TheInfoList

Very high frequency (VHF) is the
ITU 260px, ITU Monument, Bern The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for all matters related to information and communication technologies Information and communications technology ...

designation for the range of
radio frequency Radio frequency (RF) is the oscillation Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time Time is the indefinite continued sequence, progress of existence and event (philosophy), events that occur in an apparently irreversible p ...
electromagnetic wave In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular s ...

s (
radio wave Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies ma ...
s) from 30 to 300
megahertz The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the unit Unit may refer to: Arts and entertainment * UNIT Unit may refer to: Arts and entertainment * UNIT, a fictional military organization in the science fiction television series ''Doctor Who'' * Unit of action ...
(MHz), with corresponding wavelengths of ten meters to one meter. Frequencies immediately below VHF are denoted
high frequency High frequency (HF) is the ITU 260px, ITU Monument, Bern The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for all matters related to information and communication technologies Infor ...
(HF), and the next higher frequencies are known as
ultra high frequency Ultra high frequency (UHF) is the ITU 260px, ITU Monument, Bern The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for all matters related to information and communication technologies ...

(UHF). VHF radio waves propagate mainly by line-of-sight, so they are blocked by hills and mountains, although due to refraction they can travel somewhat beyond the out to about 160 km (100 miles). Common uses for radio waves in the VHF band are
Digital Audio Broadcasting Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) is a digital radio Digital radio is the use of digital technology to transmit or receive across the radio spectrum The radio spectrum is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum The electromagnetic spect ...

(DAB) and
FM radio in Henderson, Nevada Henderson is a city in Clark County, Nevada Nevada (, ) is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States, Western region of the United States. It is bordered by Oregon to the northwest, Idaho to the northeast, Calif ...
television broadcasting A television network or broadcaster is a telecommunications network for distribution of television program content, where a central operation provides programming to many television stations or pay television providers. Until the mid-1980s, te ...
, two-way
land mobile radio system A land mobile radio system (LMRS) is a person-to-person voice communication system consisting of two-way radio A two-way radio is a that can both transmit and receive s (a ), unlike a receiver which only receives content. It is an audio ...
s (emergency, business, private use and military), long range data communication up to several tens of kilometers with
radio modem Radio modems are modems that transfer data wirelessly across a range of up to tens of kilometres. Using radio modems is a modern way to create Private Radio Networks (PRN). Private radio networks are used in critical industrial applications, when r ...
s,
amateur radio Amateur radio, also known as ham radio, is the use of radio frequency Radio frequency (RF) is the oscillation Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibri ...
, and marine communications.
Air traffic control Air traffic control (ATC) is a service provided by ground-based air traffic controller Air traffic control specialists, abbreviated ATCS, are personnel responsible for the safe, orderly, and expeditious flow of air traffic in the global ...

communications and air navigation systems (e.g. VOR & ILS) work at distances of or more to aircraft at cruising altitude. In the Americas and many other parts of the world, VHF
Band I Band I is a range of radio frequencies Radio frequency (RF) is the oscillation Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more differe ...
was used for the transmission of
analog television Analog or analogue may refer to: Computing and electronics * Analog signal An analog signal is any continuous signal In mathematical dynamics, discrete time and continuous time are two alternative frameworks within which to model variab ...
. As part of the worldwide transition to digital terrestrial television most countries require broadcasters to air television in the VHF range using digital rather than analog format.

# Propagation characteristics

Radio waves in the VHF band propagate mainly by line-of-sight and ground-bounce paths; unlike in the HF band there is only some reflection at lower frequencies from the
ionosphere The ionosphere () is the ionized part of Earth's upper atmosphere, from about to altitude, a region that includes the thermosphere The thermosphere is the layer in the directly above the and below the . Within this layer of the atmosphere, ...
(
skywave off the ionosphere The ionosphere () is the ionized part of Earth's upper atmosphere, from about to altitude, a region that includes the thermosphere and parts of the mesosphere upright=0.5, Diagram showing the five primary layers of the Ea ...

