HOME

TheInfoList



Vegetarianism is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of
meat Meat is animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consume organic material, Cellular respiratio ...

meat
(
red meat In gastronomy 200px, Fine food, the principal study of gastronomy Gastronomy is a compound word that derives from the ancient Greek words γαστήρ -τρός "stomach" and -νομία "-rule". It is the study of the relationship between ...
,
poultry Poultry () are domesticated bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class (biology), class Aves , characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the Oviparity, laying of Eggshell, hard-shelled eggs, a hi ...

poultry
,
seafood Seafood is any form of Marine life, sea life regarded as food by humans, prominently including Fish as food, fish and shellfish. Shellfish include various species of Mollusca, molluscs (e.g. bivalve molluscs such as clams, oysters, and mussels ...

seafood
, and the
flesh Flesh is a term for some soft tissues of an organism. Various multicellular organisms Multicellular organisms are organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contig ...

flesh
of any other
animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consume organic material, Cellular respiration#Aerobic respiration, ...
), and it may also include abstaining from
by-product A by-product or byproduct is a secondary product derived from a production process, manufacturing process or chemical reaction; it is not the primary product or service being produced. A by-product can be useful and marketable or it can be consider ...
s of
animal slaughter Animal slaughter is the killing of animals, usually referring to killing Domestication, domestic livestock. It is estimated that each year 80 billion land animals are slaughtered for food. In general, the animals would be killed for food; howeve ...
. Vegetarianism may be adopted for various reasons. Many people object to eating meat out of respect for
sentient Sentience is the capacity to be aware of feeling Feeling was originally used to describe the physical sensation of touch The somatosensory system is a part of the sensory nervous system. The somatosensory system is a complex system of sensory ...
life. Such ethical motivations have been codified under various religious beliefs as well as animal rights advocacy. Other motivations for vegetarianism are health-related, political,
environmental A biophysical environment is a life, biotic and Abiotic component, abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution. A biophysical environ ...
, cultural,
aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), taste, as well as the philosophy of art (its own area of philosophy that comes out of aesthetics). It examines subjective and s ...
,
economic An economy (; ) is an area of the Production (economics), production, Distribution (economics), distribution and trade, as well as Consumption (economics), consumption of Goods (economics), goods and Service (economics), services by different a ...
, taste preferences, or other personal preferences. Psychologically, preference for
vegetarian food Vegetarian cuisine is based on food that meets Vegetarianism, vegetarian standards by not including meat and animal tissue products (such as gelatin or animal-derived rennet). For lacto-ovo vegetarianism (the most common type of vegetarianism in t ...
s can be affected by one's own socio-economic status and evolutionary factors. There are also many variations of the vegetarian diet: an
ovo-lacto vegetarian An lacto-ovo vegetarian or ovo-lacto vegetarian is a vegetarianism, vegetarian who consumes some animal products, such as eggs (food), eggs and dairy. Unlike Pescetarianism, pescatarians, they do not consume Fish (food), fish or other seafood. A ty ...
diet includes both eggs and dairy products, an
ovo-vegetarian Ovo vegetarianism is a type of vegetarianism Vegetarianism is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food. Humans have hunted and killed animals for meat since prehistoric times. T ...
diet includes eggs but not dairy products, and a
lacto-vegetarian A lacto-vegetarian (sometimes referred to as a lactarian; from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rom ...
diet includes dairy products but not eggs. A
vegan Veganism is the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in diet (nutrition), diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals. An individual who follows the diet or philosophy is kno ...

vegan
diet excludes all
animal product An animal product, also known as lacticinia, is any material derived from the body of an animal. Examples are fat, flesh, blood, milk, eggs, and lesser known products, such as isinglass and rennet. Animal by-products, as defined by the USDA, are ...
s, including eggs and dairy. Packaged and processed foods may contain hidden animal ingredients. While some vegetarians scrutinize product labels for such ingredients, others do not object to consuming them or are unaware of their presence. Avoidance of animal products may provide health benefits but may also require
dietary supplements A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement one's diet by taking a pill (pharmacy), pill, capsule (pharmacy), capsule, tablet (pharmacy), tablet, powder, or liquid. A supplement can provide nutrients either extra ...
to prevent deficiencies.


Etymology

The first written use of the term "vegetarian" originated in the early 19th century, when authors referred to a ''vegetable regimen'' diet. Modern dictionaries explain its origin as a
compound Compound may refer to: Architecture and built environments * Compound (enclosure), a cluster of buildings having a shared purpose, usually inside a fence or wall ** Compound (fortification), a version of the above fortified with defensive structu ...
of ''
vegetable Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still commonly used and is applied to plants collectively to refer to all edible plant matter, including the flowers, fruits, stems ...

vegetable
'' (
adjective In linguistics, an adjective (list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ) is a word that grammatical modifier, modifies a noun or noun phrase or describes its referent. Its Semantics, semantic role is to change information given by the noun. ...
) and the suffix '' -arian'' (in the sense of ''
agrarian Agrarian means pertaining to agriculture, farmland, or rural areas. Agrarian may refer to: Political philosophy *Agrarianism *Agrarian law, Roman laws regulating the division of the public lands *Agrarian reform *Agrarian socialism Society * ...
''). The term was popularized with the foundation of the
Vegetarian Society The Vegetarian Society of the United Kingdom is a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Irelan ...

Vegetarian Society
in
Manchester Manchester () is the most-populous city and metropolitan borough in North West England North West England is one of nine official regions of England and consists of the counties of Cheshire, Cumbria Cumbria ( ) is a ceremonial cou ...

Manchester
in 1847,''OED'' vol. 19, second edition (1989), p. 476; ''Webster’s Third New International Dictionary'' p. 2537; ''The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology'', ''Oxford'', 1966, p. 972; ''The Barnhart Dictionary of Etymology'' (1988), p. 1196; Colin Spencer, ''The Heretic's Feast. A History of Vegetarianism'', London 1993, p. 252. The ''OED'' writes that the word came into general use after the formation of the Vegetarian Society at Ramsgate in 1847, though it offers two examples of usage from 1839 and 1842: * 1839: "If I had had to be my own cook, I should inevitably become a vegetarian." (F. A. Kemble, ''Jrnl. Residence on Georgian Plantation'' (1863) 251) * 1842: "To tell a healthy vegetarian that his diet is very uncongenial with the wants of his nature." (''Healthian'', Apr. 34) The 1839 occurrence remains under discussion; the Oxford English Dictionary's 1839 source is in fact an 1863 publication:
Fanny Kemble Frances Anne "Fanny" Kemble (27 November 180915 January 1893) was a notable British actress from a theatre family in the early and mid-19th century. She was a well-known and popular writer and abolitionist, whose published works included plays, ...

Fanny Kemble
, ''Journal of a Residence on a Georgian Plantation 1838–1839''. The original manuscript has not been located.
although it may have appeared in print before 1847. The earliest occurrences of the term seem to be related to
Alcott House Alcott House in Ham Ham is pork Pork is the culinary name for the meat of a domestic pig The domestic pig (''Sus scrofa domesticus'' or only ''Sus domesticus''), often called swine, hog, or simply pig when there is no need to dis ...
—a school on the north side of
Ham Common, London Ham Common is an area of common land in Ham, London. It is a conservation area in, and managed by, the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. It comprises , the second largest area of common land in the borough, smaller than Barnes Common. ...
—which was opened in July 1838 by
James Pierrepont Greaves James Pierrepont Greaves (1 February 1777 – 11 March 1842), was an English mystic, educational reformer, socialist and progressive thinker who founded Alcott House, a short-lived utopian community and free school in Surrey. He described h ...
. From 1841, it was known as ''A Concordium, or Industry Harmony College'', from which time the institution began to publish its own pamphlet entitled ''The Healthian'', which provides some of the earliest appearances of the term "vegetarian".


History

The earliest record of vegetarianism comes from the 9th century BCE, inculcating tolerance towards all living beings. Parshwanatha and
Mahavira Mahavira (Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. ...

