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Victorian architecture is a series of architectural revival styles in the mid-to-late 19th century. ''Victorian'' refers to the reign of
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
(1837–1901), called the
Victorian era In the , the Victorian era was the of 's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. The era followed the and preceded the , and its later half overlaps with the first part of the ' era of Continental Europe. There was ...
, during which period the styles known as Victorian were used in construction. However, many elements of what is typically termed "Victorian" architecture did not become popular until later in Victoria's reign, roughly from 1850 and later. The styles often included interpretations and
eclectic Eclectic may refer to: Music * Eclectic (Eric Johnson and Mike Stern album), ''Eclectic'' (Eric Johnson and Mike Stern album), 2014 * Eclectic (Big Country album), ''Eclectic'' (Big Country album), 1996 * Eclectic Method, name of an audio-visual ...
revivals of historic styles. The name represents the British and French custom of naming architectural styles for a reigning monarch. Within this naming and classification scheme, it followed
Georgian architecture Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically ident ...
and later
Regency architecture , London, John NashJohn Nash may refer to: Arts and entertainment *John Nash (architect) (1752–1835), Anglo-Welsh architect *John Nash Round, English architect active in the mid-19th-century Kent *"Jolly" John Nash (1828–1901), English music h ...
, and was succeeded by
Edwardian architecture Edwardian architecture is a Neo-Baroque architectural style that was popular in the British Empire during the Edwardian era (1901–1910). Architecture up to the year 1914 may also be included in this style. Description Edwardian architecture is g ...
. Although Victoria did not reign over the United States, the term is often used for American styles and buildings from the same period, as well as those from the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
.


Victorian architecture in the United Kingdom


Gothic Revival

During the early 19th century, the romantic
medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...

medieval
Gothic Revival Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic, neo-Gothic, or Gothick) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England. The movement gained momentum and expanded in the first half of the 19th century, as increasingly ...
style was developed as a reaction to the
symmetry Symmetry (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...

symmetry
of
Palladianism '', in an English translation published in London, 1736. Palladian architecture is a European architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically id ...
, and such buildings as
Fonthill Abbey Fonthill Abbey—also known as Beckford's Folly—was a large Gothic Revival Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic, neo-Gothic, or Gothick) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England. Its momentum gre ...

Fonthill Abbey
were built. By the middle of the 19th century, as a result of new
technology Technology ("science of craft", from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''techne'', "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and , ''wikt:-logia, -logia'') is the sum of any Art techniques and materials, techniques, skills, Scientific method, methods, and Business ...

technology
, construction was able to incorporate metal materials as building components. Structures were erected with
cast iron Cast iron is a group of iron Iron () is a chemical element with Symbol (chemistry), symbol Fe (from la, Wikt:ferrum, ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal that belongs to the first transition series and group 8 element, group 8 of ...
and
wrought iron Wrought iron is an iron alloy with a very low carbon content (less than 0.08%) in contrast to that of cast iron (2.1% to 4%). It is a semi-fused mass of iron with fibrous slag Inclusion (mineral), inclusions (up to 2% by weight), which gives it a ...
frames however, due to being weak in tension, these materials were effectively phased out in place for more structurally sound
steel Steel is an alloy An alloy is an admixture of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appea ...

steel
. One of the greatest exponents of iron frame construction was
Joseph Paxton Sir Joseph Paxton (3 August 1803 – 8 June 1865) was an English gardener A gardener is someone who practices gardening Gardening is the practice of growing and cultivating plants as part of horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultiva ...

Joseph Paxton
, architect of
the Crystal Palace The Crystal Palace was a cast iron and plate glass structure, originally built in Hyde Park, London, Hyde Park, London, to house the Great Exhibition of 1851. The exhibition took place from 1 May to 15 October 1851, and more than 14,000 exhibito ...
. Paxton also continued to build such houses as
Mentmore Towers Mentmore Towers, historically known simply as "Mentmore", is a 19th-century English country house An English country house is a large house or mansion in the English countryside. Such houses were often owned by individuals who also owned a T ...
, in the still popular
English Renaissance The English Renaissance was a cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, cap ...
styles. New methods of construction were developed in this era of prosperity, but ironically the architectural styles, as developed by such architects as
Augustus Pugin Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin ( ; 1 March 181214 September 1852) was an English architect, designer, artist and critic who is principally remembered for his pioneering role in the Gothic Revival style of architecture. His work culminated in de ...
, were typically retrospective. In
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Tele ...

