austronesian peoples who carried Austronesian languages on their migrations {{disambiguation ...
proto-
Cham people The Chams or Champa people (Cham language, Cham: ꨂꨣꩃ ꨌꩌꨛꨩ, ''Urang Campa''; vi, Người Chăm or ; km, ជនជាតិចាម, ) are an Austronesian peoples, Austronesian ethnic group. From the 2nd to the mid-15th century t ...
. Around 400–200 BC, the Lạc came to contact with the Âu Việt
Tai people Tai people refers to the population of descendants of speakers of a common Tai language The Tai or Zhuang–Tai languages ( th, ภาษาไท or , transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script ...
and the Sinitic people from the north. According to a late third or early fourth century AD Chinese chronicle, the leader of the Âu Việt, Thục Phán, conquered Văn Lang and deposed the last
Hùng king Hùng king (c. 2524 BC – ?; ; vi, Hùng Vương (雄王) or ''vua Hùng'' (𤤰雄); both ''Vương'' and ''vua'' mean "king") is the title given to the ancient Vietnamese rulers of the Hồng Bàng Dynasty, Hồng Bàng period. Tradition ...
. Having submissions of Lạc lords, Thục Phán proclaimed himself King An Dương of
Âu Lạc Âu Lạc ( Hán tự: 甌貉/ 甌駱/ 甌雒; Chinese pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin Chinese in mainland China, Taiwan (ROC), and Singap ...
kingdom. In 179 BC,
Zhao Tuo , temple name = , house = Triệu dynasty The Triệu dynasty (; vi, Nhà Triệu, links=no; wikt:家, 家wikt:趙, 趙) ruled the kingdom of Nanyue, which consisted of parts of southern China as well as northern Vietnam. Its capital was Pan ...

Zhao Tuo
, a Chinese general who has established the
Nanyue Nanyue () or Namz Yied ( za, Namzyied), was an ancient kingdom ruled by Chinese monarchs of the Triệu dynasty The Triệu dynasty (; vi, Nhà Triệu, links=no; wikt:家, 家wikt:趙, 趙) ruled the kingdom of Nanyue, which consisted of p ...

Nanyue
state in modern-day Southern China, annexed Âu Lạc, and began the Sino-Vietic interaction that lasted in a millennium. In 111 BC, the
Han Empire The Han dynasty () was the second imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang Emperor Gaozu of Han (256 – 1 June 195 BC), born Liu Bang () with courtesy name Ji (季), was the founder and f ...

Han Empire
conquered Nanyue, brought the Lac Viet region under Han rule. By 2 AD, nearly one million people lived in
northern Vietnam Northern Vietnam ( vi, Bắc Bộ) is one of three geographical regions within Vietnam Vietnam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,, group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spell ...
and
central Vietnam Image:VietnameseRegions.png, 200px, Regions of Vietnam. Central Vietnam ( vi, Trung Bộ or ), also known as Middle Vietnam or The Middle, formerly known as by South Vietnam, and Annam (French protectorate), Annam under French Indochina, is one o ...
(981,735 people according to Han census). The Han Chinese began conducting their
civilizing mission The civilizing mission ( es, misión civilizadora; pt, Missão civilizadora; french: Mission civilisatrice) is a political rationale for military intervention and for colonization purporting to facilitate the modernization and the Westernizatio ...
over the local people, which ultimately resulted in a violent uprising of the local Lac people led by
Trung sistersTrung may refer to: * Derung people, also known as Trung people, an ethnic minority in southwest China * Derung language, also known as the Trung language, a Sino-Tibetan language spoken by Derung people * Trưng Sisters ( 12–43), Vietnamese siste ...
in 40s AD. The sisters' stronghold was annihilated in 43 AD, the rebelled Lạc lords were butchered, five thousand people were decapitated, and some hundred families were deported to China. After 43 AD, the Han dynasty imposed direct imperial rule over the region. The Lạc Việt elites started adopting Chinese culture, techniques, and life style, while retaining their own customs.
Mahayana Mahāyāna (; "Great Vehicle") is a term for a broad group of Buddhism, Buddhist traditions, Buddhist texts#Mahāyāna texts, texts, Buddhist philosophy, philosophies, and practices. Mahāyāna Buddhism developed in India (c. 1st century BCE on ...
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and ...