Mahavira
, the 23rd and 24th ''
tirthankaras In Jainism Jainism (), traditionally known as ''Jain Dharma'', is an ancient Indian religion and the method of acquiring perfect knowledge of self and universe and perfect joy through Extrasensory perception, extrasensory means as em ...

tirthankaras
'' in
Jainism Jainism (), traditionally known as ''Jain Dharma'', is an ancient Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduis ...

Jainism
, respectively, revived and advocated
ahimsa Ahimsa (also spelled ''Ahinsa'') (Sanskrit: अहिंसा IAST: ', Pali, Pāli: ') ("nonviolence") is an ancient Indian principle of nonviolence which applies to all living beings. It is a key virtue in Hindu Dharma, Hinduism, Jainism an ...
and
Jain vegetarianism Jain vegetarianism is practiced by the followers of Jain Jainism (), traditionally known as ''Jain Dharma'', is an ancient Indian religion and the method of acquiring omniscience, perfect knowledge of Jīva (Jainism), self and Jain cosmolog ...
between the 8th and 6th centuries BCE; the most comprehensive and strictest form of vegetarianism. In Indian culture, vegetarianism has been closely connected with the attitude of
nonviolence Nonviolence is the personal practice of not causing harm to one's self and others under every condition. It may come from the belief that hurting people, animals and/or the environment is unnecessary to achieve an outcome and it may refer to a ge ...
towards animals (called ''
ahimsa Ahimsa (also spelled ''Ahinsa'') (Sanskrit: अहिंसा IAST: ', Pali, Pāli: ') ("nonviolence") is an ancient Indian principle of nonviolence which applies to all living beings. It is a key virtue in Hindu Dharma, Hinduism, Jainism an ...
'' in India) for millennia and was promoted by religious groups and philosophers.''Religious Vegetarianism From Hesiod to the Dalai Lama'', ed. Kerry S. Walters and Lisa Portmess, Albany 2001, p. 13–46. The Acharanga Sutra from 5th century BCE advocates Jain-vegetarianism; and forbids the monks from walking on grass in order to avoid inflicting pain on them and prevent small insects dwelling inside from getting killed. The ancient Indian work of
Tirukkural The ''Tirukkuṟaḷ'' ( ta, திருக்குறள், lit=sacred verses), or shortly the ''Kural'', is a classic Tamil language text consisting of 1,330 short couplets, or Kural (poetic form), kurals, of seven words each. The text is ...

Tirukkural
, dated before 5th century CE, explicitly and unambiguously emphasizes shunning meat and
non-killing Image:Logosnks.gif, This logo, created by Glenn D. Paige, explains the concept of nonkilling combining the ancient Asian yin-yang symbol with the recent brain research finding that stimulation of the pathways between systems of the brain controlling ...
as a common man's virtues. Chapter 26 of the Tirukkural, particularly
couplet A couplet is a pair of successive Line (poetry), lines of Metre (poetry), metre in poetry. A couplet usually consists of two successive lines that rhyme and have the same metre. A couplet may be formal (closed) or run-on (open). In a formal (or ...
s 251–260, deals exclusively on vegetarianism or veganism. Among the
Hellenes The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllines'' ) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Greek Cypriots, Cyprus, Greeks in Albania, Albania, Greeks in Italy, Italy, Greeks in Turkey#History, Turkey, Greeks in Egypt, Egypt and, to a l ...
,
Egyptians Egyptians ( arz, المصريين, ; cop, ⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ, remenkhēmi) are an ethnic group of people originating from the country of Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinen ...
, and others, vegetarianism had medical or
ritual purification Ritual purification is the ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, actions, or objects, performed in a sequestered place and according to a set sequence. Rituals may be prescribed by the traditions of a community ...
purposes. Vegetarianism was also practiced in
ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of Classical Antiquity, antiquity ( AD 600). This era was ...
and the earliest reliable evidence for vegetarian theory and practice in Greece dates from the 6th century BC. The
Orphics Orphism (more rarely Orphicism; grc, Ὀρφικά, Orphiká) is the name given to a set of religious beliefs and practices originating in the ancient Greek and Hellenistic world, as well as from the Thracians, associated with literature ascribed t ...
, a religious movement spreading in Greece at that time, also practiced and promoted vegetarianism. Greek teacher
Pythagoras Pythagoras of Samos, or simply ; in Ionian Greek Ionic Greek ( grc, Ἑλληνική Ἰωνική, Hellēnikē Iōnikē) was a subdialect of the Attic–Ionic or Eastern dialect group of Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the ...

Pythagoras
, who promoted the altruistic doctrine of
metempsychosis Metempsychosis ( grc-gre, μετεμψύχωσις), in philosophy, refers to transmigration of the soul In many religious, philosophical, and myth Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a socie ...
, may have practiced vegetarianism, but is also recorded as eating meat. A fictionalized portrayal of Pythagoras appears in
Ovid Pūblius Ovidius Nāsō (; 20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known in English as Ovid ( ), was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor, reigning from ...

Ovid
's ''
Metamorphoses The ''Metamorphoses'' ( la, Metamorphōseōn librī: "Books of Transformations") is an 8 AD Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally ...
'', in which he advocates a form of strict vegetarianism. It was through this portrayal that Pythagoras was best known to English-speakers throughout the early modern period and, prior to the coinage of the word "vegetarianism", vegetarians were referred to in English as "
Pythagoreans Pythagoreanism originated in the 6th century BC, based on the teachings and beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers, the Pythagoreans. Pythagoras established the first Pythagorean community in Crotone, Italy. Early Pythagorean communities spr ...
". Vegetarianism was also practiced about six centuries later in another instance (30 BCE–50 CE) in the northern
Thracian The Thracians (; grc, Θρᾷκες ''Thrāikes''; la, Thraci) were an Indo-European speaking people who inhabited large parts of Eastern and Southeastern Europe in ancient history.. "The Thracians were an Indo-European people who occupied ...
region by the
Moesi The Moesi ( or ; el, Μοισοί) was a Thracian tribe which inhabited present day Northern Bulgaria and Serbia, which gave its name to the Ancient Rome, Roman province of Moesia after its defeat in 29 BC. Moesia was first established as a sep ...
tribe (who inhabited present-day
Serbia Serbia (, ; sr, Србија, Srbija, ),, * cs, Srbsko, * ro, Serbia * rue, Сербия *german: Serbien *french: Serbie * uk, Сербія * hu, Szerbia * bg, Сърбия * sq, Serbia * bs, Srbija * officially the Republic of Serbia,, ...

Serbia
and
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria,, ) is a country in Southeast Europe. It occupies the whole eastern part of the Balkans, and is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and North Macedonia ...
), feeding themselves on honey, milk, and cheese. In
Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg , alt_coat = Golden circle subdiv ...

Japan
in 675, the
Emperor Tenmu was the 40th emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereignty, sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's w ...

