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The Vaal River ( ;
Khoemana ǃOrakobab or ''Khoemana'', also known as Korana, ǃOra, or Griqua, is a Moribund language, moribund Khoe languages, Khoe language of South Africa. Names "Khoemana" (from ''khoe'' 'person' + ''mana'' 'language') is more commonly known as either ...
: ) is the largest tributary of the
Orange River The Orange River (from Afrikaans Alaric speaking Afrikaans. Afrikaans (, ) is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. ...
in
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...

South Africa
. The river has its source near
Breyten Breyten is a small farming town in Mpumalanga, South Africa and is situated at the foot of ''Klipstapel'', the highest point on the watershed between the westward flowing Vaal River system and the eastward flowing Olifants/Letaba River, Olifants a ...
in
Mpumalanga Mpumalanga () is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, ...

Mpumalanga
province, east of
Johannesburg Johannesburg (, also ; ; Zulu language, Zulu and xh, eGoli ), informally known as Jozi, Joburg, or "The City of Gold", is the largest city in South Africa, classified as a Megacity#List of megacities, megacity, and is List of urban areas by ...

Johannesburg
and about north of Ermelo and only about from the
Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's five ocean The ocean (also the or the world ocean) is the body of that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of and contains 97% of . Another definition is "any of the large ...

Indian Ocean
. It then flows westwards to its conjunction with the Orange River southwest of
Kimberley Kimberly or Kimberley may refer to: Places and historical events Australia * Kimberley (Western Australia) ** Roman Catholic Diocese of Kimberley * Kimberley Warm Springs, Tasmania * Kimberley, Tasmania a small town * County of Kimberley, a c ...
in the
Northern Cape The Northern Cape ( af, Noord-Kaap; xh, eMntla-Koloni; tn, Kapa Bokone) is the largest and most sparsely populated province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1) ...
. It is long, and forms the border between Mpumalanga,
Gauteng Gauteng ( ; tn, Gauteng; Northern and Southern Sotho: ; zu, eGoli; ts, Gauteng/; Ndebele Ndebele may refer to: *Southern Ndebele people, located in South Africa *Northern Ndebele people, located in Zimbabwe and Botswana About It is a lang ...
and
North West Province #REDIRECT North West (South African province) #REDIRECT North West (South African province) North West ( tn, Bokone Bophirima; Southern Sotho: ; nso, Leboa-Bodikela) is a Provinces of South Africa, province of South Africa. Its capital is Mah ...
on its north bank, and the
Free State #REDIRECT Free state The Free State ( af, Vrystaat; st, Freistata; xh, iFreyistata; tn, Foreistata; zu, iFuleyisitata; before 1995, the Orange Free State) is a Provinces of South Africa, province of South Africa. Its capital is Bloemfontein, ...
on its south. It is the third largest river in
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...

South Africa
after the
Orange River The Orange River (from Afrikaans Alaric speaking Afrikaans. Afrikaans (, ) is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. ...
(2200 km long) and the
Limpopo River The Limpopo River rises in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area ...
(1750 km long) and was established as the main source of water for the great Witswatersrand area after the gold rush during the 19th century.9 longest rivers. SA9. Accessed 2 April 2018.
/ref> The
Vaal Dam The Vaal Dam in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . Sout ...
lies on the Vaal River in
Deneysville Deneysville is a small town on the banks of the Vaal Dam in the Free State province of South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, ...
just south of the border between
Gauteng Gauteng ( ; tn, Gauteng; Northern and Southern Sotho: ; zu, eGoli; ts, Gauteng/; Ndebele Ndebele may refer to: *Southern Ndebele people, located in South Africa *Northern Ndebele people, located in Zimbabwe and Botswana About It is a lang ...
and the Free State. It is also important to note that the Vaal River is the longest river wholly within the borders of South Africa. ''Vaal'' is a
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
name (later
Afrikaans Afrikaans (, ) is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most po ...
), translated by the Griquas or
Boers Boers () ( af , Boere) refers to the descendants of the proto-Afrikaans-speaking colonist A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established a permanent residence there, often to colonize Colonization, or colonisation ...

