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The University of Vienna (german: Universität Wien) is a
public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth Engli ...
research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in v ...
located in
Vienna Vienna ( ; german: Wien ; bar, Wean, label=Bavarian language, Austro-Bavarian ) is the Capital city, national capital, largest city, and one of States of Austria, nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's List of cities and towns in Austria, mos ...

Vienna
,
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine States o ...

Austria
. It was founded by Duke Rudolph IV in 1365 and is the oldest university in the German-speaking world. With its long and rich history, the university has developed into one of the largest universities in Europe, and also one of the most renowned, especially in the
Humanities Humanities are academic disciplines An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. ...

Humanities
. It is associated with 21 Nobel prize winners and has been the academic home to many scholars of historical as well as of academic importance.


History


From the Middle Ages to the Enlightenment

The University was founded on 12 March 1365 by
Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria Rudolf IV (1 November 1339 – 27 July 1365), also called Rudolf the Founder (german: der Stifter), was a scion of the House of Habsburg The House of Habsburg (; ; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; german: Haus Habsburg, es, Casa de ...
, and his two brothers, Dukes
Albert III
Albert III
and Leopold III, hence the additional name "Alma Mater Rudolphina". After the
Charles University in Prague Charles University, known also as Charles University in Prague ( cs, Univerzita Karlova (UK); la, Universitas Carolina; german: Karls-Universität) or historically as the University of Prague ( la, Universitas Pragensis), is the oldest and larges ...
and
Jagiellonian University The Jagiellonian University ( Polish: ''Uniwersytet Jagielloński''; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around ...
in
Kraków Kraków (), also written in English as Krakow and traditionally known as Cracow, is the second-largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River The Vistula (; pl, Wisła, , german: Weichsel) is the longest ri ...

Kraków
, the University of Vienna is the third oldest university in Central Europe and the oldest university in the contemporary German-speaking world; it remains a question of definition as the Charles University in Prague was German-speaking when founded, too. The University of Vienna was modelled after the
University of Paris , image_name = Coat of arms of the University of Paris.svg , image_size = 150px , caption = , latin_name = Universitas magistrorum et scholarium Parisiensis , motto = ''Hic et ubique terrarum'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical ...
. However,
Pope Urban V Pope Urban V ( la, Urbanus V; 1310 – 19 December 1370), born Guillaume de Grimoard, was the head of the Catholic Church from 28 September 1362 until his death in 1370 and was also a member of the Order of Saint Benedict. He was the only Avignon ...

Pope Urban V
did not ratify the deed of foundation that had been sanctioned by Rudolf IV, specifically in relation to the department of theology. This was presumably due to pressure exerted by
Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV ( cs, Karel IV.; german: Karl IV.; la, Carolus IV; 14 May 1316 (22 May Greg.) – 29 November 1378''Karl IV''. In: (1960): ''Geschichte in Gestalten'' (''History in figures''), vol. 2: ''F-K''. 38, Frankfurt 1963, p. 294), also k ...

Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor
, who wished to avoid competition for the
Charles University in Prague Charles University, known also as Charles University in Prague ( cs, Univerzita Karlova (UK); la, Universitas Carolina; german: Karls-Universität) or historically as the University of Prague ( la, Universitas Pragensis), is the oldest and larges ...
. Approval was finally received from the Pope in 1384 and the University of Vienna was granted the status of a full university, including the Faculty of Catholic Theology. The first university building opened in 1385. It grew into the biggest university of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
, and during the advent of
Humanism Humanism is a philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical or mental reality Reality is the ...

Humanism
in the mid-15th century was home to more than 6,000 students. In its early years, the university had a partly hierarchical, partly cooperative structure, in which the
Rector Rector (Latin for the member of a vessel's crew who steers) may refer to: Style or title *Rector (ecclesiastical), a cleric who functions as an administrative leader in some Christian denominations *Rector (academia), a senior official in an educ ...
was at the top, while the students had little say and were settled at the bottom. The
Magister Magister is Latin for "master" or "teacher". It may refer to: Positions and titles * Magister degree, an academic degree * Magister equitum, or Master of the Horse * Magister militum, a master of the soldiers * Magister officiorum (''master of off ...
and
Doctor Doctor or The Doctor may refer to: Personal titles * Doctor (title) Doctor is an Academic degree, academic title that originates from the Latin word of the same spelling and meaning. The word is originally an Agent noun, agentive noun ...
s constituted the four faculties and elected the academic officials from amidst their ranks. The students, but also all other Supposita (university members), were divided into four Academic Nations. Their elected board members, mostly graduates themselves, had the right to elect the Rector. He presided over the Consistory which included procurators of each of the nations and the faculty deans, as well as over the University Assembly, in which all university teachers participated. Complaints or appeals against decisions of faculty by the students had to be brought forward by a Magister or Doctor. Being considered a Papal Institution, the university suffered quite a setback during the
Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity in Vatican City Vatican City (), officially the Vatican City State ( it, Stato della Cit ...