Scotland
, the architect
Alexander Thomson Alexander "Greek" Thomson (9 April 1817 – 22 March 1875) was an eminent Scottish architect and architectural theorist who was a pioneer in sustainable building Green building (also known as green construction or sustainable building) ref ...
who practiced in
Glasgow Glasgow ( ; sco, Glesga; gd, Glaschu) is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population#Localities, most populous City status in the United Kingdom, city in Scotland and the List of cities in the United Kingdom, fourth-most populous ...

Glasgow
was a pioneer of the use of
cast iron Cast iron is a group of iron Iron () is a chemical element with Symbol (chemistry), symbol Fe (from la, Wikt:ferrum, ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal that belongs to the first transition series and group 8 element, group 8 of ...
and
steel Steel is an alloy An alloy is an admixture of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appea ...

steel
for commercial buildings, blending neo-classical conventionality with Egyptian and Oriental themes to produce many truly original structures. Other notable Scottish architects of this period are
Archibald Simpson Archibald Simpson (4 May 1790 – 23 March 1847) was a Scottish architect, who along with his rival John Smith (architect), John Smith, is regarded as having fashioned the character of Aberdeen as "The Granite City".Simpson, William Douglas, (19 ...

Archibald Simpson
and
Alexander Marshall Mackenzie Alexander Marshall MacKenzie (1 January 1848 – 4 May 1933) was a Scottish architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection ...
, whose stylistically varied work can be seen in the
architecture of Aberdeen File:Aberdeen St Mark's. A Marshall Mackenzie (1847-1933), 1892, photo jc 2010.jpg, St Mark's Church, Rosemount Viaduct The architecture of Aberdeen, Scotland, is known for the use of granite as the principal construction material. The stone, w ...
. While Scottish architects pioneered this style it soon spread right across the United Kingdom and remained popular for another forty years. Its architectural value in preserving and reinventing the past is significant. Its influences were diverse but the Scottish architects who practiced it were inspired by unique ways to blend architecture, purpose, and everyday life in a meaningful way.


Other Revival styles

*
Jacobethan The Jacobethan or Jacobean Revival architectural style is the mixed national Renaissance revival style that was made popular in England from the late 1820s, which derived most of its inspiration and its repertory from the English Renaissance#Archit ...
(1830–1870; the precursor to the British Queen Anne Revival style) *
Renaissance Revival , seat of the Rothschild family, 1874 Renaissance Revival architecture (sometimes referred to as "Neo-Renaissance") is a group of 19th century Revivalism (architecture), architectural revival styles which were neither Greek Revival architecture, ...
(1840–1890) *
Neo-Grec 250px, Neo-Grec architecture in the tomb of actor Dresden.html"_;"title="Bogumil_Dawison_in_Dresden">Bogumil_Dawison_in_Dresden,_Germany Néo-Grec_was_a_Neoclassical_revival_style_of_the_mid-to-late_19th_century_that_was_popularized_in_architectu ...
(1845–1865) *
Romanesque Revival Romanesque Revival (or Neo-Romanesque) is a style of building employed beginning in the mid-19th century inspired by the 11th- and 12th-century Romanesque architecture Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of Middle Ages, medieval ...
* Second Empire (1855–1880; originated in
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the and from the to the and the ; overseas territories include in , in the N ...

France
) * British Queen Anne Revival (1870–1910) *
Scots Baronial Scottish Baronial or Scots Baronial is an architectural style of 19th century Gothic Revival architecture, Gothic Revival which Revivalism (architecture), revived the forms and ornaments of historical Architecture of Scotland in the Middle Ages, a ...
(predominantly Scotland) * British
Arts and Crafts movement The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression of creativity found in human cultures and Society, societies through Skill, skills and imagination in order to produce Physical object, objects, Natural environment, ...
(1880–1910) Some styles, while not uniquely Victorian, are strongly associated with the 19th century owing to the large number of examples that were erected during that period: *
Italianate The Italianate style was a distinct 19th-century phase in the history of Classical architecture Classical architecture usually denotes architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Co ...
*
Neoclassical Neoclassical or neo-classical may refer to: * Neoclassicism or New Classicism, any of a number of movements in the fine arts, literature, theatre, music, language, and architecture beginning in the 17th century ** Neoclassical architecture, an arc ...
File:Houses of Parliament.jpg,
Palace of Westminster The Palace of Westminster serves as the meeting place for both the House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Towns ...