Boers
from an earlier Kora
Khoekhoe Khoekhoen (singular Khoekhoe) (or Khoikhoi in the former orthography; formerly also '' Hottentots''"Hottentot, n. and adj." ''OED Online'', Oxford University Press, March 2018, www.oed.com/view/Entry/88829. Accessed 13 May 2018. Citing G. S. ...
or !Orakobab name, sometimes spelled as ''Tky-Gariep'' (in
Khoekhoegowab The Khoekhoe language (), also known by the ethnic terms Nama (''Namagowab'') , Damara (''ǂNūkhoegowab''), or Nama/Damara and formerly as Hottentot, is the most widespread of the non-Bantu languages, Bantu languages of Southern Africa that ...
orthography it is ''ǀHai!garib'', drab river). Both Vaal and ''Tky'' (in modern orthography ǀHai) mean "drab" or "dull", which alludes to the colour of the waters, especially noticeable during flood season when the river is laden with silt. In the upper reaches the river was named ''iLigwa'' ( Sindebele), ''Ikwa'' (
isiZulu Zulu (), or isiZulu as an endonym, is a Southern Bantu languages, Southern Bantu language of the Nguni languages, Nguni branch spoken in Southern Africa. It is the language of the Zulu people, with about 12 million native speakers, who primaril ...
), ''ilikwa'' (
siSwati The Swazi or siSwati language is a Bantu languages, Bantu language of the Nguni languages, Nguni group spoken in Eswatini and South Africa by the Swazi people, Swati people. The number of speakers is estimated to be in the region of 2.4 mil ...
), ''lekwa'' (
Sesotho Sotho () or Sesotho () is a Southern Bantu languages, Southern Bantu language of the Sotho-Tswana languages, Sotho-Tswana (S.30) group, spoken primarily by the Basotho people, Basotho in Lesotho, where it is the national language, national a ...
), or ''cuoa'' by the Khoikhoi, all referring to the plain it traverses.


History

Historically, the river formed the northern border of
Moshoeshoe I Moshoeshoe () (c. 1776 – 11 March 1870) was born at Menkhoaneng in the northern part of present-day Lesotho Lesotho ( , ), officially the Kingdom of Lesotho ( st, Naha ea Lesotho), is an enclaved country surrounded entirely by South ...
's
Basotho The Sotho people, or Basotho , are a Bantu Bantu may refer to: *Bantu languages, constitute the largest sub-branch of the Niger–Congo languages *Bantu peoples, over 400 peoples of Africa speaking a Bantu language *Afro-textured hair#Styl ...

Basotho
kingdom at its height in the mid-19th century, then became the boundary between two
Boer republics The Boer Republics (sometimes also referred to as Boer states) were independent, self-governing republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, gene ...
: The
South African Republic The South African Republic ( nl, Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek; the ZAR; also known as the Transvaal Republic, af, Suid-Afrikaanse Republiek) was an independent republic A republic () is a form of government A government is t ...
(later the
TransvaalTransvaal is a historical geographic term associated with land north of (''i.e.'', beyond) the Vaal River in South Africa. A number of states and administrative divisions have carried the name Transvaal. * South African Republic (1856–1902; af, Z ...
province) and the
Orange Free State The Orange Free State ( nl, Oranje Vrijstaat, af, Oranje-Vrystaat, abbreviated as OVS) was an independent Boer Boers () ( af , Boere) refers to the descendants of the proto-Afrikaans-speaking colonist A settler is a person who ha ...
. The geographic name "Transvaal" comes from the name of this river, meaning "beyond the Vaal river". This was in respect to the
Cape Colony The Cape Colony ( nl, Kaapkolonie), also known as the Cape of Good Hope, was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Cro ...
and
Natal NATAL or Natal may refer to: Places * Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, a city in Brazil * Natal, South Africa (disambiguation), a region in South Africa ** Natalia Republic, a former country (1839–1843) ** Colony of Natal, a former British colony (18 ...
, which were the main areas of European settlement at the time, and which lay south of the Vaal. During the late 19th century, there was an influx of people migrating to the
Witwatersrand The Witwatersrand () (locally the Rand or, less commonly, the Reef) is a , north-facing scarp in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of So ...