Reformation
. In addition, the first Siege of Vienna by Ottoman forces had devastating effects on the city, leading to a sharp decline, with only 30 students enrolled at the lowest point. For King
Ferdinand IFerdinand I or Fernando I may refer to: People * Ferdinand I of León, ''the Great'' (ca. 1000–1065, king from 1037) * Ferdinand I of Portugal and the Algarve, ''the Handsome'' (1345–1383, king from 1367) * Ferdinand I of Aragon and Sicily, ''of ...

Ferdinand I
, this meant that the university should be tied to the church to an even stronger degree, and in 1551 he installed the
Jesuit Order , image = Ihs-logo.svg , caption = Christogram A Christogram (Latin ') is a monogram or combination of letters that forms an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, traditionally used as a Christian symbolism, ...
there. With the enacting of the ''Sanctio Pragmatica'' edict by emperor
Ferdinand II
Ferdinand II
in 1623, the Jesuits took over teaching at the theological and philosophical faculty, and thus the university became a stronghold of Catholicism for over 150 years. It was only in the Mid-18th century that Empress
Maria Theresa Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina (german: Maria Theresia; 13 May 1717 – 29 November 1780) was the ruler of the Habsburg Monarchy, Habsburg dominions from 1740 until her death in 1780, and the only woman to hold the position. She was th ...
forced the university back under control of the monarchy. Her successor
Joseph II Joseph II (German: ''Josef Benedikt Anton Michel Adam''; English: ''Joseph Benedict Anthony Michael Adam''; 13 March 1741 – 20 February 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from August 1765 and sole ruler of the Habsburg Monarchy, Habsburg lands from N ...

Joseph II
helped in the further reform of the university, allowing both Protestants and Jews to enroll as well as introducing German as the compulsory language of instruction.


From the 19th century onwards

Big changes were instituted in the wake of the Revolution in 1848, with the Philosophical Faculty being upgraded into equal status as Theology, Law and Medicine. Led by the reforms of
Leopold, Count von Thun und Hohenstein Leopold Graf von Thun und Hohenstein (7 April 181117 December 1888) was a leading Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alp ...
, the university was able to achieve a larger degree of academic freedom. The current main building on the
Ringstraße The (german: Ringstraße, lit. ''ring road'') is a circular grand boulevard that serves as a ring road around the historic (Inner Town) district of Vienna en, Viennese , iso_code = AT-9 , registration_plate ...
was built between 1877 and 1884 by
Heinrich von Ferstel Freiherr Heinrich von Ferstel (7 July 1828 14 July 1883) was an Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine count ...

Heinrich von Ferstel
. The previous main building was located close to the ''Stuben'' Gate (Stubentor) on Iganz Seipel Square, current home of the old University Church (''Universitätskirche'') and the
Austrian Academy of Sciences The Austrian Academy of Sciences (german: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, ÖAW) is a legal entity under the special protection of the Republic of Austria. According to the statutes of the Academy its mission is to promote the science ...
(''Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften''). Women were admitted as full students from 1897, although their studies were limited to Philosophy. The remaining departments gradually followed suit, although with considerable delay: Medicine in 1900, Law in 1919,
Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Reformation reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of , but disagree among themselves ...
Theology in 1923 and finally
Roman Catholic Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...

Roman Catholic
Theology in 1946. Ten years after the admission of the first female students, Elise Richter became the first woman to receive ''
habilitation Habilitation is the procedure to achieve the highest university degree in many European countries in which the candidate fulfills certain criteria set by the university which require excellence in research, teaching, and further education. Its qua ...
'', becoming professor of
Romance Languages The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin, is non-literary Literature broadly is any collection of w ...

Romance Languages
in 1907; she was also the first female distinguished professor. In the late 1920s, the university was in steady turmoil because of anti-democratic and anti-Semitic activity by parts of the student body. Professor
Moritz Schlick Friedrich Albert Moritz Schlick (; ; 14 April 1882 – 22 June 1936) was a Germany, German philosopher, physicist, and the founding father of logical positivism and the Vienna Circle. Early life and works Schlick was born in Berlin to a wealthy f ...
was killed by a former student while ascending the steps of the University for a class. His murderer was later released by the Nazi Regime. Following the
Anschluss The ''Anschluss'' (, or ''Anschluß'' before the German orthography reform of 1996, "joining"), also known as the ''Anschluss Österreichs'' (, en, Annexation of Austria), was the annexation of Federal State of Austria, Austria into Nazi Ge ...