Palace of Westminster
, Neo-Gothic completed in 1870. Designed by Sir
Charles Barry Sir Charles Barry (23 May 1795 – 12 May 1860) was a British architect, best known for his role in the rebuilding of the Palace of Westminster (also known as the Houses of Parliament) in London during the mid-19th century, but also responsib ...
and
Augustus Pugin Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin ( ; 1 March 181214 September 1852) was an English architect, designer, artist and critic who is principally remembered for his pioneering role in the Gothic Revival style of architecture. His work culminated in de ...
File:Royal Albert Hall, London - Nov 2012.jpg,
Royal Albert Hall The Royal Albert Hall is a concert hall A concert hall is a cultural building with a stage that serves as a performance venue and an auditorium filled with seats. While early halls built in the 18th and 19th century were designed ...

Royal Albert Hall
, London File:Victoria Clock Tower, Liverpool University - geograph.org.uk - 374422.jpg, The "Red Brick" Victoria Building at the
University of Liverpool , mottoeng = These days of peace foster learning , established = 1881 - University College Liverpool1884 - affiliated to the federal Victoria Universityhttp://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukla/2004/4 University of Manchester Act 2004. le ...
, completed in 1893 in
Gothic Revival Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic, neo-Gothic, or Gothick) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England. The movement gained momentum and expanded in the first half of the 19th century, as increasingly ...
style. Designed by
Alfred Waterhouse Alfred Waterhouse (19 July 1830 – 22 August 1905) was an English architect, particularly associated with the Victorian architecture, Victorian Gothic Revival architecture, although he designed using other architectural styles as well. He is ...
File:The Oval Pavilion.jpg, The Victorian Pavilion at
The Oval The Oval, known for Naming rights#Stadium naming, sponsorship reasons as the Kia Oval, is an international cricket ground in Kennington, in the London Borough of Lambeth, in south London. The Oval has been the home ground of Surrey County Cric ...

The Oval
cricket ground in London File:Art&Science.jpg, Victorian School of Art and Science at
Stroud Stroud is a and in the centre of , England. It is the main town in . Below the western of the , at the meeting point of the , the town is noted for its steep streets. The Cotswold surrounds the town, and the path passes by it to the wes ...

Stroud
,
Gloucestershire Gloucestershire ( abbreviated Glos) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers ...

Gloucestershire
File:HardwickHouseEstate.jpg, House on the Hardwick House estate near
Bury St Edmunds Bury St Edmunds (), commonly referred to locally as Bury, is a historic market Market may refer to: *Market (economics) *Market economy *Marketplace, a physical marketplace or public market Geography *Märket, an island shared by Finland an ...
,
Suffolk Suffolk () is a ceremonial Counties of England, county of England in East Anglia. It borders Norfolk to the north, Cambridgeshire to the west and Essex to the south. The North Sea lies to the east. The county town is Ipswich; other important t ...
File:Manchester town hall.jpg,
Manchester Town Hall Manchester Town Hall is a Victorian Victorian or Victorians may refer to: 19th century * Victorian era, British history during Queen Victoria's 19th-century reign ** Victorian architecture ** Victorian house ** Victorian decorative arts ** Vic ...

Manchester Town Hall
File:The John Rylands Library, Deansgate, Manchester.jpg, The
John Rylands Library The John Rylands Research Institute and Library is a Victorian era, late-Victorian Gothic Revival architecture, neo-Gothic building on Deansgate in Manchester, England. The library, which opened to the public in 1900, was founded by Enriqueta ...
in Manchester File:BirminghamUniversityChancellorsCourt.jpg, The
Aston Webb Sir Aston Webb (22 May 1849 – 21 August 1930) was an England, English architect who designed the principal facade of Buckingham Palace and the main building of the Victoria and Albert Museum, among other major works around England, many of them ...