Buddhism
arrived from India via sea routes in the 1st and 2nd centuries, while
Taoism Taoism (), or Daoism (), is a philosophical and spiritual tradition of Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of c ...
and
Confucianism Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is a system of thought and behavior originating in ancient China The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC ...
made their ways to early Vietnamese society at the same time. The Han empire declined in the late 2nd century and gave ways to the
Three Kingdoms The Three Kingdoms () from 220 to 280 AD was the tripartite division of China among the states of Cao Wei, Wei, Shu Han, Shu, and Eastern Wu, Wu. The Three Kingdoms period started with the End of the Han dynasty, end of the Han dynasty#East ...

Three Kingdoms
era. Chinese eyewitness reports in 231 stated that "In the two districts of Mê Linh in
Jiaozhi Jiaozhi (standard Chinese Standard Chinese (), in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a dialect of Mandarin that emerged as the lingua franca among the speakers of various Man ...
and Do Long in
Jiuzhen Jiuzhen (Vietnamese: Cửu Chân, Chinese: 九真) was a Chinese commandery within Jiaozhou. It is located in present-day Thanh Hóa Province Thanh Hóa () is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a countr ...
, it is usual for a younger brother to marry the widow of an older brother. Even the local officials cannot prevent it." By the 7th century to 9th century AD, as the
Tang Empire The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organiza ...

Tang Empire
ruled over the region, historians such as
Henri Maspero Henri Paul Gaston Maspero (15 December 188317 March 1945) was a French sinologist Sinology or Chinese studies, is an academic discipline that focuses on the study of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country ...
proposed that ethnic Vietnamese became separated from other Vietic groups such as the Muong and Chut due to heavier Chinese influences on the Vietnamese. Other argue that a Vietic migration from north central Vietnam to the Red River Delta in the seventh century replaced the original Tai-speaking inhabitants. At least 6 monks from northern Vietnam traveled to China,
Srivijaya Srivijaya (, ; , ) was a Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Malay langu ...
, India and Sri Lanka during the Tang period. A bronze bell inscription dated 798 inscribes names of 100 female members of a local Buddhist sect that have the middle syllable ''thị'' (C. ''shi'') that corresponding to the most common form of name for Vietnamese women. In 816, Liêu Hữu Phương, a native Vietnamese scholar, traveled to Chinese capital
Chang'an Chang'an (; ) is the traditional name of Xi'an Xi'an ( , ; ; Chinese: ), sometimes romanized as Sian, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between ...
and passed the
Imperial examination The Chinese imperial examinations, or ''keju'' (lit. "subject recommendation"), was a civil service examination system in History of China#Imperial era, Imperial China for selecting candidates for the state Civil service#China, bureaucracy. T ...
. In the mid-9th century, local rebels aided by
Nanzhao Nanzhao, also spelled Nanchao or Nan Chao (literally 'Southern Zhao'), was a dynastic kingdom that flourished in what is now southern China and northern Southeast Asia during the 8th and 9th centuries. It was centered on present-day Yunnan in ...

Nanzhao
tore the Tang Chinese rule to nearly collapse. The Tang reconquered the region in 866, causing half of the local rebels to flee into the mountains, which historians believe that was the separation between the Muong and the Vietnamese took at the end of Tang rule in Vietnam. In 938, the Vietnamese leader
Ngo Quyen File:Europe in a suitcase - UK.jpg, upright=1.3, alt=A roomful of people, Europe-Georgia Institute head George Melashvili addresses the audience at the launch of the "Europe in a suitcase" project by two NGOs (the EGI and the Friedrich Naumann Fo ...
who was a native of Thanh Hoa, led Viet forces defeated the Chinese Southern Han armada at Battle of Bạch Đằng (938), Bạch Đằng River and proclaimed himself king, became the first Vietnamese king of the classical period.