Emperor Tenmu
prohibited the killing and the eating of meat during the busy farming period between April and September but excluded the eating of wild birds and wild animals. These bans and several others that followed over the centuries were overturned in the nineteenth century during the
Meiji Restoration#REDIRECT Meiji Restoration The , referred to at the time as the , and also known as the Meiji Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was a political event that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji. Although t ...
. In China, during the
Song Dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976), personal name Zhao Kuan ...
,
Buddhist cuisine Buddhist cuisine is an Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hemispheres. It shares the continental lan ...
became popular enough that vegetarian restaurants appeared where chefs used ingredients such as
beans A bean is the seed of one of several genera Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. T ...
,
gluten Gluten is a group of seed storage protein Proteins are large biomolecules or macromolecules that are comprised of one or more long chains of amino acid residue (biochemistry), residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organis ...

gluten
, root vegetables and
mushrooms A mushroom or toadstool is the fleshy, spore )'', growing on a thinned hybrid black poplar ''(Populus x canadensis)''. The last stage of the moss lifecycle is shown, where the sporophytes are visible before dispersion of their spores: the ...
to create
meat analogue A meat analogue is a food industry term for a meat-like substance made from vegetarian Ingredient, ingredients. More common terms are plant-based meat, vegan meat, meat substitute, mock meat, meat alternative, imitation meat, or vegetarian meat, ...
s including pork, fowl, eggs and crab roe and many meat substitutes used even today such as
tofu Tofu, also known as bean curd, is a food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohyd ...

tofu
, and
konjac Konjac (or konjak, ) is a common name of the East East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions. ...
originate in Chinese Buddhist cuisine. Following the Christianization of the Roman Empire in
late antiquity Late antiquity is a periodization Periodization is the process or study of categorizing the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of time.Adam Rabinowitz. It’s about time: historical periodization and Linked Ancient World Data'. Insti ...
, vegetarianism practically disappeared from Europe, as it did elsewhere, except in India. Several orders of
monk A monk (, from el, μοναχός, ''monachos'', "single, solitary" via Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area ...

monk
s in
medieval Europe In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of w ...
restricted or banned the consumption of meat for
ascetic Asceticism (; from the el, ἄσκησις ''áskesis'', "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals. Ascetics may withdraw from the world for their ...

ascetic
reasons, but none of them eschewed fish. Moreover, the medieval definition of "fish" included such animals as seals,
porpoise Porpoises are a group of fully aquatic marine mammals, similar in appearance to a dolphin, all of which are classified under the family Phocoenidae, parvorder Odontoceti (toothed whales). They are, however, more closely related to narwhals and ...

porpoise
s,
dolphin Dolphin is the common name of aquatic mammals within the infraorder Cetacea. The term dolphin usually refers to the extant families Delphinidae (the oceanic dolphins), Platanistidae (the Indian river dolphins), Iniidae (the New World river dol ...
s, ,
puffin Puffins are any of three species of small alcids ( auks) in the bird genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that under ...

puffin
s, and
beavers Beavers are large, semiaquatic rodents in the genus ''Castor'' native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere. There are two extant species: the North American beaver (''Castor canadensis'') and the Eurasian beaver (''C. fiber''). Beavers ...

beavers
. Vegetarianism re-emerged during the
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in m ...

Renaissance
, becoming more widespread in the 19th and 20th centuries. In 1847, the first
Vegetarian Society The Vegetarian Society of the United Kingdom is a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Irelan ...

Vegetarian Society
was founded in the United Kingdom; Germany, the Netherlands, and other countries followed. In 1886, the vegetarian colony
Nueva Germania Nueva Germania (New Germania) is a district of San Pedro Department, Paraguay, San Pedro Department in Paraguay. It was founded as a Germany, German settlement on 23 August 1887 by Bernhard Förster, a German nationalism, German nationalist, who was ...
was founded in
Paraguay Paraguay (; ), officially the Republic of Paraguay ( es, República del Paraguay, links=no; gn, Tetã Paraguái, links=no), is a country in South America South America is a continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in ...

Paraguay
, though its vegetarian aspect would prove short-lived. The
International Vegetarian Union The International Vegetarian Union (IVU) is an international non-profit organization An organization, or organisation ( Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is an entity – such as a company, an institution, or an assoc ...
, an association of the national societies, was founded in 1908. In the Western world, the popularity of vegetarianism grew during the 20th century as a result of nutritional, ethical, and—more recently—environmental and economic concerns.


Varieties

There are a number of vegetarian diets that exclude or include various foods: *
Fruitarianism Fruitarianism () is a subset of dietary veganism, consisting of primarily fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means ...
permits only fruit, nuts, seeds, and other plant matter that can be gathered without harming the plant. *
Macrobiotic diet A macrobiotic diet (or macrobiotics) is a fad diet based on ideas about types of food drawn from Zen Buddhism. The diet tries to balance the supposed yin and yang In Ancient Chinese philosophy, yin and yang ( and ; zh, t= ''yīnyáng' ...
s consist mostly of
whole grainright Rights are law, legal, social, or ethics, ethical principles of Liberty, freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to people according to some legal system, social con ...

whole grain
s and
bean A bean is the seed of one of several genera Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. T ...
s. *
Lacto vegetarianism A lacto-vegetarian (sometimes referred to as a lactarian; from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rom ...
includes dairy products but not eggs. *
Ovo vegetarianism Ovo vegetarianism is a type of vegetarianism which allows for the consumption of eggs but not dairy products, in contrast with lacto vegetarianism. Those who practice ovo vegetarianism are called ovo-vegetarians. "Ovo" comes from the Latin word ...
includes eggs but not dairy products. *
Ovo-lacto vegetarianism An lacto-ovo vegetarian or ovo-lacto vegetarian is a vegetarianism, vegetarian who consumes some animal products, such as eggs (food), eggs and dairy. Unlike Pescetarianism, pescatarians, they do not consume Fish (food), fish or other seafood. A ty ...
(or lacto-ovo vegetarianism) includes animal products such as eggs, milk, and honey. *
Sattvic diet Sattva (Sanskrit: सत्त्व) is one of the three guṇas or "modes of existence" (tendencies, qualities, attributes), a philosophical and psychological concept understood by the Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy.James G. Lochtefeld, Sattva ...
(also known as yogic diet), a
plant-based diet A plant-based diet or a plant-rich diet is a diet consisting mostly or entirely of plant-based foods. Plant-based foods are foods derived from plants (including vegetables, grains, nuts, seeds, legumes, and fruits) with no animal-source foods or ...
which may also include dairy and honey, but excludes eggs, red lentils,
durian The durian () is the fruit of several tree species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as th ...
, mushrooms,
allium ''Allium'' is a genus of monocotyledonous flowering plants that includes hundreds of species, including the cultivated onion, garlic, scallion, shallot, leek, and chives. The Generic name (biology), generic name ''Allium'' is the Latin word for g ...
s,
blue cheese Blue cheese or bleu cheese is cheese Cheese is a dairy product and produced in wide ranges of flavors, Mouthfeel, textures and forms by coagulation (milk), coagulation of the milk protein casein. It comprises proteins and fat from milk, ...
s, fermented foods or sauces, and alcoholic drinks. Coffee, ,
chocolate Chocolate is a preparation of roasted and ground cacao seeds that is made in the form of a liquid, paste, or in a block, which may also be used as a flavoring ingredient in other foods. The earliest signs of use are associated with Olmec si ...
,
nutmeg Nutmeg is the seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was release ...

nutmeg
, and any other type of stimulant (including excessively
pungent Pungency is the condition of having a strong, sharp smell or flavor Flavor (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the Engli ...
spices) are sometimes excluded, as well. *
Veganism Veganism is the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in diet (nutrition), diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals. An individual who follows the diet or philosophy is kno ...
excludes all animal flesh and by-products, such as eggs, milk, honey (not always), and items refined or manufactured through any such product, such as animal-tested
baking soda Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogencarbonate), commonly known as baking soda or bicarbonate of soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. It is a salt (chemistry), salt composed of a sodium cation (Sodium, Na+) and a bica ...
or white sugar refined with
bone char Bone char ( lat, carbo animalis) is a porous, black, granular material produced by charring animal bone A bone is a Stiffness, rigid tissue (anatomy), tissue that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton in animals. Bones protect the vari ...
. **
Raw veganism Raw foodism, also known as rawism or following a raw food diet, is the dietary practice of eating only or mostly food that is uncooked and unprocessed. Depending on the philosophy, or type of lifestyle and results desired, raw food diets may ...
includes only fresh and uncooked fruit, nuts, seeds, and vegetables. Food must not be heated above to be considered "raw". Usually, raw vegan food is only ever "cooked" with a food dehydrator at low temperatures. Within the "wikt:ovo-, ovo-" groups, there are many who refuse to consume fertilized Egg (biology), eggs (with Balut (food), balut being an extreme example); however, such distinction is typically not specifically addressed. Some vegetarians also avoid products that may use animal ingredients not included in their labels or which use animal products in their manufacturing. For example, sugars that are whitened with
bone char Bone char ( lat, carbo animalis) is a porous, black, granular material produced by charring animal bone A bone is a Stiffness, rigid tissue (anatomy), tissue that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton in animals. Bones protect the vari ...
, cheeses that use animal rennet (enzymes from animal stomach lining), gelatin (derived from the collagen inside animals' skin, bones, and connective tissue), some Sugarcane, cane sugar (but not Sugar beet, beet sugar) and beverages (such as apple juice and alcohol) clarified with gelatin or crushed shellfish and sturgeon, while other vegetarians are unaware of, or do not mind, such ingredients. In the 21st century, 90% of rennet and chymosin used in cheesemaking are derived from industrial fermentation processes, which satisfy both kosher foods, kosher and Islamic dietary laws, halal requirements.