propagation). They do not follow the contour of the Earth as
ground wave A diving thumb The thumb is the first digit of the hand A hand is a prehensile, multi- fingered appendage located at the end of the forearm The forearm is the region of the upper limb between the Elbow-joint, elbow and the wrist. The ter ...
s and so are blocked by hills and mountains, although because they are weakly refracted (bent) by the atmosphere they can travel somewhat beyond the out to about 160 km (100 miles). They can penetrate building walls and be received indoors, although in urban areas reflections from buildings cause
multipath propagation In radio communication, multipath is the propagation phenomenon that results in radio Radio is the technology of signaling and telecommunication, communicating using radio waves. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves of frequency between 30& ...
, which can interfere with television reception. Atmospheric
radio noise In radio Radio is the technology of signaling and telecommunication, communicating using radio waves. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves of frequency between 30 hertz (Hz) and 300 gigahertz (GHz). They are generated by an electroni ...
and interference ( RFI) from electrical equipment is less of a problem in this and higher frequency bands than at lower frequencies. The VHF band is the first band at which efficient transmitting antennas are small enough that they can be mounted on vehicles and portable devices, so the band is used for two-way
land mobile radio system A land mobile radio system (LMRS) is a person-to-person voice communication system consisting of two-way radio A two-way radio is a that can both transmit and receive s (a ), unlike a receiver which only receives content. It is an audio ...
s, such as
walkie-talkie A walkie-talkie, more formally known as a handheld transceiver (HT), is a hand-held, portable, two-way radio transceiver. Its development during the Second World War has been variously credited to Donald Hings, radio engineer Alfred J. Gross, He ...
s, and
two way radio A two-way radio is a radio Radio is the technology of signaling and communicating Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy), entities or O ...
communication with aircraft (
Airband Airband or aircraft band is the name for a group of in the allocated to radio communication in civil , sometimes also referred to as ''VHF'', or phonetically as ''"Victor"''. Different sections of the band are used for s and . In most countr ...
) and ships (
marine radio Marine VHF radio is a worldwide system of two way radio transceivers on ships and watercraft used for bidirectional voice communication from ship-to-ship, ship-to-shore (for example with harbormasters), and in certain circumstances ship-to-ai ...
). Occasionally, when conditions are right, VHF waves can travel long distances by
tropospheric ducting Tropospheric propagation describes electromagnetic propagation in relation to the troposphere. The service area from a VHF or UHF radio transmitter extends to just beyond the horizon, optical horizon, at which point signals start to rapidly reduc ...
due to refraction by temperature gradients in the atmosphere.

# Line-of-sight calculation

For analog TV, VHF transmission range is a function of transmitter power, receiver sensitivity, and distance to the horizon, since VHF signals propagate under normal conditions as a near line-of-sight phenomenon. The distance to the
radio horizon Line-of-sight propagation is a characteristic of electromagnetic radiation or acoustic wave propagation which means waves travel in a direct path from the source to the receiver. Electromagnetic transmission includes light emissions travelin ...
is slightly extended over the geometric line of sight to the horizon, as radio waves are weakly bent back toward the Earth by the atmosphere. An approximation to calculate the line-of-sight horizon distance (on Earth) is: *distance in nautical miles = $1.23\times\sqrt$ where $A_f$ is the height of the antenna in feet *distance in kilometers = $\sqrt$ where $A_m$ is the height of the antenna in meters. These approximations are only valid for antennas at heights that are small compared to the radius of the Earth. They may not necessarily be accurate in mountainous areas, since the landscape may not be transparent enough for radio waves. In engineered communications systems, more complex calculations are required to assess the probable coverage area of a proposed transmitter station. The accuracy of these calculations for
digital TV Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television audiovisual signals using Digital signal, digital encoding, in contrast to the earlier analog television technology which used analog signals. At the time of its development it was cons ...
signals is being debated.

# Antennas

VHF is the first band at which wavelengths are small enough that efficient transmitting antennas are short enough to mount on vehicles and handheld devices, a quarter wave whip antenna at VHF frequencies is 25 cm to 2.5 meter (10 inches to 8 feet) long. So the VHF and UHF wavelengths are used for
s in vehicles, aircraft, and handheld
transceiver In radio communication, a transceiver is an electronic device which is a combination of a radio transmitter, ''trans''mitter and a Radio receiver, re''ceiver'', hence the name. It can both transmit and receive radio waves using an antenna (radio) ...