Classical and early modern period

Ngo Quyen died in 944 and his kingdom collapsed into chaos and disturbances between 12 Viet warlords and chiefs. In 968, the Việt leader Đinh Bộ Lĩnh united them and established the Đại Việt (Great Việt) kingdom. With assistance of powerful Buddhist monks, Đinh Bộ Lĩnh chose Hoa Lư in the southern edge of the
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as the capital instead of Tang-era Dai La, adopted Chinese-style imperial titles, coinage, and ceremonies and tried to preserve the T’ang administrative framework. In 979 Dinh Bo Linh was assassinated, and Queen Duong Van Nga married with Dinh's general Le Hoan, appointed him as king. Disturbances in Dai Viet attracted attentions from neighbouring Chinese Song dynasty and Champa Kingdom, but they were defeated by Le Hoan. In 982 the Vietnamese attacked and destroyed Champa's capital Indrapura (Champa), Indrapura and Đại Việt was recorded in Arab chronicle Al-Fihrist as the ''Luqin'' (Long Biên District, Long Biên) kingdom. A Khmer inscription dated 987 records the arrival of Vietnamese merchants (Yawana) in Angkor. Chinese writers, Song Hao, Fan Chengda and Zhou Qufei, both reported that the Việt "tattooed their foreheads, crossed feet, black teeth, bare feet and blacken clothing." Successive Vietnamese royal families from the Đinh, Lê, Lý dynasties and Hoa people, Hoa-Chinese ancestry Trần and Hồ dynasties ruled the kingdom peacefully from 968 to 1407. King Lý Thái Tổ (r. 1009–1028) relocated the Vietnamese capital from Hoa Lư to
Hanoi , population_total = 8,053,663 ( 2nd) , population_as_of = 2019 , population_demonym = Hanoian , population_density_km2 = auto , population_urban = 3,962,310 , population_density_urban_km2 = 14708.8 , popula ...

Hanoi
, the center of the
Red River Delta The Red River Delta or Hong River Delta ( vi, Châu thổ sông Hồng) is the flat low-lying plain formed by the Red River and its distributaries merging with the Thái Bình River in northern Vietnam , image_map = , m ...
in 1010. They practiced elitist marriage alliances between clans and nobles in the country. Mahayana Buddhism became state religion, Vietnamese music instruments, dancing and religious worshipping were influenced by both Cham, Indian and Chinese styles, while Confucianism slowly gained attention and influence. The earliest surviving corpus and text in
Vietnamese language Vietnamese ( vi, tiếng Việt, links=no) is an that originated in , where it is the and . Vietnamese is spoken natively by over 70 million people, several times as many as the rest of the Austroasiatic family combined. It is the of the , a ...
dated early 12th century, and surviving ''chữ nôm'' script inscriptions dated early 13th century. One of the earliest ethnic Vietnamese that migrated to Korea during this time was Lý Dương Côn (), an adopted son of King Lý Nhân Tông; following a succession crisis, he fled to Goryeo (918-1392 Korean Dynasty). He is known in modern-day Korea as a Vietnamese member of the Jeongseon, Jeongseon-gun, Gangwon (historical), Gangwon-do ''bon-gwan'' of the Lee (Korean name), Lee family. Later, a Vietnamese prince of the Lý Dynasty, Lý Long Tường (the seventh son of emperor Lý Anh Tông) and his crew of several thousand mandarins and servants escaped to Korea via Taiwan after hearing that the Lý Dynasty would be overthrown by the Trần Dynasty. Lý Anh Tông, Lý Long Tường and his crew sought refuge in the Goryeo Kingdom in 1226. The Mongol Yuan dynasty unsuccessful invaded Dai Viet in the 1250s and 1280s, though they sacked Hanoi. The Ming dynasty of China conquered Dai Viet in 1406, brought the Vietnamese under Chinese rule for 20 years, before they were driven out by Vietnamese leader Lê Lợi. The Chinese brought several thousands of Vietnamese artisans, skilled workers to China, resettled them in Beijing. During the 15th century, Dai Viet's population skyrocketed from 1.9 million to 4.4 million. The fourth grandson of Lê Lợi, king Lê Thánh Tông (r. 1460–1497), is considered one of the greatest monarchs in Vietnamese history. His reign is recognized for the extensive administrative, military, education, and fiscal reforms he instituted, and a cultural revolution that replaced the old traditional aristocracy with a generation of literati scholars, adopted Confucianism, and transformed a Dai Viet from a Southeast Asian style polity to a bureaucratic state, and flourished. Thánh Tông's forces, armed with gunpowder, overwhelmed the long-term rival Champa in 1471, occupied the Laotian and Lan Na kingdoms in the 1480s.