Witwatersrand
in search for
gold Gold is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical elemen ...

gold
. The Vaal River would eventually become the main water source for the Witwatersrand. The growing population initially used water from the groundwater of the Zuurbekom Wells in
Gauteng Gauteng ( ; tn, Gauteng; Northern and Southern Sotho: ; zu, eGoli; ts, Gauteng/; Ndebele Ndebele may refer to: *Southern Ndebele people, located in South Africa *Northern Ndebele people, located in Zimbabwe and Botswana About It is a lang ...
’s West Rand. Eventually these would dry up and people would need a new source that could provide for their domestic, agricultural and industrial activities. Water schemes were initially established by the private sector to deal with the growing demand. These included the
Braamfontein Braamfontein (English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the Wo ...
Water Company's Vierfontein Syndicate of 1893 and the Sivewright Concession of 1887 by the Johannesburg Waterworks and Exploration Company. Water was expensive and largely inaccessible for most inhabitants.


Rand Water Board

The Rand Water Board was established in 1903 to take over the operations of the private sector with a mandate to investigate sustainable water supply and
sanitation Sanitation refers to public health Public health has been defined as "the science and art of preventing disease", prolonging life and improving quality of life Quality of life (QOL) is defined by the World Health Organization The ...

sanitation
services. The organisation would become fully operational in 1905, supplying water in bulk to the
Witwatersrand The Witwatersrand () (locally the Rand or, less commonly, the Reef) is a , north-facing scarp in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of So ...

Witwatersrand
. The organisation's members included officials from the Johannesburg Town Council, The Chamber of Mines and other local authorities within the Witwatersrand. Rand Water responded to
water scarcity Water scarcity (water stress or water crisis) is the lack of fresh water resources to meet the standard water demand. Humanity is facing a water crisis, due to unequal distribution (exacerbated by climate change Climate change inclu ...

water scarcity
by imposing restrictions on Witwatersrand inhabitants in 1913. It also developed major water schemes that would respond to the growing demand. Between 1914 and 1998, the organisation partnered with various government and private entities to drive the Vaal River scheme and the barrage (1914–1924). The Vaal River scheme was an initiative established to manage water distribution. The Rand Water board also established the Vereeniging Pumping Station (1924), the Zwartkopjes Pumping Station, the Vaal Dam (1938), the Zuikerbosch Pumping Station (1949) and the
Lesotho Highlands Water Project The Lesotho Highlands Water Project (LHWP) is an ongoing water supply project with a hydropower component, developed in partnership between the governments of Lesotho and South Africa. It comprises a system of several large Dam, dams and tunnel ...
(1998).


River Basin

Rain and underground water collects in pans,
vlei A vlei () is a shallow minor lake, mostly of a seasonal or intermittent In dynamical systems, intermittency is the irregular alternation of phases of apparently periodic and Chaos theory, chaotic dynamics (Pomeau–Manneville scenario, Pome ...
s and streams and where these connect, the westward flowing Vaal River is born. The river flows west into the Grootdraai Dam near
Standerton Standerton is a large commercial and agricultural town lying on the banks of the Vaal River The Vaal River ( ; Khoemana ǃOrakobab or ''Khoemana'', also known as Korana, ǃOra, or Griqua, is a Moribund language, moribund Khoe languages, Kho ...
,
Mpumalanga Mpumalanga () is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, ...

Mpumalanga
. On its course to the Vaal Dam in Vereeniging, the river is joined by a number of tributaries. The Little Vaal River starts in an
escarpment An escarpment is a steep slope In mathematics, the slope or gradient of a line Line, lines, The Line, or LINE may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Films * ''Lines'' (film), a 2016 Greek film * ''The Line'' (2017 film) * ''The ...

escarpment
near Ermelo. Near Memel in the
Free State #REDIRECT Free state The Free State ( af, Vrystaat; st, Freistata; xh, iFreyistata; tn, Foreistata; zu, iFuleyisitata; before 1995, the Orange Free State) is a Provinces of South Africa, province of South Africa. Its capital is Bloemfontein, ...
is where the
Klip River The Klip River is the main river draining the portion of Johannesburg south of the Witwatersrand, and its basin includes the Johannesburg CBD and Soweto. The mouth of the river is at Vereeniging where it empties into the Vaal River, which is a tri ...
begins. The Watervals River begins in Secunda,
Mpumalanga Mpumalanga () is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, ...