s and
walkie-talkie A walkie-talkie, more formally known as a handheld transceiver (HT), is a hand-held, portable, two-way radio transceiver. Its development during the Second World War has been variously credited to Donald Hings, radio engineer Alfred J. Gross, He ...
whips A whip is a tool designed to strike humans or other animals to exert control through pain compliance Pain compliance is the use of painful stimulus to control or direct an organism. The stimulus can be manual (brute force, placing pressure on ...
or
rubber ducky antenna The rubber ducky antenna (or rubber duck aerial) is an electrically short monopole antenna monopole antenna of an AM radio station in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. The mast itself is connected to the transmitter and radiates the radio waves. ...
s, while base stations usually use larger fiberglass whips or collinear arrays of vertical dipoles. For directional antennas, the
Yagi antenna Yagi may refer to: People YAGIYagi may refer to: People YAGIYagi may refer to: People YAGI Musician, Artist Places *Yagi, Kyoto, in Japan *Yagi (Kashihara), in Nara Prefecture, Japan *Yagi-nishiguchi Station, in Kashihara, Nara, Japan *Kami-Yagi ...
is the most widely used as a high gain or "beam" antenna. For television reception, the Yagi is used, as well as the
log-periodic antenna A log-periodic antenna (LP), also known as a log-periodic array or log-periodic aerial, is a multi-element, directional antenna A directional antenna or beam antenna is an antenna which radiates or receives greater power in specific directions ...
due to its wider bandwidth.
Helical Helical may refer to: *Helix, the mathematical concept for the shape * Helical spring, a coilspring *Helical plc, a British property company, once a maker of steel bar stock * Helicoil, a mechanical thread repairing insert * H-el-ical//, stage name ...

and
turnstile antenna A turnstile antenna, or crossed-dipole antenna, is a radio antenna In radio engineering, an antenna or aerial is the interface between radio wave Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagne ...
s are used for
satellite communication A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio Radio is the technology of signaling and telecommunication, communicating using radio waves. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves of frequency between 30 ...
since they employ
circular polarization vectors of a traveling circularly polarized electromagnetic wave. This wave is right-circularly-polarized, since the direction of rotation of the vector is related by the right-hand rule In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Gre ...
. For even higher gain, multiple Yagis or helicals can be mounted together to make array antennas. Vertical collinear arrays of dipoles can be used to make high gain
omnidirectional antenna on a walkie-talkie A walkie-talkie, more formally known as a handheld transceiver (HT), is a hand-held, portable, two-way radio transceiver. Its development during the Second World War has been variously credited to Donald Hings, radio enginee ...
s, in which more of the antenna's power is radiated in horizontal directions. Television and FM broadcasting stations use collinear arrays of specialized dipole antennas such as batwing antennas.

# Universal use

Certain subparts of the VHF band have the same use around the world. Some national uses are detailed below. *50–54 MHz:
Amateur Radio Amateur radio, also known as ham radio, is the use of radio frequency Radio frequency (RF) is the oscillation Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibri ...
6-meter band The 6-meter band is the lowest portion of the very high frequency (VHF) radio spectrum allocated to amateur radio use. The term refers to the average signal wavelength of 6 meters. Although located in the lower portion of the VHF band, it noneth ...
. *108–118 MHz: Air navigation beacons VOR and
Instrument Landing System In aviation Aviation is the activities surrounding mechanical flight Flight or flying is the process by which an object (physics), object motion (physics), moves through a space without contacting any planetary surface, either within an ...
localizer. *118–137 MHz:
Airband Airband or aircraft band is the name for a group of in the allocated to radio communication in civil , sometimes also referred to as ''VHF'', or phonetically as ''"Victor"''. Different sections of the band are used for s and . In most countr ...
for
air traffic control Air traffic control (ATC) is a service provided by ground-based air traffic controller Air traffic control specialists, abbreviated ATCS, are personnel responsible for the safe, orderly, and expeditious flow of air traffic in the global ...

, , 121.5 MHz is emergency frequency *144–146 MHz:
Amateur Radio Amateur radio, also known as ham radio, is the use of radio frequency Radio frequency (RF) is the oscillation Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibri ...
2-meter band (Extends up to 148 MHz in some Regions). *156–174 MHz: VHF maritime mobile band for maritime two-way radio on ships.