Semi-vegetarianism

Individuals sometimes label themselves "vegetarian" while practicing a semi-vegetarian diet, as some dictionary definitions describe vegetarianism as sometimes including the consumption of fish,Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (2002 and 2007) defines "vegetarian" (noun) as "A person who on principle abstains from animal food; ''esp.'' one who avoids meat but will eat dairy produce and eggs and sometimes also fish (cf. VEGAN ''noun'')." or only include mammalian flesh as part of their definition of meat, while other definitions exclude fish and all animal flesh. In other cases, individuals may describe themselves as "flexitarian". These diets may be followed by those who reduce animal flesh consumed as a way of transitioning to a complete vegetarian diet or for health, ethical, environmental, or other reasons. Semi-vegetarian diets include: * Pescetarianism, which includes fish and possibly other forms of seafood. * Pollotarianism, which includes chicken and possibly other poultry. * Pollo-pescetarianism, which includes poultry and fish, or "white meat" only. Semi-vegetarianism is contested by vegetarian groups, such as the
Vegetarian Society The Vegetarian Society of the United Kingdom is a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Irelan ...

Vegetarian Society
, which states that vegetarianism excludes all animal flesh.


Health research

In western countries, the most common motive for people to consider turning vegetarian has to do with health consciousness. The American Dietetic Association has stated that at all stages of life, a properly planned vegetarian diet can be "healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases." By adequately planned, they meant eating a variety of foods (especially fruits and vegetables), and minimizing foods high in sodium, sweeteners, or fat. Vegetarian diets offer lower levels of saturated fat, cholesterol and animal protein, and higher levels of carbohydrates, Fiber, fibre, magnesium, potassium, folate, and antioxidants such as vitamins C and E and phytochemicals.


Bones

Studies have shown that a vegetarian diet may increase the risk of Vitamin B12 deficiency, vitamin B 12 deficiency, calcium deficiency and low bone mineral density. A 2019 review found that vegetarians have lower bone mineral density at the femoral neck and lumbar spine compared to omnivores. A 2020 meta-analysis found that infants with a precise vegetarian diet containing milk and dairy products exhibit normal growth and development. A 2021 did not find any evidence for differences in growth when comparing vegetarian and meat eating children.


Diabetes

Vegetarian diets might reduce the risk of developing diabetes. There is evidence that a vegetarian diet may help people with type 2 diabetes achieve glycemic control.


Cardiovascular system

Meta-analyses have reported a reduced risk of death from ischemic heart disease and from cerebrovascular disease, among vegetarians.


Mental health

A 2020 review of vegan and vegetarian diets showed association with a higher risk of depression (mood), depression and anxiety, particularly among people under 26 years old. The authors of a 2021 meta study with similar findings see no causal relation. They give two possible reasons for the association: One being that depressed people try to find a cure by switching to a vegetarian diet, the other being that people who got depressed by seeing factory farmed animals suffering may switch to a vegetarian diet. A different study published in the same year found no significant associations between a vegetarian diet and depression or anxiety.


Eating disorders

The American Dietetic Association discussed that vegetarian diets may be more common among adolescents with eating disorders indicating that vegetarian diets do not cause eating disorders, but rather "vegetarian diets may be selected to camouflage an existing eating disorder".


Mortality risk

A 1999 meta-analysis combined data from five studies from western countries, finding that mortality ratios where lower numbers indicated fewer deaths were 1.0 for regular meat eaters as a base mortality rate compared to 0.84 for vegetarians. The study concluded that "...vegetarians had a 24% lower mortality from ischemic heart disease than non-vegetarians". A 2012 study also found a reduced risk in all cause mortality with a risk factor of 0.91. A 2017 review found a lower mortality from ischemic heart disease (-25%) and incidence from total cancer (-8%). A vegan diet conferred a significant reduced risk (-15%) of incidence from total cancer. An analysis pooling two large studies found vegetarians in the UK have similar all cause mortality as meat eaters that eat meat <5 times per week.


Diet composition and nutrition

Western vegetarian diets are typically high in carotenoids, but relatively low in omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin B12, vitamin B12. Vegans can have particularly low intake of vitamin B and calcium if they do not eat enough items such as collard greens, Leaf vegetable, leafy greens, tempeh and
tofu Tofu, also known as bean curd, is a food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohyd ...

tofu
(soy). High levels of dietary fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, and magnesium, and low consumption of saturated fat are all considered to be beneficial aspects of a vegetarian diet. A well planned vegetarian diet will provide all nutrients in a meat-eater's diet to the same level for all stages of life.


Protein

Protein intake in vegetarian diets tends to be lower than in meat diets but can meet the daily requirements for most people. Studies at Harvard University as well as other studies conducted in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and various European countries, confirmed vegetarian diets provide sufficient protein intake as long as a variety of plant sources are available and consumed.


Iron

Vegetarian diets typically contain similar levels of iron to non-vegetarian diets, but this has lower bioavailability than iron from meat sources, and its absorption can sometimes be inhibited by other dietary constituents. According to the Vegetarian Resource Group, consuming food that contains vitamin C, such as citrus fruit or juices, tomatoes, or broccoli, is a good way to increase the amount of iron absorbed at a meal. Vegetarian foods rich in iron include black turtle bean, black beans, cashews, hempseed, kidney beans, broccoli, lentils, oatmeal, raisins, jaggery, spinach, cabbage, lettuce, black-eyed peas, soybeans, many breakfast cereals, sunflower seeds, chickpeas, tomato juice, tempeh, molasses, thyme, and whole-wheat bread. The related vegan diets can often be higher in iron than vegetarian diets, because dairy products are low in iron. Iron stores often tend to be lower in vegetarians than non-vegetarians, and a few small studies report very high rates of iron deficiency (up to 40%, and 58% of the respective vegetarian or vegan groups). However, the American Dietetic Association states that iron deficiency is no more common in vegetarians than non-vegetarians (adult males are rarely iron deficient); iron deficiency Anemia, anaemia is rare no matter the diet.


Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12, Vitamin B12 is not generally present in plants but is naturally found in foods of animal origin. Ovo-lacto vegetarianism, Lacto-ovo vegetarians can obtain B12 from dairy products and eggs, and vegans can obtain it from manufactured Food fortification, fortified foods (including plant-based diet, plant-based products and breakfast cereals) and dietary supplements. A strict vegan diet avoiding consumption of all animal products risks vitamin B12 deficiency, which can lead to hyperhomocysteinemia, a risk factor for several health disorders, including anemia, neurological deficits, gastrointestinal problems, platelet disorders, and increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. The Dietary Reference Intake, recommended daily dietary intake of B12 in the United States and Canada is 0.4 microgram, mcg (ages 0–6 months), rising to 1.8 mcg (9–13 years), 2.4 mcg (14+ years), and 2.8 mcg (lactating female). While the body's daily requirement for vitamin B12 is in microgram amounts, deficiency of the vitamin through strict practice of a vegetarian diet without supplementation can increase the risk of several chronic diseases.