Mpumalanga
. The
Wilge River The Wilge River ( af, Wilgerivier, meaning "willow river") is a tributary of the Vaal River in central South Africa. This river is important as part of the Tugela-Vaal Water Transfer Scheme where water is transferred from the Thukela River, Tugela ...
used to meet the Vaal River before the
Vaal Dam The Vaal Dam in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . Sout ...
was built in 1938; now the water flows straight into the dam.


Vaal Dam

Since the Vaal River's
surface runoff Surface runoff (also known as overland flow) is the flow of water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in which it ac ...
is erratic, large dams have been built along its course to collect the water. In the past, before the river was established as the official source of water for part of the
Gauteng Gauteng ( ; tn, Gauteng; Northern and Southern Sotho: ; zu, eGoli; ts, Gauteng/; Ndebele Ndebele may refer to: *Southern Ndebele people, located in South Africa *Northern Ndebele people, located in Zimbabwe and Botswana About It is a lang ...
, several small dams were built by farmers for
irrigation Irrigation is the agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in seden ...

irrigation
. When the construction of the
Vaal Dam The Vaal Dam in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . Sout ...
was completed in 1938, the dam ensured the supply of water throughout each year even when the river was not full. The dam would receive water from different
catchment area In human geography Human geography or anthropogeography is the branch of geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellen ...
s through various projects.


Tugela-Vaal Transfer Scheme

Two water transfer schemes were developed to supply the economic heartland of the country (then recognised as the Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vereeniging complex) by channeling water into the Vaal River from other
catchment area In human geography Human geography or anthropogeography is the branch of geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellen ...
s between the 1970s and 1990s. These include the
Lesotho Highlands Water Project The Lesotho Highlands Water Project (LHWP) is an ongoing water supply project with a hydropower component, developed in partnership between the governments of Lesotho and South Africa. It comprises a system of several large Dam, dams and tunnel ...
and
Kwa-Zulu Natal KwaZulu-Natal (, also referred to as KZN and known as "the garden province"; zu, iKwaZulu-Natali; xh, KwaZulu-Natala; af, KwaZoeloe-Natal) is a province of South Africa that was created in 1994 when the Zulu Zulu may refer to: Zulu people ...
’s Tugela-Vaal Water Transfer Scheme.Rivers of South Africa. Manzi’s News. Accessed 31 March 2018.
/ref> The Tugela-Vaal Transfer Scheme was completed in 1974 to transfer from the
Tugela River The Tugela River ( zu, Thukela; af, Tugelarivier) is the largest river in KwaZulu-Natal Province KwaZulu-Natal (, also referred to as KZN and known as "the garden province"; zu, iKwaZulu-Natali; xh, KwaZulu-Natala; af, KwaZoeloe-Natal) ...
in
KwaZulu Natal KwaZulu-Natal (, also referred to as KZN and known as "the garden province"; zu, iKwaZulu-Natali; xh, KwaZulu-Natala; af, KwaZoeloe-Natal) is a province of South Africa that was created in 1994 when the Zulu Zulu may refer to: Zulu people ...
via canals, pipelines and dams into the Vaal River system


Lesotho Highlands Water Project

The
Lesotho Highlands Water Project The Lesotho Highlands Water Project (LHWP) is an ongoing water supply project with a hydropower component, developed in partnership between the governments of Lesotho and South Africa. It comprises a system of several large Dam, dams and tunnel ...
was finally launched in 1997 and would entail a three-phase construction that would augment water from
Lesotho Lesotho ( , ), officially the Kingdom of Lesotho ( st, Naha ea Lesotho), is an enclaved country surrounded entirely by South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. Wi ...

Lesotho
into the Vaal River, including four major dams. From 1954, the Natural Resources Development Council proposed that
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...