# By country

## Australia

The VHF TV band in Australia was originally allocated channels 1 to 10-with channels 2, 7 and 9 assigned for the initial services in Sydney and Melbourne, and later the same channels were assigned in Brisbane, Adelaide and Perth. Other capital cities and regional areas used a combination of these and other frequencies as available. The initial commercial services in Hobart and Darwin were respectively allocated channels 6 and 8 rather than 7 or 9. By the early 1960s it became apparent that the 10 VHF channels were insufficient to support the growth of television services. This was rectified by the addition of three additional frequencies-channels 0, 5A and 11. Older television sets using rotary dial tuners required adjustment to receive these new channels. Most TVs of that era were not equipped to receive these broadcasts, and so were modified at the owners' expense to be able to tune into these bands; otherwise the owner had to buy a new TV. Several TV stations were allocated to VHF channels 3, 4 and 5, which were within the FM radio bands although not yet used for that purpose. A couple of notable examples were NBN-3
NewcastleNewcastle usually refers to either: *Newcastle upon Tyne Newcastle upon Tyne (, ), often simply Newcastle, is the most populous City status in the United Kingdom, city and metropolitan borough in North East England. It forms the Tyneside conurbati ...
, WIN-4
Wollongong Wollongong ( ), informally referred to as "The Gong", is a city located in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia. Wollongong lies on the narrow coastal strip between the Illawarra Escarpment and the Pacific Ocean, 68 kilometres (42 ...
and
ABC ABC are the first three letters of the Latin script known as the alphabet. ABC or abc may also refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Broadcasting * American Broadcasting Company, a commercial U.S. TV broadcaster ** Disney–ABC Television ...
NewcastleNewcastle usually refers to either: *Newcastle upon Tyne Newcastle upon Tyne (, ), often simply Newcastle, is the most populous City status in the United Kingdom, city and metropolitan borough in North East England. It forms the Tyneside conurbati ...
on channel 5. While some Channel 5 stations were moved to 5A in the 1970s and 80s, beginning in the 1990s, the Australian Broadcasting Authority began a process to move these stations to
UHF Ultra high frequency (UHF) is the ITU 260px, ITU Monument, Bern The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for all matters related to information and communication technologies ...

bands to free up valuable VHF spectrum for its original purpose of FM radio. In addition, by 1985 the federal government decided new TV stations are to be broadcast on the UHF band. Two new VHF channels, 9A and 12, have since been made available and are being used primarily for digital services (e.g.
ABC ABC are the first three letters of the Latin script known as the alphabet. ABC or abc may also refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Broadcasting * American Broadcasting Company, a commercial U.S. TV broadcaster ** Disney–ABC Television ...
in capital cities) but also for some new analogue services in regional areas. Because channel 9A is not used for television services in or near Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide or Perth,
digital radio Digital radio is the use of digital technology to transmit or receive across the radio spectrum The radio spectrum is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum A spec ...

## New Zealand

*44–51, 54–68 MHz:
Band I Band I is a range of radio frequencies Radio frequency (RF) is the oscillation Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more differe ...
Television (channels 1–3) *87.5–108 MHz:
Band II Band II is the range of radio frequencies Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time A unit of time is any particular time Time is the indefinite continued sequence, progress of existence and event (ph ...
Band III Band III is the name of the range of radio frequencies Radio frequency (RF) is the oscillation Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or ...
Television (channels 4–11) Until 2013, the four main Free-to-Air TV stations in
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engl ...

used the VHF Television bands (
Band I Band I is a range of radio frequencies Radio frequency (RF) is the oscillation Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more differe ...
and
Band III Band III is the name of the range of radio frequencies Radio frequency (RF) is the oscillation Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or ...
) to transmit to New Zealand households. Other stations, including a variety of pay and regional free-to-air stations, were forced to broadcast in the
UHF Ultra high frequency (UHF) is the ITU 260px, ITU Monument, Bern The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for all matters related to information and communication technologies ...

band, since the VHF band had been very overloaded with four stations sharing a very small frequency band, which was so overcrowded that one or more channels would not be available in some smaller towns. However, at the end of 2013, all television channels stopped broadcasting on the VHF bands, as New Zealand moved to digital television broadcasting, requiring all stations to either broadcast on UHF or satellite (where UHF was unavailable) utilising the Freeview service. Refer to Australasian television frequencies for more information.