Fatty acids

Plant-based, or vegetarian, sources of Omega 3 fatty acids include soy, walnuts, pumpkin seeds, canola oil, kiwifruit, hempseed, algae, chia seed, flaxseed, echium seed and Leaf vegetable, leafy vegetables such as lettuce, spinach, cabbage and portulaca oleracea, purslane. Purslane contains more Omega 3 than any other known leafy green. Olives (and olive oil) are another important plant source of unsaturated fatty acids. Plant foods can provide alpha-linolenic acid which the human body uses to synthesize the long-chain n-3 fatty acids Eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA and Docosahexaenoic acid, DHA. EPA and DHA can be obtained directly in high amounts from oily fish or fish oils. Vegetarians, and particularly vegans, have lower levels of EPA and DHA than meat-eaters. While the health effects of low levels of EPA and DHA are unknown, it is unlikely that supplementation with alpha-linolenic acid will significantly increase levels. Recently, some companies have begun to market vegetarian DHA supplements containing seaweed extracts. Whole seaweeds are not suitable for supplementation because their high iodine content limits the amount that may be safely consumed. However, certain algae such as spirulina (dietary supplement), spirulina are good sources of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic acid (LA), stearidonic acid (SDA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (AA).


Calcium

Calcium intake in vegetarians and vegans can be similar to non-vegetarians, as long as the diet is properly planned. Lacto-ovo vegetarians that include dairy products can still obtain calcium from dairy sources like milk, yogurt, and cheese. Non-dairy milks that are fortified with calcium, such as soymilk and almond milk can also contribute a significant amount of calcium in the diet. Broccoli, Chinese cabbage, bok choy, and kale have also been found to have calcium that is well absorbed in the body. Though the calcium content per serving is lower in these vegetables than a glass of milk, the absorption of the calcium into the body is higher. Other foods that contain calcium include calcium-set tofu, blackstrap molasses, Turnip, turnip greens, mustard greens, soybeans, tempeh, almonds, okra, dried figs, and tahini. Though calcium can be found in Spinach, swiss chard,
bean A bean is the seed of one of several genera Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. T ...
s and Beet, beet greens, they are generally not considered to be a good source since the calcium binds to oxalic acid and is poorly absorbed into the body. Phytic acid found in nuts, seeds, and beans may also impact calcium absorption rates. See the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements for calcium needs for various ages, the Vegetarian Resource Group and the Vegetarian Nutrition Calcium Fact Sheet from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics for more specifics on how to obtain adequate calcium intake on a vegetarian or vegan diet.


Vitamin D

Vitamin D needs can be met via the human body's own generation upon sufficient and sensible exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light in sunlight. Products including milk, soy milk and cereal grains may be Food fortification, fortified to provide a source of Vitamin D. For those who do not get adequate sun exposure or food sources, Vitamin D supplementation may be necessary.


Vitamin D2

* Plants ** Alfalfa (''Medicago sativa subsp. sativa''), shoot: 4.8 μg (192 IU) vitamin D2, 0.1 μg (4 IU) vitamin D3 * Fungus, from USDA nutrient database, per 100 g: ** Mushrooms, portabella, exposed to ultraviolet light, raw: Vitamin D2: 11.2 μg (446 IU) ** Mushrooms, portabella, exposed to ultraviolet light, grilled: Vitamin D2: 13.1 μg (524 IU) ** Mushrooms, shiitake, dried: Vitamin D2: 3.9 μg (154 IU) ** Mushrooms, shiitake, raw: Vitamin D2: 0.4 μg (18 IU) ** Mushrooms, portabella, raw: Vitamin D2: 0.3 μg (10 IU) ** Mushroom powder, any species, illuminated with sunlight or artificial ultraviolet light sources Vitamin D2, or ergocalciferol is found in fungus (except alfalfa which is a plantae) and created from viosterol, which in turn is created when ultraviolet light activates ergosterol (which is found in fungi and named as a sterol from ergot). Any Ultraviolet light, UV-irradiated fungus including yeast form vitamin D2. Human bioavailability of vitamin D2 from vitamin D2-enhanced button mushrooms via UV-B irradiation is effective in improving vitamin D status and not different from a vitamin D2 supplement according to study. For example, Vitamin D2 from UV-irradiated yeast baked into bread is bioavailable. By visual assessment or using a chromometer, no significant discoloration of irradiated mushrooms, as measured by the degree of "whiteness", was observed making it hard to discover if they have been treated without labeling. Claims have been made that a normal serving (approx. 3 oz or 1/2 cup, or 60 grams) of mushrooms treated with ultraviolet light increase their vitamin D content to levels up to 80 micrograms, or 2700 IU if exposed to just 5 minutes of UV light after being harvested.


Choline

Choline is a nutrient that helps transfer signals between nerve cells and is involved in liver function. It is highest in dairy foods and meat but it is possible to be obtained through a vegan diet.


Ethics and diet


General

With regard to the ethics of eating meat, scholars consider vegetarianism an ideology and a social movement. Ethical reasons for choosing vegetarianism vary and are usually predicated on the interests of non-human animals. In many societies, controversy and debate have arisen over the ethics of eating animals. Some people, while not vegetarians, refuse to eat the flesh of certain animals due to cultural taboo, such as cats, dogs, horses or rabbits. Others support meat eating for scientific, nutritional and cultural reasons, including religious ones. Some meat eaters abstain from the meat of animals reared in particular ways, such as factory farms, or avoid certain meats, such as veal or foie gras. Some people follow vegetarian or Veganism, vegan diets not because of moral concerns involving the raising or consumption of animals in general, but because of concerns about the specific treatment and practices involved in the processing of animals for food. Others still avoid meat out of concern that meat production places a greater burden on the environment than production of an equivalent amount of plant protein. Ethical objections based on consideration for animals are generally divided into opposition to the act of killing in general, and opposition to certain Intensive farming, agricultural practices surrounding the animal husbandry, production of meat.


Ethics of killing for food

Ethical vegetarians believe that killing an animal, like killing a human, especially one who has equal or lesser cognitive abilities than the animals in question, can only be justified in extreme circumstances and that consuming a living creature for its enjoyable taste, convenience, or nutrition value is not a sufficient cause. Another common view is that humans are morally conscious of their behavior in a way other animals are not, and therefore subject to higher standards. Jeff McMahan (philosopher), Jeff McMahan proposes that denying the right to life and humane treatment to animals with equal or greater cognitive abilities than mentally disabled humans is an arbitrary and discriminatory practice based on habit instead of logic. Opponents of ethical vegetarianism argue that animals are not Moral equivalence, moral equals to humans and so consider the comparison of eating livestock with killing people to be fallacious. This view does not excuse cruelty, but maintains that animals do not possess the rights a human has.


Dairy and eggs

One of the main differences between a
vegan Veganism is the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in diet (nutrition), diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals. An individual who follows the diet or philosophy is kno ...

vegan
and a Ovo-lacto vegetarianism, lacto-ovo vegetarian diet is the avoidance of both eggs and dairy products such as milk, cheese, butter and yogurt. Veganism#Ethical veganism, Ethical vegans do not consume dairy or eggs because they state that their production causes the animal suffering or a premature death. To produce milk from dairy cattle, farmers separate calves from their mothers soon after birth to retain cow milk for human consumption.


Treatment of animals

Ethical vegetarianism has become popular in developed countries particularly because of the spread of factory farming, faster communications, and environmental consciousness. Some believe that the current mass-demand for meat cannot be satisfied without a mass-production system that disregards the welfare of animals, while others believe that practices like well-managed free range, free-range farming or the consumption of game (hunting), game (particularly from species whose natural predators have been significantly eliminated) could substantially alleviate consumer demand for mass-produced meat.


Religion and diet

Jainism Jainism (), traditionally known as ''Jain Dharma'', is an ancient Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduis ...

Jainism
teaches vegetarianism as moral conduct, as do some sects of Hinduism. Buddhism in general does not prohibit meat eating, while Mahayana, Mahayana Buddhism encourages vegetarianism as beneficial for developing compassion. Other denominations that advocate a vegetarian diet include the Seventh-day Adventist Church, Seventh-day Adventists, the Rastafari movement, the Ananda Marga movement and the Hare Krishnas. Sikhism does not equate spirituality with diet and does not specify a vegetarian or meat diet.