Aston Webb
building at the
University of Birmingham The University of Birmingham (informally Birmingham University) is a public university, public research university located in Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom. It received its royal charter in 1900 as a successor to Queen's College, Birmingh ...

University of Birmingham
, UK File:Birmingham - Lawcourt 2.JPG,
Victoria Law Courts Image:Victoria Law Courts Birmingham door.jpg, Queen Victoria sits above the main entrance The Victoria Law Courts on Corporation Street, Birmingham, Corporation Street, Birmingham, England is a Grade I listed building, listed Architectural terrac ...
, Birmingham, UK File:University of Glasgow Gilbert Scott Building - Feb 2008-2.jpg, The Gilbert Scott Building of the
University of Glasgow , image_name = University_of_Glasgow_Coat_of_Arms.jpg , image_size = 150px , latin_name = Universitas Glasguensis , motto = la, Via, Veritas, Vita ''Via et veritas et vita'' (, ) is a Latin language, Latin phrase meaning "the way and the t ...

University of Glasgow
, as viewed from
Kelvingrove Park Kelvingrove Park is a public park located on the River Kelvin The River Kelvin (Scottish Gaelic: ''Abhainn Cheilbhinn'') is a tributary of the River Clyde in northern and northeastern Glasgow, Scotland. It rises on the moor south east of the ...
,
Glasgow Glasgow ( ; sco, Glesga; gd, Glaschu) is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population#Localities, most populous City status in the United Kingdom, city in Scotland and the List of cities in the United Kingdom, fourth-most populous ...

Glasgow
. An example of the
Gothic Revival Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic, neo-Gothic, or Gothick) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England. The movement gained momentum and expanded in the first half of the 19th century, as increasingly ...
style File:North of Scotland Bank, 5 Castle Street, Aberdeen, Archibald Simpson, 1839-42.jpg, North of Scotland Bank in Aberdeen by
Archibald Simpson Archibald Simpson (4 May 1790 – 23 March 1847) was a Scottish architect, who along with his rival John Smith (architect), John Smith, is regarded as having fashioned the character of Aberdeen as "The Granite City".Simpson, William Douglas, (19 ...

Archibald Simpson
1839–42 File:Balmoral_Castle.jpg,
Balmoral Castle Balmoral Castle () is a large estate house Historically, an estate comprises the houses, outbuildings, supporting farmland, and woods that surround the gardens and grounds of a very large property, such as a country house or mansion. It is ...

Balmoral Castle
, completely rebuilt for Queen Victoria, an example of the Scots Baronial style File:Walsall Victorian Arcade.JPG,
Walsall Walsall (, or ; locally ) is a market town and administrative centre in West Midlands (county), West Midlands County, England. Historic counties of England, Historically part of Staffordshire, it is located north-west of Birmingham, east of W ...

Walsall
Victorian Arcade, UK File:Barclay's Bank building, Sutton (Surrey), Greater London 03.jpg , Barclays Bank building,
SuttonSutton (''south settlement'' or ''south town'' in Old English) may refer to: Places United Kingdom England In alphabetical order by county: * Sutton, Bedfordshire * Sutton, Berkshire, a List of United Kingdom locations: Stu-Sz#Su, location * Sut ...

Sutton
, Greater London File:Bridge III.jpg,
Forth Rail Bridge The Forth Bridge is a cantilever is anchored and extends over the edge of a swimming pool). The bottom example is created by adding a Robin boundary condition to the beam element, which essentially adds an elastic spring to the end board. ...

Forth Rail Bridge
, Firth of Forth, near Edinburgh, Scotland, UK File:Somerville College.jpg,
Somerville College, Oxford Somerville College is a Colleges of the University of Oxford, constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. It was founded in 1879 as Somerville Hall, one of its first two women's colleges. Among list of Somerville College, Oxford, ...
, UK


International spread of Victorian styles

During the 18th century, a few English architects emigrated to the colonies, but as the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
became firmly established during the 19th century, many architects emigrated at the start of their careers. Some chose the United States, and others went to Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Normally, they applied architectural styles that were fashionable when they left England. By the latter half of the century, however, improving transport and communications meant that even remote parts of the Empire had access to publications such as the magazine ''
The Builder ''Building'' is one of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United K ...
'', which helped colonial architects keep informed about current fashion. Thus, the influence of English architecture spread across the world. Several prominent architects produced English-derived designs around the world, including
William Butterfield William Butterfield (7 September 1814 – 23 February 1900) was a Gothic Revival architect and associated with the Oxford Movement The Oxford Movement was a movement of High Church members of the Church of England which eventually develo ...