Anschluss
, the annexation of Austria into Greater Germany by the
Nazi regime Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was t ...
, in 1938 the University of Vienna was reformed under political aspects and a huge number of teachers and students were dismissed for political and "racial" reasons. In April 1945, the then 22-year-old Kurt Schubert, later acknowledged
doyen Doyen and doyenne (from the French word ''doyen'', ''doyenne'' in the feminine grammatical gender In , grammatical gender system is a specific form of system in which the division of noun classes forms an system with another aspect of the la ...

doyen
of
Judaic Studies Jewish studies (or Judaic studies; In Israel: he, מדעי היהדות, lit. ''Judaism science'') is an academic discipline centered on the study of Jews and Judaism Judaism ( he, יהדות, ''Yahadut''; originally from Hebrew , ''Yeh ...
at the University of Vienna, was permitted by the Soviet occupation forces to open the university again for teaching, which is why he is regarded as the unofficial first rector in the post-war period. On 25 April 1945, however, the constitutional lawyer Ludwig Adamovich senior was elected as official rector of the University of Vienna. A large degree of participation by students and university staff was realized in 1975, however the University Reforms of 1993 and 2002 largely re-established the professors as the main decision makers. However, also as part of the 2002 reform, the university after more than 250 years being largely under governmental control, finally regained its full legal capacity. The number of faculties and centers was increased to 18, and the whole of the medical faculty separated into the new
Medical University of Vienna The Medical University of Vienna ( German: ''Medizinische Universität Wien'') is a public university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, ter ...
.


Location

The University of Vienna does not have one single campus. Historically, the university started functioning from the First District near the Jesuit Church. Now, the academic facilities occupy more than sixty locations throughout the city of Vienna. The historical main building on the Ringstraße constitutes the university's centre and is commonly referred to as "die Uni". Most other larger university facilities and lecture halls are located nearby in the area of Vienna's First and Ninth
District A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by the local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or County, counties, several Municipality, municipal ...
: the so-called new Lecture Hall Complex (Neues Institutgebäude, NIG), the lecture hall complex Althanstraße (UZA), the campus on the premises of the Historical General Hospital of Vienna, the Faculty of Law (Juridicum) and others. The
Botanical Garden of the University of Vienna The Botanical Garden of the University of Vienna is a botanical garden A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms ''botanic'' and ''botanical'' and ''garden'' or ''gardens'' are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word ''botani ...
is housed in the Third District, as are the Department of Biochemistry and related research centres. Also worth mentioning is the
Vienna Observatory The Vienna Observatory (german: Universitätssternwarte Wien) is an astronomical observatory An observatory is a location used for observing terrestrial, marine, or celestial events. Astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία ...
, which belongs to the university, and the Institute for University Sports (USI), which offers training and recreational possibilities to all students of the university. In addition, the University of Vienna maintains facilities outside of Vienna in the Austrian provinces of
Lower Austria Lower Austria (german: Niederösterreich; Austro-Bavarian Austro-Bavarian (also known as Austrian or Bavarian; or ; german: Bairisch ) is a West Germanic language spoken in parts of Bavaria and most of Austria. Before 1945, Austro-Bavarian w ...
,
Upper Austria Upper Austria (german: Oberösterreich ; bar, Obaöstareich) is one of the nine states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The Stat ...
, and
Carinthia Carinthia (german: Kärnten ; sl, Koroška ) is the southernmost Austrian state or ''Land''. Situated within the Eastern Alps Eastern Alps is the name given to the eastern half of the Alps, usually defined as the area east of a line from L ...

Carinthia
. These are mainly research and experimental departments for Biology, Astrophysics and Sports.


Organization

The University of Vienna, like all universities and academies in Austria, once featured a system of democratic representation. Power in the university was divided equally among three groups: students (the largest group), junior faculty and full professors. All groups had the right to send representatives to boards, who then voted on almost every issue. From 2002 on, the government of Austria, headed by
chancellor Chancellor ( la, links=no, cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations. The original chancellors were the ''cancellarii Cancelli are lattice-work, placed before a window, a door-way, the tribunal o ...
Wolfgang Schüssel, reformed the university system, transforming the institutions into legal entities, but also concentrating power in the hands of the full professors. The reform also introduced a board of governors and tuition fees. In 2013 those amounted to about €381 per semester for students from Austria, the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
as well as some non-EU countries, while students from developed non-EU countries usually pay double that amount. The reforms also separated the medical departments into separate medical schools, such as the
Medical University of Vienna The Medical University of Vienna ( German: ''Medizinische Universität Wien'') is a public university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, ter ...
.