Baháʼí Faith

While there are no dietary restrictions in the Baháʼí Faith, `Abdu'l-Bahá, the son of the religion's founder, noted that a vegetarian diet consisting of fruits and grains was desirable, except for people with a weak constitution or those that are sick. He stated that there are no requirements that Baháʼís become vegetarian, but that a future society should gradually become vegetarian. `Abdu'l-Bahá also stated that killing animals was contrary to compassion. While Shoghi Effendi, the head of the Bahá'í Faith in the first half of the 20th century, stated that a purely vegetarian diet would be preferable since it avoided killing animals, both he and the Universal House of Justice, the governing body of the Baháʼís have stated that these teachings do not constitute a Baháʼí practice and that Baháʼís can choose to eat whatever they wish but should be respectful of others' beliefs.


Buddhism

Theravadins in general eat meat. If Buddhist monks "see, hear or know" a living animal was killed specifically for them to eat, they must refuse it or else incur an offense. However, this does not include eating meat which was given as alms or commercially purchased. In the Theravada canon, Buddha did not make any comment discouraging them from eating meat (except specific types, such as human, elephant meat, elephant, Horse meat, horse, Dog meat, dog, Snake#Consumption, snake, lion, tiger, leopard, Bear hunting#Meat, bear, and hyena flesh) but he specifically refused to institute vegetarianism in his monastic code when a suggestion had been made. In several Sanskrit texts of Mahayana Buddhism, Buddha instructs his followers to avoid meat. However, each branch of Mahayana Buddhism selects which sutra to follow, and some branches, including the majority of Tibetan and Japanese Buddhists, do eat meat, while many Chinese Buddhist branches do not. Different Buddhist traditions have differing teachings on diet, which may also vary for ordained monks and nuns compared to others. Many interpret the Five Precepts, precept "not to kill" to require abstinence from meat, but not all. In Taiwan, ''su'' vegetarianism excludes not only all animal products but also vegetables in the
allium ''Allium'' is a genus of monocotyledonous flowering plants that includes hundreds of species, including the cultivated onion, garlic, scallion, shallot, leek, and chives. The Generic name (biology), generic name ''Allium'' is the Latin word for g ...
family (which have the characteristic aroma of onion and garlic): onion, garlic, scallions, leeks, chives, or shallots.


Christianity

Various groups within Christianity have practiced specific dietary restrictions for various reasons. The Council of Jerusalem in around 50 AD, recommended Christians keep following some of the Jewish food laws concerning meat. The early sect known as the Ebionites are considered to have practiced vegetarianism. Surviving fragments from their Gospel of the Ebionites#Vegetarianism, Gospel indicate their belief that – as Christ is the Passover sacrifice and eating the Passover lamb is no longer required – a vegetarian diet may (or should) be observed. However, orthodox Christianity does not accept their teaching as authentic. Indeed, their specific injunction to strict vegetarianism was cited as one of the Ebionites' "errors". At a much later time, the Bible Christian Church (vegetarian), Bible Christian Church founded by Reverend William Cowherd in 1809 followed a vegetarian diet. Cowherd was one of the philosophical forerunners of the
Vegetarian Society The Vegetarian Society of the United Kingdom is a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Irelan ...

Vegetarian Society
.; Gregory, James (2007) ''Of Victorians and Vegetarians''. London: I. B. Tauris pp. 30–35. Cowherd encouraged members to abstain from eating of meat as a form of Temperance (virtue), temperance. Seventh-day Adventist Church, Seventh-day Adventists are encouraged to engage in healthy eating practices, and ovo-lacto-vegetarian diets are recommended by the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists Nutrition Council (GCNC). They have also sponsored and participated in many scientific studies exploring the impact of dietary decisions upon health outcomes. The GCNC has in addition adapted the United States Department of Agriculture, USDA's Food guide pyramid#USDA food pyramid, food pyramid for a vegetarian dietary approach. However, the only kinds of meat specifically frowned upon by the SDA health message are unclean animals, unclean meats, or those forbidden in scripture. Additionally, some monastic orders follow a pescatarian diet, and members of the Eastern Orthodox Church follow a vegan diet during fasts. There is also a strong association between the Quakers and vegetarianism dating back at least to the 18th century. The association grew in prominence during the 19th century, coupled with growing Quaker concerns in connection with alcohol consumption, anti-vivisection and social purity. The association between the Quaker tradition and vegetarianism, however, becomes most significant with the founding of the Friends' Vegetarian Society in 1902 "to spread a kindlier way of living amongst the Society of Friends." According to Canon law#Catholic Church, Canon Law, Roman Catholics ages 14 and older are required to abstain from meat, other than fish, on Ash Wednesday and all Fridays of Lent including Good Friday. Canon Law also obliges Catholics to abstain from meat, other than fish, on the Fridays of the year outside of Lent (excluding certain holy days) unless, with the permission of the local conference of bishops, another penitential act is substituted. The restrictions on eating meat on these days is solely as an act of penance and not because of a religious objection to eating meat.


Seventh-day Adventist

Since the formation of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in the 1860s when the church began, wholeness and health have been an emphasis of the Adventist church, and has been known as the "health message" belief of the church. Adventists are well known for presenting a health message that recommends Christian vegetarianism, vegetarianism and expects adherence to the Kashrut, kosher laws in Leviticus 11. Obedience to these laws means abstinence from pork, shellfish, and other animals proscribed as "unclean animals, unclean". The church discourages its members from consuming alcoholic beverages, tobacco or illegal drugs (compare Christianity and alcohol). In addition, some Adventists avoid coffee, tea, cola, and other beverages containing caffeine. The pioneers of the Adventist Church had much to do with the common acceptance of breakfast cereals into the Western diet, and the "modern commercial concept of cereal food" originated among Adventists. John Harvey Kellogg was one of the early founders of Adventist health work. His development of breakfast cereals as a health food led to the founding of Kellogg Company, Kellogg's by his brother William K. Kellogg, William. In both Australia and New Zealand, the church-owned Sanitarium Health and Wellbeing Company is a leading manufacturer of health and vegetarian-related products, most prominently Weet-Bix. Research funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health has shown that the average Adventist in California lives 4 to 10 years longer than the average Californian. Adventist Health Studies, The research, as cited by the cover story of the November 2005 issue of ''National Geographic (magazine), National Geographic'', asserts that Adventists live longer because they do not smoke or drink alcohol, have a day of rest every week, and maintain a healthy, low-fat vegetarian diet that is rich in nuts and beans. The cohesiveness of Adventists' social networks has also been put forward as an explanation for their extended lifespan. Since Dan Buettner's 2005 ''National Geographic (magazine), National Geographic'' story about Adventist longevity, his book, ''The Blue Zones: Lessons for Living Longer From the People Who've Lived the Longest'', named Loma Linda, California a "Blue Zone, blue zone" because of the large concentration of Seventh-day Adventists. He cites the Adventist emphasis on health, diet, and Sabbath-keeping as primary factors for Adventist longevity. An estimated 35% of Adventists practice vegetarianism or veganism, according to a 2002 worldwide survey of local church leaders. North American Adventist health study recruitments from 2001 to 2007 found a similar prevalence of vegetarianism/veganism. A small majority of Adventists, 54%, were conventional meat-eaters. Of the remaining 46% it was found that 28% were Ovo vegetarianism, Ovo/Lacto vegetarianism, Lacto-Ovo-lacto vegetarianism, vegetarians, 10% were Pescetarianism, Pesco-vegetarians and 8% were vegans. It is common for Adventists who choose to eat meat to follow highly vegetarian diets; 6% of the “meat-eaters” group restricted their intake of meat/fish to no more than once per week.