William Butterfield
(
St Peter's Cathedral, Adelaide St Peter's Cathedral is an Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of A ...

St Peter's Cathedral, Adelaide
) and
Jacob Wrey Mould Jacob Wrey Mould (7 August 1825 – 14 June 1886) was a British architect, illustrator, linguist and musician, noted for his contributions to the design and construction of New York City's Central Park. He was "instrumental" in bringing the Briti ...
(Chief Architect of Public Works in
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
).


Australia

The Victorian period flourished in Australia and is generally recognised as being from 1840 to 1890, which saw a
gold rush cut the travel time from New York to San Francisco in seven months to four months in the 1849 California Gold Rush, Gold Rush. A gold rush or gold fever is a discovery of gold—sometimes accompanied by other precious metals and rare-earth miner ...

gold rush
and population boom during the 1880s in the states of Victoria and New South Wales. There were fifteen styles that predominated: The Arts and Crafts style and Queen Anne style are considered to be part of the
Federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized ...
Period, from 1890 to 1915. File:Royal exhibition building tulips straight.jpg,
Melbourne Melbourne ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Melbourne
's world heritage
Royal Exhibition Building The Royal Exhibition Building is a World Heritage-listed building in Melbourne Melbourne ( ; wyi, Naarm) is the List of Australian capital cities, capital and List of cities in Australia by population, most-populous city of the States and ...

Royal Exhibition Building
, built in 1880 (Free Classical) File:General Post Office, Sydney.jpg,
General Post Office, Sydney The General Post Office (abbreviation GPO, commonly known as the Sydney GPO) is a heritage-listed landmark building located in Martin Place, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The original building was constructed in two stages beginning in 1866 ...

General Post Office, Sydney
in the Free Classical style (1891) File:The Hotel Windsor, Melbourne, Australia.jpg, Hotel Windsor, 1885 File:St Peters Cathedral.JPG, ,
Adelaide, South Australia Adelaide ( ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the holding primary status in a , , , , or other , usually as its seat of the government. A capital is typically a that physically encompasses the government's offices and me ...
(Gothic Revival) File:SydneyTownHall gobeirne.jpg,
Sydney Town Hall The Sydney Town Hall is a late 19th-century heritage-listed town hall In local government, a city hall, town hall, civic centre (in the United Kingdom, UK or Australia), guildhall, or (more rarely) a municipal building, is the chief ...
, in Second Empire style File:Sydney (AU), Queen Victoria Building -- 2019 -- 3580.jpg,
Queen Victoria Building The Queen Victoria Building (abbreviated as the QVB) is a heritage-listed late-nineteenth-century building designed by the architect George McRae located at 429–481 George Street in the Sydney central business district The Sydney Central B ...

Queen Victoria Building
in Romanesque style (1898) File:South Melbourne Townhall.jpg,
South Melbourne Town Hall South Melbourne Town Hall is a civic building located on Bank Street in South Melbourne, Victoria, South Melbourne, a suburb of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. It is of state heritage significance to Victoria being listed on ...

South Melbourne Town Hall
in Second Empire style File:StMarysSydneyCathedral1.jpg,
St Mary's Cathedral, Sydney The Cathedral Church and Minor Basilica of the Immaculate Mother of God, Help of Christians (colloquially, St Mary's Cathedral) is the cathedral church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Sydney and the cathedra, seat of the Catholic Bishops and ...