16th century – Modern period

With the death of Thánh Tông in 1497, the Dai Viet kingdom swiftly declined. Climate extremes, failing crops, regionalism and factionism tore the Vietnamese apart. From 1533 to 1790s, four powerful Vietnamese families: Mạc, Lê, Trịnh and Nguyễn, each ruled on their own domains. In northern Vietnam (Dang Ngoai–outer realm), the Lê kings barely sat on the throne while the Trịnh lords held power of the court. The Mạc controlled northeast Vietnam, Trà Kiệu and sometimes the Cambodian court. The Nguyễn lords ruled the southern polity of Dang Trong (inner realm). Thousands of ethnic Vietnamese migrated south, settled on the old Cham lands. European missionaries and traders from the sixteenth century brought new religion, ideas and crops to the Vietnamese (Annamites). By 1639, there were 82,500 Catholic converts throughout Vietnam. In 1651, Alexandre de Rhodes published a 300-pages catechism in Latin and romanized-Vietnamese (''chu quoc ngu'') or the Vietnamese alphabet. The Vietnamese Fragmentation period ended in 1802 as Emperor Gia Long, who was aided by French, Siamese, Malays,... defeated the Tay Son dynasty, Tay Son regime and reunited Vietnam. By 1847, the Vietnamese state under Emperor Thieu Tri, ethnic Vietnamese accounted for nearly 80 percent of the country's population (6.3 million people out of 8 million), while rest were Cham people, Chams, Han Chinese, Chinese, and Khmer people, Khmers. This demographic model continues to persist through the French Indochina, French Indochina in World War II, Japanese occupation and modern day. Between 1862 and 1867, the southern third of the country became the French Cochinchina, French colony of Cochinchina. By 1884, the entire country had come under French rule, with the central and northern parts of Vietnam separated into the two protectorates of Annam (French protectorate), Annam and Tonkin (French protectorate), Tonkin. The three Vietnamese entities were formally integrated into the union of French Indochina in 1887. The French administration imposed significant political and cultural changes on Vietnamese society. A Western-style system of modern education introduced new humanism, humanist values into Vietnam. The French developed a plantation economy to promote the export of tobacco, indigo dye, indigo, tea and coffee. However, they largely ignored the increasing demands for civil rights and self-government. A nationalist political movement soon emerged, with leaders like Phan Bội Châu, Phan Châu Trinh, Phan Đình Phùng, Emperor Hàm Nghi, and Hồ Chí Minh fighting or calling for independence. This resulted in the 1930 Yên Bái mutiny by the Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng, Vietnamese Nationalist Party (VNQDĐ), which the French quashed. The mutiny caused an irreparable split in the independence movement that resulted in many leading members of the organisation becoming communism, communist converts. The French maintained full control over their colonies until World War II, when the Pacific War, war in the Pacific led to the Japanese invasion of French Indochina in 1940. Afterwards, the Empire of Japan, Japanese Empire was allowed to station its troops in Vietnam while permitting the pro-Vichy France, Vichy French colonial administration to continue. Japan exploited Vietnam's natural resources to support its military campaigns, culminating in a Japanese coup d'état in French Indochina, full-scale takeover of the country in March 1945. This led to the Vietnamese Famine of 1945, which resulted in up to two million deaths. In 1941, the Viet Minh, Việt Minh, a nationalist liberation movement based on a Communist Ideology, led by Hồ Chí Minh. The Việt Minh sought independence for Vietnam from France and the end of the Japanese occupation of Vietnam, Japanese occupation. Following the military defeat of Japan and the fall of its puppet Empire of Vietnam in August 1945, anarchy, rioting, and murder were widespread, as Saigon's administrative services had collapsed. The Việt Minh occupied
Hanoi , population_total = 8,053,663 ( 2nd) , population_as_of = 2019 , population_demonym = Hanoian , population_density_km2 = auto , population_urban = 3,962,310 , population_density_urban_km2 = 14708.8 , popula ...