Programmes

Students at the university can select from 181 degree programmes: 55 bachelor programmes, 110 master programmes, 3
diploma programs
diploma programs
and 13
doctoral programmes
doctoral programmes
. In the academic year 2013/14, the university awarded 7,745 first degrees (Bachelors and
Diplom A ''Diplom'' (, from grc, δίπλωμα ''diploma'') is an academic degree An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, usually at a college or university. T ...

Diplom
as), 1,424 Master's degrees and 568 Doctoral degrees. The university offers a number of Masters programs in English, namely: * Quantitative Economics, Management and Finance * Science-Technology-Society * Environmental Sciences * Middle European interdisciplinary Master Programme in Cognitive Science * European Master in Health and Physical Activity * English Language and Linguistics * Anglophone Literatures and Cultures * East Asian Economy and Society * Economics * Botany * Ecology and Ecosystems * Molecular Microbiology, Microbial Ecology and Immunobiology * European Master in Urban Studies * Masters in European and International Business Law *Mathematics Some 6,900 scholars undertake the research and teaching activity of the university. Of these, approximately 1,000 engage actively in projects financed by third parties. The main fields of research at the university cover a wide spectrum of subjects: Catholic and Protestant Theology, Law, Economic Sciences and Computer Science, Philological-Cultural Studies and Historical-Cultural Studies, Social Sciences and Psychology, Life Sciences and Natural Sciences, Mathematics, Sports Sciences and Teacher Education.


Faculties and centres

The University of Vienna consists of 15 faculties and five centres: # Faculty of
Catholic Theology Catholic theology is the understanding of Catholic doctrine or teachings, and results from the studies of theologians. It is based on Biblical canon, canonical Catholic Bible, scripture, and sacred tradition, as interpreted authoritatively by t ...

Catholic Theology
# Faculty of
Protestant Theology Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth. I ...
# Faculty of Law # Faculty of Business, Economics and Statistics (not to be confused with the
Vienna University of Economics and Business The Vienna University of Economics and Business (german: Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien or WU) is the biggest university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiar ...
) # Faculty of
Computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of computation, automation, a ...
# Faculty of
Historical and Cultural Studies
Historical and Cultural Studies
# Faculty of Philological and Cultural Studies # Faculty of Philosophy and Education # Faculty of
Psychology Psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. ...

Psychology
# Faculty of
Social sciences Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biol ...

Social sciences
# Faculty of
Mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ...
# Faculty of
Physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical scie ...

Physics
# Faculty of
Chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. T ...

Chemistry
# Faculty of
Earth Sciences Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of natural science related to the planet Earth. This is a branch of science dealing with the physical and chemical constitution of Earth and its atmosphere. Earth science can be considered to be a b ...
,
Geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar System, planets. The first person t ...

Geography
and
Astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and celestial event, phenomena. It uses mathematics, phys ...
# Faculty of
Life sciences This list of life sciences comprises the branches of science The branches of science, also referred to as sciences, "scientific fields", or "scientific disciplines," are commonly divided into three major groups: *Formal sciences: the stu ...
# Centre for
Translation studies Translation studies is an academic interdiscipline dealing with the systematic study of the theory, description and application of translation Translation is the communication of the meaning Meaning most commonly refers to: * Meaning (l ...
# Centre for Sport science and University Sports # Centre for
Molecular biology Molecular biology is the branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, P ...
# Centre for
Microbiology Microbiology (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...

Microbiology
and Environmental Systems Science # Centre for
Teacher Education Teacher education or teacher training refers to the policies, procedures, and provision designed to equip (prospective) teachers with the knowledge, attitude (psychology), attitudes, behaviors, and skills they require to perform their tasks effe ...


Notable people


Faculty and scholars

Nobel Prize Laureates who taught at the University of Vienna include Robert Bárány,
Julius Wagner-Jauregg Julius Wagner-Jauregg (7 March 1857 – 27 September 1940) was an Austrian physician A physician (American English), medical practitioner (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English), medical doctor, or simply doctor, is a pr ...