St Mary's Cathedral, Sydney
in Victorian Gothic architecture (1882) File:York Street, Sydney.jpg, Victorian Mannerist architecture lining a street in Sydney File:Princess Theatre, Melbourne, Australia.jpg,
Princess Theatre, Melbourne The Princess Theatre, originally Princess's Theatre, is a 1452-seat theatre in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Established in 1854 and rebuilt in 1886 to a design by noted Melbourne architect William Pitt (architect), William Pitt, it is the olde ...
File:Vic State Library Facade Pano,19.07.06.JPG,
State Library of Victoria The State Library Victoria is the main library of the Australian state of Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British C ...
of the Academic Classical style (1870) File:OIC adelaide north terrace university bldg.jpg, Brookman Hall, UniSA City East Campus, Adelaide, South Australia File:(1)Italianate home Dutruc Street Randwick-1.jpg, Italianate home in
Randwick, New South Wales Randwick is a suburb in the Eastern Suburbs of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Randwick is located 6 kilometres south-east of the Sydney central business district and is the administrative centre for the Local government in Au ...
File:(1) Nichols Street Homes.JPG,
Filigree Filigree (also less commonly spelled ''filagree'', and formerly written ''filigrann'' or ''filigrene'') is a form of intricate metalwork used in and other small forms of . In jewellery, it is usually of and , made with tiny beads or twiste ...
style terraces in
Surry Hills Surry Hills is an inner city, eastern suburb The Swedish suburbs of Husby/Kista/Akalla are built according to the typical city planning of the Million Programme. A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a mixed-use or residential are ...
with ornate iron-wrought detailing File:Goodrest corner leopold and domain road south yarra.jpg, Second Empire and Filigree residence in
South Yarra, Victoria South Yarra is an inner suburb of Melbourne Melbourne ( ; wyi, Naarm) is the List of Australian capital cities, capital and List of cities in Australia by population, most-populous city of the States and territories of Australia, Australia ...


Hong Kong

Western influence in architecture was strong when
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a List of cities in China, city and Special administrative regions of China, special administrative region of China on the ...

Hong Kong
was a
British colony Within the British Empire, a Crown colony or royal colony was a colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administ ...
. Victorian architecture in Hong Kong: File:St Andrew's Church 2017.jpg, St. Andrew's Church File:St John Cathedral Hong Kong.jpg, St. John's Cathedral File:1881 Heritage Overview 201108.jpg,
Former Marine Police Headquarters The Former Marine Police Headquarters Compound, completed in 1884, is located in Tsim Sha Tsui Tsim Sha Tsui, often abbreviated as TST, is an urban area in southern Kowloon, Hong Kong. The area is administratively part of the Yau Tsim Mo ...
(now officially named as '', which is a hotel and a shopping mall)


Ireland

Georgian architecture Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically ident ...
is more prominent in Ireland than Victorian architecture. The cities of Dublin, Limerick, and Cork are famously dominated by
Georgian squares
Georgian squares
and terraces. Though Victorian architecture flourished in certain quarters. Particularly around Dublin's
Wicklow Street Wicklow Street () is an established shopping street located in Dublin city centre, running from Grafton Street in the east to Exchequer Street and South William Street in the west. History In 1776, the street was part of Exchequer Street, named ...
and Upper
Baggot Street Baggot Street () is a street in Dublin, Republic of Ireland, Ireland. It is named after Baggotrath, the manor granted to Robert Bagod in the 13th century. He built Baggotrath Castle, which was partly destroyed during the Battle of Rathmines and de ...
and in the suburbs of
Rathmines Rathmines () is an inner suburb on the southside of Dublin in Ireland, about three kilometres south of the city centre. It effectively begins at the south side of the Grand CanalGrand Canal can refer to multiple waterways: * Grand Canal (Chi ...
, Ranelagh, Rathgar, Rathfarnham, and Terenure. The colourful Italianate buildings of Cobh are excellent examples of the regional Victorian style in Ireland. Further examples of Victorian architecture in the country include Dublin's George's Street Arcade, the Royal City of Dublin Hospital on Baggot Street and the Royal Victoria Eye and Ear Hospital on Adelaide Road. File:Cobh-Cathedral-West-Side-2012.JPG, A Victorian terrace in Cobh known as the "deck of cards". File:Architectural Detail - City Center - Dublin - Ireland - 15 (29643509118).jpg, The Victorian George's Street Arcade, Dublin. File:Baggot Street Upper, Dublin.jpg, Victorian Upper
Baggot Street Baggot Street () is a street in Dublin, Republic of Ireland, Ireland. It is named after Baggotrath, the manor granted to Robert Bagod in the 13th century. He built Baggotrath Castle, which was partly destroyed during the Battle of Rathmines and de ...
, Dublin. File:Royal City of Dublin Hospital, Baggot Street.JPG, Royal City of Dublin Hospital, Baggot Street, Dublin.