Hanoi
and proclaimed a provisional government, which asserted national independence on 2 September. But as the French were weakened by the German military administration in occupied France during World War II, German occupation, British Raj, British-Indian forces and the remaining Japanese Southern Expeditionary Army Group were used to maintain order and to help France reestablish control through the War in Vietnam (1945–46), 1945–1946 War in Vietnam. Hồ initially chose to take a moderate stance to avoid military conflict with France, asking the French to withdraw their colonial administrators and for French professors and engineers to help build a modern independent Vietnam. But the Provisional Government of the French Republic did not act on these requests, including the idea of independence, and dispatched the French Far East Expeditionary Corps to restore colonial rule. This resulted in the Việt Minh launching a guerrilla campaign against the French in late 1946. The resulting First Indochina War lasted until July 1954. The defeat of French colonialists and Vietnamese National Army, Vietnamese loyalists in the 1954 battle of Điện Biên Phủ allowed Hồ to negotiate a ceasefire from a favourable position at the subsequent 1954 Geneva Conference, Geneva Conference. The colonial administration was thereby ended and French Indochina was dissolved under the Geneva Accords of 1954. Vietnam was further divided into North and South administrative regions at the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone, Demilitarised Zone, roughly along the 17th parallel north, pending elections scheduled for July 1956. A 300-day period of free movement was permitted, during which almost a million northerners, mainly Catholics, moved south, fearing persecution by the communists. This migration was in large part aided by the United States military through Operation Passage to Freedom. The partition of Vietnam by the Geneva Accords was not intended to be permanent, and stipulated that Vietnam would be reunited after the elections. But in 1955, the southern State of Vietnam's prime minister, Ngô Đình Diệm, toppled Bảo Đại in a fraudulent 1955 State of Vietnam referendum, referendum organised by his brother Ngô Đình Nhu, and proclaimed himself president of the Republic of Vietnam. At that point the internationally recognised State of Vietnam effectively ceased to exist and was replaced by the Republic of Vietnam in the south—supported by the United States, France, Kingdom of Laos, Laos, Republic of China and Thailand—and Hồ's Democratic Republic of Vietnam in the north, supported by the Soviet Union, Sweden, Khmer Rouge, and the People's Republic of China. On 2 July 1976, North and South Vietnam were merged to form the Socialist Republic of Việt Nam. The war left Vietnam devastated, with the total death toll between 966,000 and 3.8 million. In its aftermath, under Lê Duẩn's administration, there were no mass executions of South Vietnamese who had collaborated with the US or the defunct South Vietnamese government, confounding Western fears, but up to 300,000 South Vietnamese were sent to Re-education camp (Vietnam), reeducation camps, where many endured torture, starvation, and disease while being forced to perform hard labour. The government embarked on a mass campaign of collectivisation of farms and factories. In 1978, in response to the Khmer Rouge government of Cambodia ordering massacres of Vietnamese residents in the border villages in the districts of An Giang Province, An Giang and Kiên Giang Province, Kiên Giang, the Vietnamese military Cambodian–Vietnamese War, invaded Cambodia and removed them from power after occupying Phnom Penh. The intervention was a success, resulting in the establishment of a new, pro-Vietnam socialist government, the People's Republic of Kampuchea, which ruled until 1989. At the 6th National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam, Sixth National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) in December 1986, reformist politicians replaced the "old guard" government with new leadership. The reformers were led by 71-year-old Nguyễn Văn Linh, who became the party's new general secretary. He and the reformers implemented a series of free-market reforms known as ("Renovation") that carefully managed the transition from a planned economy to a "socialist-oriented market economy". Though the authority of the state remained unchallenged under ''Đổi Mới'', the government encouraged private ownership of farms and factories, economic deregulation, and foreign investment, while maintaining control over strategic industries. The Vietnamese economy subsequently achieved strong growth in agricultural and industrial production, construction, exports, and foreign investment, although these reforms also caused a rise in income inequality and gender disparities.


Religions

According to the 2019 Census, the religious demographics of Vietnam are as follows: *86.32% Vietnamese folk religion or non religious *6.1% Catholic Church in Vietnam, Catholicism *4.79%
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and ...

Buddhism
(mainly
Mahayana Mahāyāna (; "Great Vehicle") is a term for a broad group of Buddhism, Buddhist traditions, Buddhist texts#Mahāyāna texts, texts, Buddhist philosophy, philosophies, and practices. Mahāyāna Buddhism developed in India (c. 1st century BCE on ...
) *1.02% Hòa Hảo, Hoahaoism *1% Protestantism *<1% Caodaism *0.77 Others It is worth noting here that the data is highly skewered, as a large majority of Vietnamese may declare themselves atheist, yet practice forms of traditional folk religion or Mahayana Buddhism. Estimates for the year 2010 published by the Pew Research Center: * Vietnamese folk religion, 45.3% * Unaffiliated, 29.6% * Buddhism, 16.4% * Christianity, 8.2% * Other, 0.5%