## United Kingdom

British television originally used VHF
band I Band I is a range of radio frequencies Radio frequency (RF) is the oscillation Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more differe ...
and
band III Band III is the name of the range of radio frequencies Radio frequency (RF) is the oscillation Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or ...
. Television on VHF was in black and white with
405-line The 405-line monochrome during the 1889 Exposition Universelle File:Parrot EGA monochrome palette.png, A photograph of a macaw rendered with a monochrome palette of a limited number of shades A monochromic image is composed of one color (or ...
format (although there were experiments with all three colour systems-
NTSC The National Television System Committee (NTSC)National Television System Committee (1951–1953), Report and Reports of Panel No. 11, 11-A, 12-19, with Some supplementary references cited in the Reports, and the Petition for adoption of transm ...
,
PAL PAL 300px, upright=1.2, Analog television encoding systems by nation; SECAM.html"_;"title="NTSC_(green),_SECAM">NTSC_(green),_SECAM_(orange),_and_PAL_(blue). Phase_Alternating_Line_(PAL)_is_a_colour_encoding_system_for_Analog_television.html" ...
, and
SECAM SECAM, also written SÉCAM (, ''séquentiel couleur à mémoire'', French for ''color sequential with memory''), is an analog color television system first used in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no ...

-adapted for the 405-line system in the late 1950s and early 60s). British colour television was broadcast on
UHF Ultra high frequency (UHF) is the ITU 260px, ITU Monument, Bern The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for all matters related to information and communication technologies ...

(channels 21–69), beginning in the late 1960s. From then on, TV was broadcast on both VHF and UHF (VHF being a monochromatic downconversion from the 625-line colour signal), with the exception of
BBC2 BBC Two is a British free-to-air television network owned and operated by the BBC. It covers a wide range of subject matter, with a remit "to broadcast programmes of depth and substance" in contrast to the more mainstream and popular BBC On ...

(which had always broadcast solely on UHF). The last British VHF TV transmitters closed down on January 3, 1985. VHF
band III Band III is the name of the range of radio frequencies Radio frequency (RF) is the oscillation Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or ...
is now used in the UK for
digital audio broadcasting Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) is a digital radio Digital radio is the use of digital technology to transmit or receive across the radio spectrum The radio spectrum is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum The electromagnetic spect ...

, and VHF
band II Band II is the range of radio frequencies Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time A unit of time is any particular time Time is the indefinite continued sequence, progress of existence and event (ph ...
is used for
FM radio in Henderson, Nevada Henderson is a city in Clark County, Nevada Nevada (, ) is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States, Western region of the United States. It is bordered by Oregon to the northwest, Idaho to the northeast, Calif ...
, as it is in most of the world. Unusually, the UK has an
amateur radio Amateur radio, also known as ham radio, is the use of radio frequency Radio frequency (RF) is the oscillation Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibri ...
allocation at 4 metres, 70-70.5 MHz.

Frequency assignments between US and Canadian users are closely coordinated since much of the Canadian population is within VHF radio range of the US border. Certain discrete frequencies are reserved for
radio astronomy Radio astronomy is a subfield of astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and celestial ...
. The general services in the VHF band are: *30–49.6 MHz: Licensed 2-way land mobile communication, with various sub-bands.The 42 MHz Segment is still in current use by the
California Highway Patrol The California Highway Patrol (CHP) is a state law enforcement agency of the U.S. state of California. The CHP has patrol jurisdiction over all State highways in California, California highways and are also known as the State police (United Stat ...

,
New Jersey State Police The New Jersey State Police (NJSP) is the official state police force of the U.S. state of New Jersey New Jersey is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic States, Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States, Northeastern regions of th ...

