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The University of Toronto (U of T or UToronto) is a
public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth Engli ...
research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in va ...
in
Toronto Toronto (, ) is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontario. With a recorded population of 2,731,571 in 2016 in 2016, it is the List of the largest municipalities in Canada by population, most p ...

Toronto
,
Ontario ("Loyal she began, loyal she remains") , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , cap ...

Ontario
, Canada, located on the grounds that surround
Queen's ParkThere are a number of places in the world called Queen's Park or Queens Park. Australia New South Wales * Queens Park, New South Wales, a Sydney suburb * Centennial Parklands#Queens Park, Queens Park, Sydney, the urban park, part of Centennial ...
. It was founded by
royal charter A royal charter is a formal grant issued by a monarch under royal prerogative The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognized in common law and, sometimes, in civil law jurisdictions possessing ...

royal charter
in 1827 as King's College, the first institution of higher learning in
Upper Canada The Province of Upper Canada (french: link=no, province du Haut-Canada) was a Province, part of The Canadas, British Canada established in 1791 by the Kingdom of Great Britain, to govern the central third of the lands in British North Americ ...
. Originally controlled by the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
, the university assumed its present name in 1850 upon becoming a secular institution. As a
collegiate university A collegiate university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in ...
, it comprises eleven
college A college (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in rel ...

college
s each with substantial autonomy on financial and institutional affairs and significant differences in character and history. The university also operates two suburban campuses located in Scarborough and
Mississauga Mississauga ( ) is a city in the Canadian province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, fir ...
. The University of Toronto offers over 700 undergraduate and 200 graduate programs. In all major rankings, the university consistently ranks in the top ten public universities in the world and as the top university in the country. It receives the most annual scientific research funding and endowment of any Canadian university and is one of two members of the
Association of American Universities The Association of American Universities (AAU) is an organization of American research universities devoted to maintaining a strong system of academic research Research is "creativity, creative and systematic work undertaken to increase ...
outside the United States, the other being
McGill University McGill University is a public university, public research university located in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Founded in 1821 by royal charter granted by George IV, King George IV,Frost, Stanley Brice. ''McGill University, Vol. I. For the Advanceme ...
in Montreal. Academically, the University of Toronto is noted for influential movements and curricula in
literary criticism Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. Modern literary criticism is often influenced by literary theory, which is the philosophical analysis, philosophical discussion of literature ...
and
communication theory A communication theory is a proposed description of communication phenomena, the relationships among them, a storyline describing these relationships, and an argument for these three elements. Communication theory provides a way of talking about ...

communication theory
, known collectively as the Toronto School. The university was the birthplace of
insulin Insulin (, from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republi ...

insulin
and
stem cell In multicellular organisms Multicellular organisms are organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Biology, properties o ...
research, the first
artificial cardiac pacemaker A cardiac pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the natural pacemaker of the heart The heart is a muscle, muscular Organ (anatomy), organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the cir ...
, and the site of the first successful
lung transplant Lung transplantation, or pulmonary transplantation, is a surgical procedure in which a patient's diseased lung The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and wide ...
and
nerve A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of fibers (called axon An axon (from Greek ἄξων ''áxōn'', axis), or nerve fiber (or nerve fibre: see American and British English spelling differences#-re, -er, spelling differences), is a long, ...

nerve
transplant. The university was also home to the first
electron microscope An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination. As the wavelength of an electron can be up to 100,000 times shorter than that of visible light photons, electron microscopes have a high ...

electron microscope
, the development of
deep learning #REDIRECT Deep learning#REDIRECT Deep learning Deep learning (also known as deep structured learning) is part of a broader family of machine learning methods based on artificial neural networks with representation learning. Learning can be ...

deep learning
,
neural network Artificial neural networks (ANNs), usually simply called neural networks (NNs), are computing systems vaguely inspired by the biological neural networks that constitute animal brain A brain is an organ (anatomy), organ that serves as the ...

neural network
,
multi-touch In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithm of an algorithm (Euclid's algorithm) for calculating the greatest commo ...
technology, the identification of the first
Cygnus X-1 Cygnus X-1 (abbreviated Cyg X-1) is a galactic Astrophysical X-ray source, X-ray source in the constellation Cygnus (constellation), Cygnus and was the first such source widely accepted to be a black hole. It was discovered in ...