Hinduism

Though there is no strict rule on what to consume and what not to, paths of Hinduism hold vegetarianism as an ideal. Some reasons are: the principle of nonviolence (''
ahimsa Ahimsa (also spelled ''Ahinsa'') (Sanskrit: अहिंसा IAST: ', Pali, Pāli: ') ("nonviolence") is an ancient Indian principle of nonviolence which applies to all living beings. It is a key virtue in Hindu Dharma, Hinduism, Jainism an ...
'') applied to animals; the intention to offer only "pure" (vegetarian) food to a deity and then to receive it back as ''prasad''; and the conviction that a sattvic diet, ''satvic'' diet is beneficial for a healthy body and mind and that non-vegetarian food is not recommended for a better mind and for spiritual development. A ''Sattva, sattvic'' diet is Lacto vegetarianism, lacto-vegetarian where it can include dairy, but excludes eggs. However, the food habits of Hindus vary according to their community, location, custom and varying traditions. Historically and currently, those Hindus who eat meat prescribe ''jhatka'' meat, Hindus believe that the cow is a holy animal whose Cattle slaughter in India, processing for meat is forbidden.


Islam

Some followers of Islam, or Muslims, chose to be vegetarian for health, ethical, or personal reasons. However, the choice to become vegetarian for non-medical reasons can sometimes be controversial due to conflicting fatwas and differing interpretations of the Quran. Though some more traditional Muslims may keep quiet about their vegetarian diet, the number of vegetarian Muslims is increasing. Vegetarianism has been practiced by some influential Muslims including the Iraqi theologian, female mystic and poet Rabia of Basra, who died in the year 801, the Sufi mystic and poet Rumi and the Sri Lankan Sufi master Bawa Muhaiyaddeen, who established The Bawa Muhaiyaddeen Fellowship of North America in Philadelphia. The former President of India, Indian president Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam was also famously a vegetarian. In January 1996, The International Vegetarian Union announced the formation of the Muslim Vegetarian/Vegan Society. Many non-vegetarian Muslims will select vegetarian (or seafood) options when dining in non-halal restaurants. However, this is a matter of not having the right kind of meat rather than preferring not to eat meat on the whole.


Jainism

Followers of
Jainism Jainism (), traditionally known as ''Jain Dharma'', is an ancient Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduis ...

Jainism
believe that all living organisms, including microorganisms, are living and have a soul, and have one or more senses out of five senses. They go to great lengths to minimise any harm to any living organism. Most Jains are lacto-vegetarians, but more devout Jains do not eat root vegetables, because they believe that root vegetables contain many more microorganisms as compared to other vegetables, and that, by eating them, violence against these microorganisms is inevitable. They therefore prefer eating beans and fruits, whose cultivation involves killing fewer microorganisms. No products obtained from already-dead animals are allowed because of potential violence against decomposing microorganisms. Some particularly dedicated individuals are fruitarianism, fruitarians. Honey is forbidden, being the regurgitation of nectar by bees and potentially containing eggs, excreta and dead bees. Many Jains do not consume plant parts that grow underground such as roots and bulbs, because the plants themselves and tiny animals may be killed when the plants are pulled up.


Judaism

While classical Jewish law neither requires nor prohibits the consumption of meat, Jewish vegetarians often cite Jewish principles regarding Jewish ethics#Treatment of animals, animal welfare, Jewish ethics#Environmental ethics, environmental ethics, moral character, and Jewish ethics#Health and self-respect, health as reasons for adopting a vegetarian or vegan diet. Rabbis may advocate vegetarianism or veganism primarily because of concerns about animal welfare, especially in light of the traditional prohibition on causing unnecessary "pain to living creatures" (Tza'ar ba'alei chayim, tza'ar ba'alei hayyim). Some Jewish vegetarian groups and activists believe that the halakha, halakhic permission to eat meat is a temporary leniency for those who are not ready yet to accept the vegetarian diet. The book of Daniel starts in it
first chapter
with the benefits of vegetarianism. Due to its size, its late time of origin and its revealing content, the book is of particular importance for the time of the following exile, which lasts now for 2000 years and technically still goes on until the Temple in Jerusalem is rebuilt. A diet described as “pulse and water” is presented along benefits such as accordance with the biblical dietary laws, health, beauty, wisdom and visions. Vegetarianism can be seen as a safeguard around the dietary laws or the beautification of them. Jewish vegetarianism and veganism have become especially popular among Israeli Jews. In 2016, Israel was described as "the most vegan country on Earth", as five percent of its population eschewed all animal products. Interest in veganism has grown among both non-Orthodox and Orthodox Jews in Israel.


Rastafari

Within the Afro-Caribbean community, a minority are Rastafari movement, Rastafari and follow the dietary regulations with varying degrees of strictness. The most orthodox eat only "Ital" or natural foods, in which the matching of herbs or spices with vegetables is the result of long tradition originating from the African ancestry and cultural heritage of Rastafari. "Ital", which is derived from the word vital, means essential to human existence. Ital cooking in its strictest form prohibits the use of salt, meat (especially pork), preservatives, colorings, flavorings and anything artificial. Most Rastafari are vegetarian.


Sikhism

The tenets of Sikhism do not advocate a particular stance on either vegetarianism or the consumption of meat,Gopal Singh, ''History of the Sikh People'', World Sikh Univ. Press, Delhi, : "Nowadays in the Community Kitchen attached to the Sikh temples, and called the Guru's Kitchen (or ''Guru-ka-langar''), meat dishes are not served at all. Maybe it is on account of its being, perhaps, expensive or not easy to keep for long. Or perhaps the Vaishnava tradition is too strong to be shaken off." but leave the decision of diet to the individual.Randip Singh,
Fools Who Wrangle Over Flesh
', Sikh Philosophy Network, December 7, 2006. Retrieved January 15, 2010.
The tenth guru, Guru Gobind Singh, however, prohibited "Amritdhari" Sikhs, or those that follow the Sikh Rehat Maryada (the Official Sikh Code of Conduct) from eating Kutha meat, or meat which has been obtained from animals which have been killed in a ritualistic way. This is understood to have been for the political reason of maintaining independence from the then-new Muslim hegemony, as Muslims largely adhere to the ritualistic halal diet. "Amritdharis" that belong to some Sikh sects (e.g. Akhand Kirtani Jatha, Damdami Taksal, Namdhari and Rarionwalay, etc.) are vehemently against the consumption of meat and eggs (though they do consume and encourage the consumption of milk, butter and cheese). This vegetarian stance has been traced back to the times of the British Raj, with the advent of many new Vaishnava converts. In response to the varying views on diet throughout the Sikh population, Sikh Gurus have sought to clarify the Sikh view on diet, stressing their preference only for simplicity of diet. Guru Nanak said that over-consumption of food (Lobh, Greed) involves a drain on the Earth's resources and thus on life. Passages from the ''Guru Granth Sahib'' (the holy book of Sikhs, also known as the ''Adi Granth'') say that it is "foolish" to argue for the superiority of animal life, because though all life is related, only human life carries more importance: "Only fools argue whether to eat meat or not. Who can define what is meat and what is not meat? Who knows where the sin lies, being a vegetarian or a non-vegetarian?" The Sikh Langar (Sikhism), langar, or free temple meal, is largely lacto-vegetarian, though this is understood to be a result of efforts to present a meal that is respectful of the diets of any person who would wish to dine, rather than out of dogma.


Environment and diet

Environmental vegetarianism is based on the concern that the production of meat and animal products for mass consumption, especially through factory farming, is environmentalism, environmentally sustainable development, unsustainable. According to a 2006 United Nations initiative, the livestock industry is one of the largest contributors to environmental degradation worldwide, and modern practices of raising animals for food contribute on a "massive scale" to air and water pollution, land degradation, climate change, and Biodiversity loss, loss of biodiversity. The initiative concluded that "the livestock sector emerges as one of the top two or three most significant contributors to the most serious environmental problems, at every scale from local to global." In addition, animal agriculture is a large source of greenhouse gases. According to a 2006 report it is responsible for 18% of the world's greenhouse gas emissions as estimated in 100-year CO2 equivalents. Livestock sources (including enteric fermentation and manure) account for about 3.1 percent of US anthropogenic GHG emissions expressed as carbon dioxide equivalents. This EPA estimate is based on methodologies agreed to by the Conference of Parties of the UNFCCC, with 100-year global warming potentials from the IPCC Second Assessment Report used in estimating GHG emissions as carbon dioxide equivalents. Meat produced in a laboratory (called in vitro meat) may be more environmentally sustainable than regularly produced meat. Reactions of vegetarians vary. Rearing a relatively small number of grazing animals can be beneficial, as the Food Climate Research Network at Surrey University reports: "A little bit of livestock production is probably a good thing for the environment". In May 2009, Ghent, Belgium, was reported to be "the first [city] in the world to go vegetarian at least once a week" for environmental reasons, when local authorities decided to implement a "weekly meatless day". Civil servants would eat vegetarian meals one day per week, in recognition of the United Nations' report. Posters were put up by local authorities to encourage the population to take part on vegetarian days, and "veggie street maps" were printed to highlight vegetarian restaurants. In September 2009, schools in Ghent are due to have a weekly ''veggiedag'' ("vegetarian day") too. Public opinion and acceptance of meat-free food is expected to be more successful if its descriptive words focus less on the health aspects and more on the flavor.