Julius Wagner-Jauregg
,
Hans Fischer Hans Fischer (27 July 1881 – 31 March 1945) was a German organic chemist and the recipient of the 1930 Nobel Prize for Chemistry "for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll Chlorophyll (also chlorophyl) is any ...
,
Karl Landsteiner Karl Landsteiner (; 14 June 1868 – 26 June 1943) was an Austrian biologist, physician, and immunologist. He distinguished the main Blood type, blood groups in 1900, having developed the modern system of classification of blood groups from his i ...
,
Erwin Schrödinger Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (, ; ; 12 August 1887 – 4 January 1961), sometimes written as or , was a Nobel Prize-winning Austrian-Irish who developed a number of fundamental results in : the provides a way to calculate the ...
,
Victor Franz Hess Victor Franz Hess (24 June 188317 December 1964) was an Austrian-United States, American physicist, and Nobel Prize in Physics, Nobel laureate in physics, who discovered cosmic rays. Biography He was born to Vinzenz Hess and Serafine Edle von Gr ...
,
Otto Loewi Otto Loewi (; 3 June 1873 – 25 December 1961) was a German-born pharmacologist Pharmacology is a branch of medicine and pharmaceutical sciences concerned with drug or medication action, where a drug may be defined as any artificial, natu ...

Otto Loewi
,
Konrad Lorenz Konrad Zacharias Lorenz (; 7 November 1903 – 27 February 1989) was an Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alp ...

Konrad Lorenz
and
Friedrich Hayek Friedrich August von Hayek ( , ; 8 May 189923 March 1992), often referred to by his initials F. A. Hayek, was an Austrian-British economist, and philosopher who is best known for his defence of classical liberalism. Hayek shared the 1974 Nob ...
. The University of Vienna was the cradle of the
Austrian School The Austrian School is a heterodox In religion, heterodoxy (from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It ...
of economics. The founders of this school who studied and later instructed at the University of Vienna included
Carl Menger Carl Menger (; ; 28 February 1840 – 26 February 1921) was an Austrian economist and the founder of the Austrian School of economics. Menger contributed to the development of the theory of marginalism (marginal utility), which rejected the co ...
,
Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk Eugen Ritter von Böhm-Bawerk (; born Eugen Böhm, 12 February 185127 August 1914) was an Austrian Empire, Austrian economist who made important contributions to the development of the Austrian School, Austrian School of Economics and neoclassical e ...
,
Friedrich von Wieser Friedrich Freiherr von Wieser (; 10 July 1851 – 22 July 1926) was an early (so-called "first generation") economist of the Austrian School of economics. Born in Vienna, the son of Privy Councillor Leopold von Wieser, a high official in the war min ...
,
Joseph Schumpeter Joseph Alois Schumpeter (; February 8, 1883 – January 8, 1950) was an Austrian political economist. He was born in Moravia Moravia ( , also , ; cs, Morava ; german: link=no, Mähren ; pl, Morawy ; szl, Morawijo; la, Moravia) is a h ...
,
Ludwig von Mises Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (; 29 September 1881 – 10 October 1973) was an Austrian School economist, historian, logician, and Sociology, sociologist. Mises wrote and lectured extensively on the societal contributions of classical liberal ...

Ludwig von Mises
and
Friedrich Hayek Friedrich August von Hayek ( , ; 8 May 189923 March 1992), often referred to by his initials F. A. Hayek, was an Austrian-British economist, and philosopher who is best known for his defence of classical liberalism. Hayek shared the 1974 Nob ...
. Other famous scholars who have taught at the University of Vienna are:
Theodor W. Adorno
Theodor W. Adorno
,
Alexander Van der Bellen Alexander Van der Bellen (; born 18 January 1944) is the current president of Austria. He previously served as a university professor, professor of economics at the University of Vienna, and after joining politics, as the Spokesperson of the Aus ...

Alexander Van der Bellen
,
Manfred Bietak Manfred Bietak (born in Vienna en, Viennese , iso_code = AT-9 , registration_plate = Vehicle registration plates of Austria, W , postal_code_type = Postal code , postal_code ...
,
Theodor Billroth Christian Albert Theodor Billroth (26 April 18296 February 1894) was an Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine ...

Theodor Billroth
,
Ludwig Boltzmann Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (; 20 February 1844 – 5 September 1906) was an Austria Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a landlocked country in the southern part of Central Europe, located on the Eastern Alps. It is compo ...
,
Ulrich Brand
Ulrich Brand
,
Franz Brentano Franz Clemens Honoratus Hermann Josef Brentano (; ; 16 January 1838 – 17 March 1917) was an influential German philosopher, psychologist, and Catholic priest whose work strongly influenced not only students Edmund Husserl, Sigmund Freud Si ...
,
Anton Bruckner Josef Anton Bruckner (; ) was an Austrian composer, organist, and music theorist best known for his symphonies A symphony is an extended musical composition File:Chord chart.svg, 250px, Jazz and rock genre musicians may memorize the me ...