, Tennessee Highway Patrol, and other state law enforcement agencies.
*30–88 MHz: Military VHF , including
SINCGARS Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS) is a Combat Net Radio (CNR) currently used by U.S. and allied military forces. The CNR network is designed around three systems: SINCGARS, the high frequency (HF) radio, and the SC tactic ...
*43–50 MHz:
Cordless telephone A cordless telephone or portable telephone is a telephone A telephone is a telecommunications Appliance (disambiguation), device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly. A ...
s, 49 MHz FM walkie-talkies and radio controlled toys, and mixed 2-way mobile communication. The FM broadcast band originally operated here (42–50 MHz) before it was moved to 88–108 MHz. *50–54 MHz:
Amateur radio Amateur radio, also known as ham radio, is the use of radio frequency Radio frequency (RF) is the oscillation Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibri ...
6-meter band The 6-meter band is the lowest portion of the very high frequency (VHF) radio spectrum allocated to amateur radio use. The term refers to the average signal wavelength of 6 meters. Although located in the lower portion of the VHF band, it noneth ...
**50.800–51 MHz:
Radio-controlled aircraft A radio-controlled aircraft (often called RC aircraft or RC plane) is a small flying machine that is controlled remotely by an operator on the ground using a hand-held radio transmitter In electronics Electronics comprises the physics, en ...
(on ten fixed frequencies at 20 kHz spacing) with an FCC Amateur Radio Service license, flown under FCC Part 97, rule 97.215. *54–88 MHz, known as " Band I" internationally; some DTV stations will appear here. See
North American broadcast television frequenciesThe Pan-American television frequencies are different for terrestrial Terrestrial refers to things related to land Land is the solid surface of the Earth that is not permanently covered by water. The vast majority of human activity throughout ...
**54–72 MHz channels 2–4 (VHF-Lo) **72–76 MHz: Radio controlled models, industrial remote control, and other devices.
Model aircraft A model aircraft is a small unmanned aircraft and may be a replica of an existing or imaginary aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to flight, fly by gaining support from the Atmosphere of Earth, air. It counters the force of g ...
operate on 72 MHz while surface models operate on 75 MHz in the US and Canada, air navigation beacons 74.8–75.2 MHz. **76–88 MHz TV channels 5–6 (VHF-Lo) *87.5–108 MHz:
FM radio in Henderson, Nevada Henderson is a city in Clark County, Nevada Nevada (, ) is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States, Western region of the United States. It is bordered by Oregon to the northwest, Idaho to the northeast, Calif ...
broadcasting (87.9–91.9 non-commercial, 92–108 commercial in the United States) (known as " Band II" internationally) *108–118 MHz: Air navigation beacons VOR *118–137 MHz:
Airband Airband or aircraft band is the name for a group of in the allocated to radio communication in civil , sometimes also referred to as ''VHF'', or phonetically as ''"Victor"''. Different sections of the band are used for s and . In most countr ...
for
air traffic control Air traffic control (ATC) is a service provided by ground-based air traffic controller Air traffic control specialists, abbreviated ATCS, are personnel responsible for the safe, orderly, and expeditious flow of air traffic in the global ...

, **121.5 MHz is an emergency frequency *137–138 MHz Space research, space operations, meteorological satellite *138–144 MHz: Land mobile, auxiliary civil services, satellite, space research, and other miscellaneous services *144–148 MHz:
Amateur radio Amateur radio, also known as ham radio, is the use of radio frequency Radio frequency (RF) is the oscillation Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibri ...
2-meter band *148–150 MHz: Land mobile, fixed, satellite *150–156 MHz: "VHF
business band The business band is the name used by U.S. radio users who utilize and scanner hobbyists who listen to the Federal Communications Commission The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an Independent agencies of the United States government, ...
," public safety, the unlicensed Multi-Use Radio Service (MURS), and other 2-way land mobile, FM *156–158 MHz VHF Marine Radio **156.8 MHz (Channel 16) is the maritime emergency and contact frequency. * 159.81-161.565 MHz railways The 160 and 161 areas are Association of American Railroads (AAR) 99 channel
railroad Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional p ...