Sri Lanka

During the British colonial period of British Ceylon: Sri Lanka Law College, Sri Lanka College of Technology, Galle Face Hotel and the Royal College Main Building.


North America

In the United States, 'Victorian' architecture generally describes styles that were most popular between 1860 and 1900. A list of these styles most commonly includes Second Empire (1855–85), Stick-Eastlake (1860–ca. 1890), Folk Victorian (1870–1910), Queen Anne Style architecture (United States), Queen Anne (1880–1910), Richardsonian Romanesque (1880–1900), and Shingle Style architecture, Shingle (1880–1900). As in the United Kingdom, examples of Gothic Revival and Italianate continued to be constructed during this period, and are therefore sometimes called Victorian. Some historians classify the later years of Gothic Revival as a distinctive Victorian style named High Victorian Gothic. Stick-Eastlake, a manner of geometric, machine-cut decorating derived from Stick and Queen Anne, is sometimes considered a distinct style. On the other hand, terms such as "Painted Ladies" or "Gingerbread (architecture), gingerbread" may be used to describe certain Victorian buildings, but do not constitute a specific style. The names of architectural styles (as well as their adaptations) varied between countries. Many homes combined the elements of several different styles and are not easily distinguishable as one particular style or another. Notable Victorian-inspired cities during this era include Alameda, California, Alameda, Astoria, Oregon, Astoria, Albany, New York, Albany, Deal, New Jersey, Deal, Troy, New York, Troy, Philadelphia, Boston, the Brooklyn Heights and Victorian Flatbush sections of New York City, Buffalo, New York, Buffalo, Rochester, New York, Rochester, Chicago, Columbus, Ohio, Columbus, Detroit, Eureka, California, Eureka, Galena, Illinois, Galena, Galveston, Texas, Galveston, Grand Rapids, Michigan, Grand Rapids, Baltimore, Maryland, Baltimore, Jersey City/Hoboken, New Jersey, Hoboken, Cape May, New Jersey, Cape May, Louisville, Kentucky, Louisville, Cincinnati, Atlanta, Milwaukee, New Orleans, Pittsburgh, Richmond, Virginia, Richmond, Saint Paul, Minnesota, Saint Paul, and Midtown Sacramento, Midtown in Sacramento, California, Sacramento. Los Angeles grew from a Pueblo de Los Angeles, Pueblo (village) into a Victorian Downtown Los Angeles, Victorian Downtown – now almost entirely demolished but with residential remnants in its Angelino Heights, Los Angeles, Angelino Heights and Westlake, Los Angeles, Westlake neighborhoods. San Francisco is well known for its extensive Victorian architecture, particularly in the Haight-Ashbury, Lower Haight, Alamo Square, Noe Valley, The Castro, San Francisco, Castro, Nob Hill, and Pacific Heights neighborhoods. The extent to which any one is the "largest surviving example" is debated, with numerous qualifications. The Distillery District in Toronto, Ontario contains the largest and best preserved collection of Victorian-era industrial architecture in North America. Cabbagetown (Toronto), Cabbagetown is the largest and most continuous Victorian residential area in North America. Other Toronto Victorian neighbourhoods include The Annex, Parkdale, Toronto, Parkdale, and Rosedale, Toronto, Rosedale. In the US, the South End, Boston, Massachusetts, South End of Boston is recognized by the National Register of Historic Places as the oldest and largest Victorian neighborhood in the country. Old Louisville in Louisville, Kentucky, also claims to be the nation's largest Victorian neighborhood. Richmond, Virginia is home to several large Victorian neighborhoods, the most prominent being Fan District, The Fan. The Fan district is best known locally as Richmond's largest and most 'European' of Richmond's neighborhoods and nationally as the largest contiguous Victorian neighborhood in the United States. The Old West End District (Toledo, Ohio), Old West End neighborhood of Toledo, Ohio is recognized as the largest collection of late Victorian and Edwardian architecture, Edwardian homes in the United States, east of the Mississippi.Stine, L. (2005) Historic Old West End Toledo, Ohio. Bookmasters. Summit Avenue (St. Paul), Summit Avenue in Saint Paul, Minnesota, has the longest line of Victorian homes in the country. Over-The-Rhine in Cincinnati, Ohio, has the largest collection of early Victorian Italianate architecture in the United States, and is an example of an intact 19th-century urban neighborhood.Over-the-Rhine Chamber of Commerce
Over-the-Rhine Historical Sites
According to National Register of Historic Places, Cape May Historic District has one of the largest collections of late 19th century frame buildings left in the United States. The photo album ''L'Architecture Americaine'' by Albert Levy (photographer), Albert Levy published in 1886 is perhaps the first recognition in Europe of the new forces emerging in North American architecture. File:PAFA 1900 from Library of Congress (cropped).jpg, Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia, by Frank Furness File:AlleghenyCountyCourthouse.jpg, Allegheny County Courthouse, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, by Henry Hobson Richardson File:Santa Fe passenger terminal in San Diego prior to 1915.jpg, The California Southern Railroad's San Diego passenger terminal, built in 1887 File:Banff Springs Hotel1.jpg, Banff Springs Hotel, Banff National Park, Alberta, built in 1888 File:Brooklyn Bridge Postdlf.jpg, Brooklyn Bridge, 1883, New York City File:Carson Mansion Eureka California.jpg, The Carson Mansion in Eureka, California, widely considered one of the highest executions of Queen Anne style architecture in the United States, Queen Anne style, built 1884–86 File:SteinbeckHouse.jpg, John Steinbeck's childhood home in Salinas, California File:Emlen-physick-estate.jpg, Emlen Physick Estate in Cape May Historic District, New Jersey, by Frank Furness File:Saitta House Dyker Heights.JPG, The Saitta House, Dyker Heights, Brooklyn, New York, built in 1899 in architecture, 1899 is designed in the Queen Anne style architecture in the United States, Queen Anne style File:655 Wrightwood Avenue Circa 1880, Lincoln Park Chicago Illinois.jpg, 1880s photo of 653 W Wrightwood (now 655 W Wrightwood) in the Lincoln Park neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois File:Farnam Mansion 2.jpg, The Italianate style Farnam Mansion in Oneida, New York. Built circa 1862 File:JamesJHillHouse.jpg, James J. Hill House in St. Paul, Minnesota, built in 1891 File:Victorian Gazebo.jpg, Victorian gazebo in Ohio File:Over-the-Rhine-12th-and-Vine.jpg, Series of Italianate tenements in Over-The-Rhine, Cincinnati, Ohio File:Ford Piquette Avenue Plant - Front Façade.jpg, Ford Piquette Avenue Plant, Detroit, Michigan, built 1904 File:Cape may pink victorian.jpg, Gingerbread trim on an 1882 house in Cape May, New Jersey