Anton Bruckner
,
Rudolf Carnap Rudolf Carnap (; ; 18 May 1891 – 14 September 1970) was a German-language philosopher who was active in Europe before 1935 and in the United States thereafter. He was a major member of the Vienna Circle The Vienna Circle (german: Wiener Krei ...
,
Conrad Celtes Conrad Celtes (german: Konrad Celtes; la, Conradus Celtis (Protucius); 1 February 1459 – 4 February 1508) was a German Renaissance humanist Renaissance humanism was a revival in the study of classical antiquity, at first Italian Renaissan ...
,
Adrian Constantin Adrian Constantin (born April 22, 1970) is a Romania, Romanian-Austria, Austrian mathematician who does research in the field of nonlinear partial differential equations.Wittgenstein Preis 2020 to Adrian Constantin' Universität Wien: Fakultät f ...
,
Viktor Frankl Viktor Emil Frankl (26 March 1905 – 2 September 1997) was an Austrian neurologist, psychiatrist, philosopher, author, and Holocaust survivors, Holocaust survivor. He was the founder of logotherapy, a school of psychotherapy which desc ...
,
Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud ( , ; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist Neurology (from el, νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine M ...

Sigmund Freud
,
Eduard Hanslick 200px, Portrait of Eduard Hanslick, 40 years old Eduard Hanslick (11 September 18256 August 1904) was a German Bohemian music critic. Biography Hanslick was born in Prague (then in the Austrian Empire), the son of Joseph Adolph Hanslik, a bibliogr ...
,
Edmund HaulerEdmund Hauler (17 November 1859, in Buda – 1 April 1941, in Vienna) was an Austrian classical philology, classical philologist born in Ofen to a Danube Swabian Germans, German family. His father, Johann Hauler (1829–1888) was also a classical phi ...
, Jalile Jalil,
Leon Kellner Leon Kellner (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and their ...

Leon Kellner
,
Hans Kelsen Hans Kelsen (; ; October 11, 1881 – April 19, 1973) was an Austrian jurist A jurist is a person with expert knowledge of law; someone who analyses and comments on law. This person is usually a specialist legal scholarnot necessarily with a ...

Hans Kelsen
,
Adam František Kollár Adam František Kollár de Keresztén (german: Adam Franz Kollar von Keresztén, hu, kereszténi Kollár Ádám Ferenc; 1718–1783) was a Slovak jurist, Imperial-Royal Court Councillor and Chief Imperial-Royal Librarian, a member of Natio Hung ...
,
Johann Josef Loschmidt Johann Josef Loschmidt (15 March 1821 – 8 July 1895), who referred to himself mostly as Josef Loschmidt (omitting his first name), was a notable Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: R ...

Johann Josef Loschmidt
,
Franz Miklosich Franz Miklosich (also known in Slovene as ; 20 November 1813 – 7 March 1891) was a Slovene philologist Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is the intersection of textual criticism, literary criticism, ...
,
Oskar Morgenstern Oskar Morgenstern (January 24, 1902 – July 26, 1977) was a German-American German Americans (german: Deutschamerikaner, ) are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nation ...
,
Otto Neurath Otto Karl Wilhelm Neurath (; 10 December 1882 – 22 December 1945) was an Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alp ...

Otto Neurath
,
Johann Palisa Johann Palisa (6 December 1848 – 2 May 1925) was an Austrian astronomer, born in Troppau, Austrian Silesia, now Czech Republic. He was a prolific discoverer of asteroids, discovering 122 in all, from 136 Austria in 1874 to 1073 Gelliv ...

Johann Palisa
,
Pope Pius II Pope Pius II ( la, Pius PP. II, it, Pio II), born Enea Silvio Bartolomeo Piccolomini ( la, Aeneas Silvius Bartholomeus; 18 October 1405 – 14 August 1464), was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the R ...

Pope Pius II
,
Karl Popper Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as tho ...

Karl Popper
, Elise Richter,
Baron Carl von Rokitansky Baron Carl von Rokitansky (german: Carl Freiherr von Rokitansky, cs, Karel Rokytanský) (19 February 1804 – 23 July 1878), was a Bohemian physician, pathologist, humanist philosopher and liberal politician. Medical career Carl von Rokitansky w ...
, Rudolf von Scherer, August Schleicher,
Moritz Schlick Friedrich Albert Moritz Schlick (; ; 14 April 1882 – 22 June 1936) was a Germany, German philosopher, physicist, and the founding father of logical positivism and the Vienna Circle. Early life and works Schlick was born in Berlin to a wealthy f ...
, Ludwig Karl Schmarda, Joseph von Sonnenfels, Joseph Stefan, Josef Stefan, Olga Taussky-Todd, Walter G. Url, Leopold Vietoris, Carl Auer von Welsbach, and Wilhelm Winkler.