Diaspora

Originally from northern Vietnam and southern China, the Vietnamese have conquered much of the land belonging to the former Champa Kingdom and Khmer Empire over the centuries. They are the dominant ethnic group in most provinces of Vietnam, and constitute a small percentage of the population in neighbouring Cambodia. Beginning around the sixteenth century, groups of Vietnamese migrated to Cambodia and China for commerce and political purposes. Descendants of Vietnamese migrants in China form the
Gin , United States, 2010) Gin is a Liquor, distilled alcoholic drink that derives its predominant flavour from juniper berries (''Juniperus communis''). Gin originated as a medicinal liquor made by monks and alchemists across Europe, particularly ...
ethnic group in the country and primarily reside in and around Guangxi Province. Vietnamese form the largest ethnic minority group in Cambodia, at 5% of the population. Under the Khmer Rouge, they were heavily persecuted and survivors of the regime largely fled to Vietnam. During French Indochina, French colonialism, Vietnam was regarded as the most important colony in Asia by the French colonial powers, and the Vietnamese had a higher social standing than other ethnic groups in French Indochina. As a result, educated Vietnamese were often trained to be placed in colonial government positions in the other Asian French colonies of Laos and Cambodia rather than locals of the respective colonies. There was also a significant representation of Vietnamese students in France during this period, primarily consisting of members of the elite class. A large number of Vietnamese also migrated to France as workers, especially during World War I and World War II, when France recruited soldiers and locals of its colonies to help with war efforts in Metropolitan France. The wave of migrants to France during World War I formed the first major presence of Vietnamese people in France and the Western world.La Diaspora Vietnamienne en France un cas particulier
(in French)
When Vietnam gained its independence from France in 1954, a number of Vietnamese loyal to the colonial government also migrated to France. During the partition of Vietnam into North Vietnam, North and South Vietnam, South, a number of South Vietnamese students also arrived to study in France, along with individuals involved in commerce for trade with France, which was a principal economic partner with South Vietnam. Forced repatriation in 1970 and deaths during the Khmer Rouge era reduced the Vietnamese Cambodian, Vietnamese population in Cambodia from between 250,000 and 300,000 in 1969 to a reported 56,000 in 1984. The Fall of Saigon and end of the Vietnam War prompted the start of the Vietnamese diaspora, which saw millions of Vietnamese fleeing the country from the new communist regime. Recognizing an international humanitarian crisis, many countries accepted Vietnamese refugees, primarily the United States, France, Australia and Canada. Meanwhile, under the new communist regime, tens of thousands of Vietnamese were sent to work or study in Eastern Bloc counties of Central Europe, Central and Eastern Europe as development aid to the Vietnamese government and for migrants to acquire skills that were to be brought home to help with development. However, after the fall of the Berlin Wall, a vast majority of these overseas Vietnamese decided to remain in their host nations.


See also


Notes


References


Bibliography


Books

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Journal articles and theses

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Web sources

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Further reading

* * * * * * * Amer, Ramses (1996). Vietnam's Policies and Ethnic Chinese since 1975, ''Sojourn'', Vol. 11, Issue 1: 76–104. * * * * Cœdès, George. (1966)
''The Making of South East Asia''
(illustrated, reprint ed.). University of California Press. . Retrieved 7 August 2013. * * * * * Contributor: Far-Eastern Prehistory Associatio
''Asian Perspectives, Volume 28, Issue 1''
(1990) University Press of Hawaii. Retrieved 7 August 2013. * * Hall, Kenneth R., ed. (2008)
''Secondary Cities and Urban Networking in the Indian Ocean Realm, C. 1400–1800''
Volume 1 of Comparative urban studies. Lexington Books. . Retrieved 7 August 2013. * * * * * * * * * * * Marr, David G. (2010). Vietnamese, Chinese, and Overseas Chinese during the Chinese Occupation of Northern Indochina (1945-1946), ''Chinese Southern Diaspora Studies'', Vol. 4: 129-139. * * * * * * * * Ungar, E. S. (1988). The Struggle Over the Chinese Community in Vietnam, 1946-1986, ''Pacific Affairs'', Vol. 60, Issue 4: 596–614. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


External links

* {{DEFAULTSORT:Vietnamese People Vietnamese people, Ethnic groups in Vietnam