Preservation

Efforts to preserve landmarks of Victorian architecture are ongoing and are often led by the Victorian Society. A recent campaign the group has taken on is the preservation of Victorian Gas holder, gasometers after utility companies announced plans to demolish nearly 200 of the now-outdated structures.Sean O'Hagan
Gasworks wonders…
, ''The Guardian'', 14 June 2015.


See also

* Victorian decorative arts * Victorian house * Victorian restoration * Folk Victorian * Albert Levy (photographer) *
Georgian architecture Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically ident ...


References and sources


Citations


Sources

* * * *, includes descriptions of different Victorian and early-20th-century architectural styles common in the San Francisco Bay Area, particularly Oakland, California, Oakland, and detailed instructions for repair and restoration of details common to older house styles.


External links


Decorative Hardware of the Victorian Era: An American. Perspective, Raheel Ahmad





Photographs of Victorian Homes in Hamilton, Ontario Canada

Victorian era architecture in San Francisco, California

Victorian era architecture and history in Buffalo, New York

Architectural influences on Victorian style

Victorian churches blog
{{DEFAULTSORT:Victorian Architecture Victorian architecture, 19th-century architectural styles 19th-century architecture in the United Kingdom 19th-century architecture in the United States American architectural styles Architectural history British architecture by period or style Revival architectural styles Victorian architectural styles Victorian architecture in the United States