Alumni

Some of the University's better-known students include: Kurt Adler, Franz Alt (mathematician), Franz Alt, Wilhelm Altar, Maria Anwander, Bruno Bettelheim, Rudolf Bing, Lucian Blaga, Hedda Bolgar, Josef Breuer, F. F. Bruce, Elias Canetti, Ivan Cankar, Otto Maria Carpeaux, Christian Doppler, Felix Ehrenhaft, Mihai Eminescu, Stephen Ferguson, Paul Feyerabend, Heinz Fischer, O. W. Fischer, Ivan Franko,
Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud ( , ; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist Neurology (from el, νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine M ...

Sigmund Freud
, Alcide De Gasperi, Kurt Gödel, Ernst Gombrich, Franz Grillparzer, Werner Gruber, Jörg Haider, Hans Hahn (mathematician), Hans Hahn, Theodor Herzl, Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Edmund Husserl, Marie Jahoda, Max Jammer, Elfriede Jelinek, Percy Lavon Julian, Percy Julian, Karl Kautsky, Elisabeth Kehrer,
Leon Kellner Leon Kellner (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and their ...

Leon Kellner
,
Hans Kelsen Hans Kelsen (; ; October 11, 1881 – April 19, 1973) was an Austrian jurist A jurist is a person with expert knowledge of law; someone who analyses and comments on law. This person is usually a specialist legal scholarnot necessarily with a ...

Hans Kelsen
, Hryhoriy Khomyshyn, Jan Kickert, Rudolf Kirchschläger, Arthur Koestler, Jernej Kopitar, Karl Kordesch, Arnold Krammer, Karl Kraus (writer), Karl Kraus, Bruno Kreisky, Richard Kuhn, Hermann Feodor Kvergić, Hermann F. Kvergić, Paul Lazarsfeld, Ignacy Łukasiewicz, Gustav Mahler, Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, Lise Meitner, Gregor Mendel, Karl Menger, Franz Mesmer,
Franz Miklosich Franz Miklosich (also known in Slovene as ; 20 November 1813 – 7 March 1891) was a Slovene philologist Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is the intersection of textual criticism, literary criticism, ...
, Alois Mock, Wolf-Dieter Montag, Matija Murko, Joachim Oppenheim, Eduard Pernkopf, Anton Piëch, Pope Pius III, Hans Popper,
Karl Popper Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as tho ...

Karl Popper
, Otto Preminger, Wilhelm Reich, Peter Safar, Monika Salzer, Mordkhe Schaechter, Karl Schenkl, Arthur Schnitzler, Marianne Schmidl, Andreas Schnider, Albin Schram,
Joseph Schumpeter Joseph Alois Schumpeter (; February 8, 1883 – January 8, 1950) was an Austrian political economist. He was born in Moravia Moravia ( , also , ; cs, Morava ; german: link=no, Mähren ; pl, Morawy ; szl, Morawijo; la, Moravia) is a h ...
, Wolfgang Schüssel, John J. Shea, Jr., Felix Somary, Adalbert Stifter, Countess Stoeffel, Yemima Tchernovitz-Avidar, Eric Voegelin, Kurt Waldheim, Otto Weininger, Slavko Wolf, Eduard Zirm, Mordecai Sandberg, Calvin Eduoard Ward, Calvin Edouard Ward, Paul Niel, Stefan Zweig, and Huldrych Zwingli.


Nobel Prize Laureates

There are total 15 Nobel Prize Laureates affiliated to the University as follows:


The University Library

The University Library of the University of Vienna comprises the Main Library and the 50 departmental libraries at the various university locations throughout
Vienna Vienna ( ; german: Wien ; bar, Wean, label=Bavarian language, Austro-Bavarian ) is the Capital city, national capital, largest city, and one of States of Austria, nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's List of cities and towns in Austria, mos ...

Vienna
. The library's primary responsibility is to the members of the university; however, the library's 350 staff members also provide access to the public. Use of the books in the reading halls is open to all persons without the need for identification, which is only required for checking out books. The library's website provides direct access to information such as electronic journals, online indices and databases.