Cygnus X-1
, and the development of the theory of
NP-completeness In computational complexity theory Computational complexity theory focuses on classifying computational problem In theoretical computer science An artistic representation of a Turing machine. Turing machines are used to model general computi ...
. The Varsity Blues are the athletic teams that represent the university in intercollegiate league matches, primarily within
U Sports U Sports (stylized as U SPORTS) is the national sport governing body of university sport in Canada, comprising the majority of degree-granting universities in the country. Its equivalent body for organized sports at college (Canada), colleges in ...
, with ties to
gridiron football Gridiron football,"Gridiron football"
''Encyclopædia Britannica''. Retrie ...
, rowing and ice hockey. The earliest recorded instance of gridiron football occurred at University of Toronto's
University College In a number of countries, a university college is a college institution that provides tertiary education but does not have full or independent university status. A university college is often part of a larger university. The precise usage varies ...
in November 1861. The university's Hart House is an early example of the North American , simultaneously serving cultural, intellectual, and recreational interests within its large
Gothic-revival Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic, neo-Gothic, or Gothick) is an Architectural style, architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England. Its momentum grew in the early 19th century, when increasingly serious and le ...
complex. The University of Toronto alumni include three Governors General of Canada, five Prime Ministers of Canada, nine foreign leaders, and seventeen
justices of the Supreme Court of Canada A judge is a person who wiktionary:preside, presides over court proceedings, either alone or as a part of a Judicial panel, panel of judges. The powers, functions, method of appointment, discipline, and training of judges vary widely across dif ...
. As of March 2019, twelve Nobel laureates, six Turing Award winners, 94 Rhodes Scholars, and one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with the university.


History


Early history

The founding of a colonial college had long been the desire of
John Graves Simcoe John Graves Simcoe (25 February 1752 – 26 October 1806) was a British Army The British Army is the principal of the , a part of the . , the British Army comprises 80,040 regular full-time personnel and 30,020 personnel. The modern B ...

John Graves Simcoe
, the first
Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada The following is a list of lieutenant governors of Ontario and the lieutenant governors of the former colony of Upper Canada The Province of Upper Canada (french: link=no, province du Haut-Canada) was a Province, part of The Canadas, Briti ...
and founder of
York York is a cathedral city City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the monarch of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United ...
, the colonial capital. As an
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estimated at 152,450. It is northwest of London, southeast of Birmingham, and northeast of Bristol. The city is home to the Unive ...
-educated military commander who had fought in the
American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from thirteen American colonies of British America British America comprised the colon ...
, Simcoe believed a college was needed to counter the spread of
republicanism Republicanism is a political ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about the world is truth, true. In epistemology, philosophers use ...
from the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
. The Upper Canada Executive Committee recommended in 1798 that a college be established in York. On March 15, 1827, a
royal charter A royal charter is a formal grant issued by a monarch under royal prerogative The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognized in common law and, sometimes, in civil law jurisdictions possessing ...

royal charter
was formally issued by
King George IV George IV (George Augustus Frederick; 12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of ...
, proclaiming "from this time one College, with the style and privileges of a University ... for the education of youth in the principles of the Christian Religion, and for their instruction in the various branches of Science and Literature ... to continue for ever, to be called King's College." The granting of the charter was largely the result of intense lobbying by
John Strachan John Strachan (; 12 April 1778 – 1 November 1867) was a notable figure in Upper Canada The Province of Upper Canada (french: link=no, province du Haut-Canada) was a Province, part of The Canadas, British Canada established in 1791 by th ...