South Africa
receive some water from its neighbouring
Lesotho Lesotho ( , ), officially the Kingdom of Lesotho ( st, Naha ea Lesotho), is an enclaved country surrounded entirely by South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. Wi ...

Lesotho
. Negotiations between the two countries started in the late 1970s. A treaty for the development of the scheme was signed on 24 October 1987 by representatives of Lesotho, South Africa, the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
,
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
and the
World Bank The World Bank is an international financial institution An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that has been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence is subject to international law. Its o ...
. It was then estimated to cost R9.1 billion for the first phase of the project alone. South Africa pays R150 million to Lesotho each year whether they use all of the water that is supplied or not.


Basin ecology

According to Hogan the headwaters portion of the basin supports high
endemism Endemism is the state of a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest gro ...
in reptiles, and lower in the watershed are elevated levels of endemism for small mammals.


Industry and agriculture

Water is drawn from the Vaal to meet the industrial needs of the
Greater Johannesburg Metropolitan Area The City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality is a metropolitan municipality A metropolitan municipality is a type of municipality established in some countries to serve a metropolitan area. Canada In generic terms and in practical appli ...
and a large part of the Free State. In 1881 the Kimberley Waterworks Company, provided water from the Vaal to the Cape Diamond Fields at a cost of one
shilling The shilling is a historical coin, and the name of a unit of modern currencies A currency, "in circulation", from la, currens, -entis, literally meaning "running" or "traversing" in the most specific sense is money Image:National-D ...
per . As a part of the Vaal-Hartz Scheme it is a major source of water for irrigation. Water drawn from the Vaal supports 12 million consumers in Gauteng and surrounding areas.


Current uses

The majority of the Vaal River water upstream of the
Vaal Dam The Vaal Dam in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . Sout ...
is used for
mining Mining is the extraction of valuable mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occu ...

mining
and industrial use such as coal mines and
Sasol Sasol Limited is an integrated energy and chemical company based in Sandton Sandton is an affluent area in the Gauteng Province Gauteng ( ; tn, Gauteng; Northern and Southern Sotho: ; zu, eGoli; ts, Gauteng/; Ndebele Ndebele may ref ...

Sasol
’s energy and chemical-related activities, as well as urban use and power generation. Further downstream of the dam, water is mostly dedicated to urban requirements and, although proportionally less, a considerable amount of this section is also used for mining and industries,
irrigation Irrigation is the agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in seden ...

irrigation
and power generation.Upper Vaal WMA: Overview of water resources availability and utilisation. Department of Water Affairs. Accessed 2 April 2018.
/ref> The river regularly experiences pollution of its upper reaches, and this affects users downstream. During 2019 the
Lekwa Local Municipality Lekwa Local Municipality is a Local municipality (South Africa), South African local municipality situated in the southwest of the Gert Sibande District Municipality of Mpumalanga. Standerton, an urban node, is the seat of the Lekwa Local Municipa ...
's main water treatment plant in
Standerton Standerton is a large commercial and agricultural town lying on the banks of the Vaal River The Vaal River ( ; Khoemana ǃOrakobab or ''Khoemana'', also known as Korana, ǃOra, or Griqua, is a Moribund language, moribund Khoe languages, Kho ...
was in disrepair and was causing chronic pollution problems. To assist users downstream, clean water had to be pumped into the river to dilute its high salt levels, thereby wasting a large quantity of this scarce resource.


Tourism

The Vaal River is made up of 50 km of navigable water. The
river basin A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology dates back , though significant progress in meteorology ...
thus offers a range of leisurely water activities that attract local and international tourists throughout the year. Activities include
boating Boating is the leisurely activity of travelling by boat A boat is a watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical ...

boating
,
yachting Yachting is the use of recreational boats and ships called ''yacht A yacht is a sailing or power vessel used for pleasure, cruising, or racing. There is no standard definition, so the term applies to such vessels that have a cabin with amenit ...
and
water skiing Water skiing Skiing is the use of ski A ski is a narrow strip of semi-rigid material worn underfoot to glide over snow. Substantially longer than wide and characteristically employed in pairs, skis are attached to ski boot Ski boots ...