Library history

Rudolf IV had already provided for a ''publica libraria'' in the Foundation Deed of 12 March 1365, where the valuable books bequeathed by deceased members of the University should be collected. Through many legacies, this collection was subsequently greatly increased and became the basis of the old ''Libreye'' that was accommodated in the same building as the student infirmary. In addition, there were libraries in the separate Faculties and in the Duke's College. From the 17th century onwards, interest in the old library, with its manuscripts and incunabulae, went into decline and the modern library in the Jesuit College came to the fore. In 1756, the oldest university library was finally closed down and its books, 2,787 volumes, were incorporated into the Court Library, of which Gerard van Swieten was then director. After the dissolution of the Jesuit order (1773), the new "Academic Library" was created out of the book collections of the five Lower Austrian Colleges and many duplicates from the Court Library. This was opened on 13 May 1777, the birthday of Maria Theresa of Austria, in the building of the Academic College. Initially, the stock consisted of some 45,000 books and during Emperor Joseph II's dissolution of the monasteries, this was soon considerably extended. In contrast to its antecedents, the new library was open to the general public. Between 1827 and 1829, it acquired the classicist extension (Postgasse 9) to the Academic College, in which it was to be accommodated until 1884. In this year, the main library, with some 300,000 books, moved to
Heinrich von Ferstel Freiherr Heinrich von Ferstel (7 July 1828 14 July 1883) was an Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine count ...

Heinrich von Ferstel
's new Main Building on the Ring, where stacks for some 500,000 volumes had already been prepared. With an annual growth of up to 30,000 volumes, the surplus space was soon filled. Book storage space had to be extended continuously. One hundred years later, the complete library, including departmental and subject libraries, comprised more than 4.3 million volumes. Today, Vienna's University Library is the largest collection of books in Austria, still facing problems of space. In addition to the Main Library, which alone has to cope with an annual growth of 40,000 volumes, it includes three Faculty Libraries, 32 Subject Libraries and 26 Departmental Libraries.


Library statistics

* Book inventory: 7,650,412 (of which 2,900,936 belong to the Main Library) * Journals: 10,100 in print, 80,000 E-Journals * Active borrowers: * Search queries in the online catalogue: 10,942,100 * Borrowings and renewals of books: 3,604,707 * Oldest book: Pliny the Elder, ''Natural History (Pliny), Historia naturalis'' (1469
digital Full text
''Data as of 2020''


International acclaim

The University of Vienna has the highest ranking in Arts and
Humanities Humanities are academic disciplines An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. ...

Humanities
, where it is placed 35 and 54th in the world according to the Times Higher Education, THE and QS World University Rankings, QS ranking respectively. Outstanding subjects include Geography (ranked 28th globally in 2013), Linguistics and Philosophy (both 46th globally) and Law (ranked 32nd in Europe and 73rd globally). It is rated high in academic reputation and number of international students, but low in terms of faculty to student ratio and citations per faculty. An overview of the QS World University Rankings by subjects: The Times Higher Education World University Rankings by subjects:https://www.timeshighereducation.com/world-university-rankings/university-of-vienna#ranking-dataset/595516. The Times Higher Education. 2017. Retrieved March 18, 2017.


Gallery

File:Uni Wien Hallway, Vienna.jpg, A hallway at the University of Vienna File:Uni Wien Ferstel Denkmal, Vienna.jpg, Bust of Heinrich Ferstel, the constructor of the main building File:Erwin Schrodinger at U Vienna.JPG, Bust of
Erwin Schrödinger Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (, ; ; 12 August 1887 – 4 January 1961), sometimes written as or , was a Nobel Prize-winning Austrian-Irish who developed a number of fundamental results in : the provides a way to calculate the ...
in the courtyard arcade File:Ludwig Boltzmann at U Vienna.JPG, Bust of
Ludwig Boltzmann Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (; 20 February 1844 – 5 September 1906) was an Austria Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a landlocked country in the southern part of Central Europe, located on the Eastern Alps. It is compo ...
in the courtyard arcade File:Rudolf Scherer.jpg, Bust of Rudolf von Scherer in the courtyard arcade File:University of Vienna - Botanical Garden.jpg, Botanical Garden of the University of Vienna File:Festsaal - University of Vienna.JPG, Main Ceremonial Chamber (''Festsaal'') in the Main Building


See also

* Education in Austria * Klimt University of Vienna Ceiling Paintings * Institute Vienna Circle * List of medieval universities * Ludwig Boltzmann Institut für Menschenrechte * Roman Sebastian Zängerle *
Vienna Observatory The Vienna Observatory (german: Universitätssternwarte Wien) is an astronomical observatory An observatory is a location used for observing terrestrial, marine, or celestial events. Astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία ...
* Francis Stephen Award * List of Jesuit sites


Notes and references


External links


University of Vienna
(English version)
Information for Students at the University of Vienna
(English version) {{DEFAULTSORT:Vienna, University Of University of Vienna, 1360s establishments in the Holy Roman Empire 1365 establishments in Europe 14th century in Austria Educational institutions established in the 14th century Buildings and structures in Vienna Universities and colleges in Vienna