radios, issued to the railroad. For example, AAR 21 is 160.425 MHz and that is issued to
Tennessee Valley Railroad Museum The Tennessee Valley Railroad Museum is a railroad museum and heritage railroad in Chattanooga, Tennessee Chattanooga is a city in and the county seat of Hamilton County, Tennessee, Hamilton County, Tennessee, along the Tennessee River bo ...
, as well as other railroads that want AAR Channel 21.
**159.81–160.2 are railroads in Canada only and is used by trucking companies in the U.S. *160.6–162 Wireless microphones and TV/FM broadcast remote pickup *162.4–162.55: NOAA Weather Stations, narrowband FM, Weatheradio Canada Stations *174–240 MHz, known as " Band III" internationally. A number of DTV channels have begun broadcasting here, especially many of the stations which were assigned to these channels for previous analog operation. **174–216 MHz television channels 7–13 (VHF-Hi) **174–216 MHz: professional wireless microphones (low power, certain exact frequencies only) **216–222 MHz: land mobile, fixed, maritime mobile, **222–225 MHz: 1.25 meters (US) (Canada 219–220, 222–225 MHz)
amateur radio Amateur radio, also known as ham radio, is the use of radio frequency Radio frequency (RF) is the oscillation Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibri ...
*225 MHz and above (UHF): Military aircraft radio, 243 MHz is an emergency frequency (225–400 MHz) AM, including HAVE QUICK, dGPS RTCM-104
Cable television Cable television is a system of delivering television Television, sometimes shortened to TV or telly, is a telecommunication Media (communication), medium used for transmitting moving images in grayscale, black-and-white or in color, ...
, though not transmitted aerially, uses a spectrum of frequencies overlapping VHF.

### VHF television

The U.S.
FCC The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in different jurisdictions. In ...
allocated television broadcasting to a channelized roster as early as 1938 with 19 channels. That changed three more times: in 1940 when Channel 19 was deleted and several channels changed frequencies, then in 1946 with television going from 18 channels to 13 channels, again with different frequencies, and finally in 1948 with the removal of Channel 1 (analog channels 2-13 remain as they were, even on
cable television Cable television is a system of delivering television Television, sometimes shortened to TV or telly, is a telecommunication Media (communication), medium used for transmitting moving images in grayscale, black-and-white or in color, ...
). Channels 14-19 later appeared on the UHF band, while channel 1 remains unused.

### 87.5–87.9 MHz

87.5–87.9 MHz is a radio frequency which, in most of the world, is used for
FM broadcasting FM broadcasting is a method of radio broadcasting using frequency modulation (FM). Invented in 1933 by American engineer Edwin Armstrong, wide-band FM is used worldwide to provide high fidelity sound over broadcast radio. FM broadcasting is capab ...
. In
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

, however, this bandwidth is allocated to VHF television channel 6 (82–88 MHz). The analog audio for TV channel 6 is broadcast at 87.75 MHz (adjustable down to 87.74). Several stations, known as Frankenstations, most notably those joining the
Pulse 87 Pulse 87 is an online radio station , Sweden , Norway Radio broadcasting is transmission of audio signal, audio (sound), sometimes with related metadata, by radio waves intended to reach a wide audience. In terrestrial radio broadcasting the ra ...
franchise, have operated on this frequency as radio stations, though they use television licenses. As a result, FM radio receivers such as those found in automobiles which are designed to tune into this frequency range could receive the audio for analog-mode programming on the local TV channel 6 while in North America. The practice largely ended with the
DTV transition Image:Worldmap digital television transition.svg, upright=2, World map of digital television transition progress: Transition completed; all analog signals terminated Transition partially completed; some analog signals terminated Transition i ...
in 2009, although some still exist. The FM broadcast channel at 87.9 MHz is normally off-limits for FM audio broadcasting; it is reserved for displaced class D stations which have no other frequencies in the normal 88.1–107.9 MHz subband to move to. So far, only two stations have qualified to operate on 87.9 MHz: 10–watt
KSFH KSFH is a student-run Internet radio station with an active rock radio format. Licensed throug''StreamLicensing''as a streaming service, it carries a combination of talk shows, including on-air interviews, music hours, song requests, and much more ...
in
Mountain View, California Mountain View is a city in Santa Clara County, California Santa Clara County, officially the County of Santa Clara, is California's List of counties in California, 6th most populous county, with a population of 1,781,642, as of the 2010 United ...
and 34–watt translator K200AA in
Sun Valley, Nevada Sun Valley is a census-designated place (CDP) in Washoe County, Nevada, Washoe County, Nevada, United States. The population was 19,299 at the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census. It is north of Reno, Nevada, Reno and is part of the Reno–Sp ...
.

In some countries, particularly the United States and Canada, limited low-power license-free operation is available in the FM broadcast band for purposes such as micro-broadcasting and sending output from Compact disc, CD or digital media players to radios without auxiliary-in jacks, though this is illegal in some other countries. This practice was legalised in the United Kingdom on 8 December 2006.