Labor conditions and diet

Some groups, such as PETA, promote vegetarianism as a way to offset poor treatment and working conditions of workers in the contemporary meat industry. These groups cite studies showing the psychological damage caused by working in the meat industry, especially in factory and industrialised settings, and argue that the meat industry violates its labourers' human rights by assigning difficult and distressing tasks without adequate counselling, training and debriefing.Positive Safety Culture. The key to a safer meat industry
, A literature review July 2000, safework.sa.gov.au
However, the working conditions of agricultural workers as a whole, particularly non-permanent workers, remain poor and well below conditions prevailing in other economic sectors. Accidents, including pesticide poisoning, among farmers and plantation workers contribute to increased health risks, including increased mortality. According to the International Labour Organization, agriculture is one of the three most dangerous jobs in the world.


Economics and diet

Similar to environmental vegetarianism is the concept of economic vegetarianism. An economic vegetarian is someone who practices vegetarianism from either the philosophical viewpoint concerning issues such as public health and curbing world starvation, the belief that the consumption of meat is economically unsound, part of a conscious simple living strategy or just out of necessity. According to the Worldwatch Institute, "Massive reductions in meat consumption in industrial nations will ease their health care burden while improving public health; declining livestock herds will take pressure off rangelands and grainlands, allowing the agricultural resource base to rejuvenate. As populations grow, lowering meat consumption worldwide will allow more efficient use of declining per capita land and water resources, while at the same time making grain more affordable to the world's chronically hungry." According to estimates in 2016, adoption of vegetarianism would contribute substantially to global healthcare and environmental savings.


Demographics

Prejudice researcher Gordon Hodson argues that vegetarians and vegans frequently face discrimination where eating meat is held as a cultural norm. Compared to omnivores, vegetarians were more open to new experiences but were also more neurotic and depressed. There are currently 375 million people practicing vegetarianism worldwide.


Turnover

Research suggests that, at least in the United States, vegetarianism has a high turnover rate, with less than 20% of adopters persisting for more than a year. A 2014 study found that 84% of Americans who started a vegetarian or vegan diet eventually abandoned it, with higher retention among individuals who stayed committed for over a year. Research shows various reasons contribute to lapsing, such as lacking social support. Subsequent research supports the idea that social connection is negatively impacted by dietary restrictions. A 2019 analysis found that adhering to any kind of restricted diet ''(eg; gluten-free, vegetarian, kosher, teetotal)'' was associated with feelings of loneliness and increased social isolation. Vegetarians or vegans who adopted their diet abruptly might be more likely to eventually abandon their diet when compared to individuals adopting their diet gradually with incremental changes.


Gender

A 1992 market research study conducted by the Yankelovich research organisation concluded that "of the 12.4 million people [in the US] who call themselves vegetarian, 68% are female, while only 32% are male". Subsequent research has consistently found that vegetarians are more likely to be female than male. In 2019 the female-to-male ratio of vegetarians was similar to what was found in the 1992 study. Multiple causes may explain this, including gendered differences in values, attitudes towards dieting, gender roles and socialisation and differences in health concerns. Women are more likely than men to be vegetarian for prosocial and values-based reasons. They are also more likely to adhere to their vegetarian diets than men. At least one study indicates that vegetarian women are more likely to have female babies. A study of 6,000 pregnant women in 1998 "found that while the national average in Britain is 106 boys born to every 100 girls, for vegetarian mothers the ratio was just 85 boys to 100 girls".


Age group

In 2018 Ipsos MORI conducted a worldwide survey and found that vegetarianism was strongly correlated with young adulthood. Only 3% of adults 35 years old & older were ovo/lacto-vegetarians, meanwhile the prevalence of vegetarianism was twice as high among respondents below 35 years old. In 2020 YouGov published the results of 2019 research surveying 1,491 Americans. The results showed 7.17% of respondents followed some type of meatless diet: 2.26% reported being vegan, 4.91% reported being vegetarian. In addition 2.58% reported being pescetarian. A major finding in this study was that meat-consumption was positively correlated with higher age. The younger Americans were less likely to be meat-eaters; a total of 15 percent of adults under 39 say they are vegan or vegetarian. Other research has estimated a lower prevalence; one study found that 7.5% Millennials and Gen-Z were vegetarian/vegan, but this prevalence is still significantly higher than that of older generations.


Country-specific information

The rate of vegetarianism by country can vary substantially from relatively low levels in countries such as the Netherlands (5%) to more considerable levels in India (20–40%). Estimates for the number of vegetarians per country can be subject to methodological difficulties, as respondents may identify as vegetarian even if they include some meat in their diet, and thus some researchers suggest the percentage of vegetarians may be significantly overestimated.


See also

* Adolf Hitler and vegetarianism * Carnivore * wikibooks:Cookbook:Vegetarian cuisine, Cookbook:Vegetarian cuisine * Economic vegetarianism * Environmental vegetarianism **Environmental impact of meat production * Food and drink prohibitions * History of vegetarianism *
Lacto vegetarianism A lacto-vegetarian (sometimes referred to as a lactarian; from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rom ...
* List of diets * List of vegetarian festivals * List of vegetarian restaurants * List of vegetarians * Meat-free day * Meat tax * Non-vegetarian * Nutritionism *
Ovo vegetarianism Ovo vegetarianism is a type of vegetarianism which allows for the consumption of eggs but not dairy products, in contrast with lacto vegetarianism. Those who practice ovo vegetarianism are called ovo-vegetarians. "Ovo" comes from the Latin word ...
*
Ovo-lacto vegetarianism An lacto-ovo vegetarian or ovo-lacto vegetarian is a vegetarianism, vegetarian who consumes some animal products, such as eggs (food), eggs and dairy. Unlike Pescetarianism, pescatarians, they do not consume Fish (food), fish or other seafood. A ty ...
* Pescetarianism * Planetary diet * Plant-based diet * Semi-vegetarianism * Single-cell protein *
Veganism Veganism is the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in diet (nutrition), diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals. An individual who follows the diet or philosophy is kno ...
* Vegetarianism and religion **Hindu vegetarianism ** Buddhist vegetarianism ** Christian vegetarianism **
Jain vegetarianism Jain vegetarianism is practiced by the followers of Jain Jainism (), traditionally known as ''Jain Dharma'', is an ancient Indian religion and the method of acquiring omniscience, perfect knowledge of Jīva (Jainism), self and Jain cosmolog ...
** Jewish vegetarianism ** Diet in Sikhism#Disagreement with the ruling, Sikh vegetarianism * Vegetarian cuisine * Vegetarian Diet Pyramid * Vegetarian nutrition *
Vegetarian Society The Vegetarian Society of the United Kingdom is a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Irelan ...

Vegetarian Society
* Vegetarianism by country * Vegetarianism and Romanticism


References


Further reading

* Adam D. Shprintzen. ''The Vegetarian Crusade: The Rise of an American Reform Movement, 1817–1921''. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2013.


External links


The Vegetarian Resource Group
{{Portal bar, Food, Medicine Vegetarianism, Vegetables, * Diets Ethical theories Intentional living Nonviolence