water skiing
.
Deneysville Deneysville is a small town on the banks of the Vaal Dam in the Free State province of South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, ...
is a town on the
Free State #REDIRECT Free state The Free State ( af, Vrystaat; st, Freistata; xh, iFreyistata; tn, Foreistata; zu, iFuleyisitata; before 1995, the Orange Free State) is a Provinces of South Africa, province of South Africa. Its capital is Bloemfontein, ...
side of the Vaal River and is a popular water-centre where visitors can enjoy
swimming Swimming is the self-propulsion of a person through water, or other liquid, usually for recreation, sport, exercise, or survival. Locomotion is achieved through coordinated movement of the limbs and the body to achieve hydrodynamic thrust whic ...

swimming
,
kiteboarding Kiteboarding or kitesurfing is an extreme sport Action sports, adventure sports or extreme sports are physical activity, activities perceived as involving a high degree of risk. These activities often involve speed, height, a high leve ...

kiteboarding
,
yachting Yachting is the use of recreational boats and ships called ''yacht A yacht is a sailing or power vessel used for pleasure, cruising, or racing. There is no standard definition, so the term applies to such vessels that have a cabin with amenit ...
,
boating Boating is the leisurely activity of travelling by boat A boat is a watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical ...

boating
,
catamaran A Formula 16 beachable catamaran Powered catamaran passenger ferry at Salem, Massachusetts, United States A catamaran () (informally, a "cat") is a multi-hulled watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, a ...

catamaran
cruising,
jet skiing A personal watercraft (PWC), also called water scooter, is a recreation Recreation is an activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time. The "need to do something for recreation" is an essential element of human biology and psychology. Re ...
,
windsurfing Windsurfing is a surface water sport that is a combination of surfing Surfing is a surface water sport The following is a list of surface water sports. These are sports which are performed atop a body of water. Towed water sports Envir ...

windsurfing
,
snorkeling Snorkeling ( British and Commonwealth English spelling: snorkelling) is the practice of swimming Swimming is the self-propulsion of a person through water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, tr ...

snorkeling
and
fishing Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish Fish are , , -bearing animals that lack with . Included in this definition are the living , s, and and as well as various extinct related groups. Around 99% of living fish species are ...

fishing
.


See also

*
Orange River The Orange River (from Afrikaans Alaric speaking Afrikaans. Afrikaans (, ) is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. ...
*
List of rivers in South Africa This is a list of rivers in South Africa. It is quite common to find the Afrikaans word ''-rivier'' as part of the name. Another common suffix is "''-kamma''", from the Khoisan term for "river" Meiring, Barbara"South African Toponymic Guidelines ...
*
Lower Vaal Water Management Area Lower Vaal WMA, or Lower Vaal Water Management Area (coded: 10), includes the following major rivers: the Harts River, Molopo River and Vaal River, and covers the following Dams: * Spitskop Dam Harts River * Vaalharts Storage Weir Vaal River Bo ...
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Vaal Dam The Vaal Dam in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . Sout ...
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Witwatersrand basin The Witwatersrand () (locally the Rand or, less commonly, the Reef) is a , north-facing scarp in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of So ...
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Witwatersrand Gold Rush The Witwatersrand Gold Rush was a gold rush cut the travel time from New York to San Francisco in seven months to four months in the 1849 California Gold Rush, Gold Rush. A gold rush or gold fever is a discovery of gold—sometimes accompan ...
* Drainage basins of South Africa


References


External links


Parys.info

Parys on the Vaal

Vaal Meander

Vaal River Cruises

Vaal River Properties

Vaal de Grace Estate

University Campus on banks of Vaal river

Lesotho Highlands Development Authority
{{Authority control Rivers of South Africa
Tributaries of the Orange RiverTributaries of the Orange River. {{Commons category, Tributaries of the Orange River Orange River Tributaries by river, Orange Riv ...
Internal borders of South Africa Rivers of the Free State (province) Rivers of Gauteng Rivers of the Northern Cape Rivers of Mpumalanga Lesotho–South Africa relations Water supply and sanitation in South Africa