John Strachan
, the influential
Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called ''Anglicans''; t ...
Bishop of Toronto who took office as the college's first president. The original three-storey
Greek Revival The Greek Revival was an architectural upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in P ...
school building was built on the present site of
Queen's ParkThere are a number of places in the world called Queen's Park or Queens Park. Australia New South Wales * Queens Park, New South Wales, a Sydney suburb * Centennial Parklands#Queens Park, Queens Park, Sydney, the urban park, part of Centennial ...
. Under Strachan's stewardship, King's College was a religious institution closely aligned with the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
and the British colonial elite, known as the
Family Compact The Family Compact is the term used by historians for a small closed group of men who exercised most of the political, economic and judicial power in (today’s ) from the 1810s to the 1840s. It was the Upper Canadian equivalent of the in . It ...
.
Reformist Reformism is a political doctrine advocating the reform Reform ( lat, reformo) means the improvement or amendment of what is wrong, corrupt, unsatisfactory, etc. The use of the word in this way emerges in the late 18th century and is believed to ...
politicians opposed the clergy's control over colonial institutions and fought to have the college
secularized In sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social science that uses various methods of Empirical method, empi ...
. In 1849, after a lengthy and heated debate, the newly elected
responsible government Responsible government is a conception of a system of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ' ...
of the
Province of Canada The Province of Canada (or the United Province of Canada or the United Canadas) (french: link=no, Province du Canada) was a British colony Within the British Empire, a Crown colony or royal colony was a colony In political science, ...
voted to rename King's College as the University of Toronto and severed the school's ties with the church. Having anticipated this decision, the enraged Strachan had resigned a year earlier to open
Trinity CollegeTrinity College may refer to: Australia * Trinity Anglican College, an Anglican Church of Australia, Anglican coeducational primary and secondary school in , New South Wales * Trinity Catholic College, Auburn, a coeducational school in the inner-we ...

Trinity College
as a private Anglican seminary.
University College In a number of countries, a university college is a college institution that provides tertiary education but does not have full or independent university status. A university college is often part of a larger university. The precise usage varies ...
was created as the nondenominational teaching branch of the University of Toronto. During the
American Civil War The American Civil War (also known by other names Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon nove ...
, the threat of
Union blockade The Union blockade in the American Civil War was a naval strategy by the United States to prevent the Confederate States of America, Confederacy from trading. The blockade was proclaimed by President Abraham Lincoln in April 1861, and required t ...
on
British North America British North America comprised the British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or admini ...
prompted the creation of the , which saw battle in resisting the
Fenian raids#REDIRECT Fenian raids The Fenian raids were carried out by the Fenian Brotherhood The Fenian Brotherhood () was an Irish republican organisation founded in the United States in 1858 by John O'Mahony and Michael Doheny. It was a precursor to Clan ...
on the Niagara border in 1866. The Corps was part of the Reserve Militia led by Professor
Henry Croft Henry Croft (January 15, 1856 — July 28, 1917) was an Australia, Australian-born lumber and mining magnate on Vancouver Island from the 1880s to 1900s. Born in Australia, Croft moved to England at a young age and was educated there. He moved to ...
. Established in 1878, the School of Practical Science was the precursor to the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering, which has been nicknamed ''Skule'' since its earliest days. While the
Faculty of Medicine A medical school is a tertiary educational institution, or part of such an institution, that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons. Such medical degrees include the Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surge ...
opened in 1843, medical teaching was conducted by proprietary schools from 1853 until 1887 when the faculty absorbed the Toronto School of Medicine. Meanwhile, the university continued to set examinations and confer medical degrees. The university opened the
Faculty of Law A faculty is a division within a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degree ...
in 1887, followed by the in 1888 when the Royal College of Dental Surgeons became an affiliate. Women were first admitted to the university in 1884. A devastating fire in 1890 gutted the interior of University College and destroyed 33,000 volumes from the library, but the university restored the building and replenished its library within two years. Over the next two decades, a collegiate system took shape as the university arranged federation with several ecclesiastical colleges, including Strachan's Trinity College in 1904. The university operated
the Royal Conservatory of Music The Royal Conservatory of Music, branded as The Royal Conservatory, is a non-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and o ...

the Royal Conservatory of Music
from 1896 to 1991 and the
Royal Ontario Museum The Royal Ontario Museum (ROM; french: Musée royal de l'Ontario) is a museum of Art museum, art, Culture, world culture and natural history in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It is one of the largest museums in North America and the largest in Canad ...

Royal Ontario Museum
from 1912 to 1968; both still retain close ties with the university as independent institutions. The
University of Toronto Press The University of Toronto Press is a Canadian university press A university press is an academic publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or fo ...
was founded in 1901 as Canada's first academic publishing house. The Faculty of Forestry, founded in 1907 with
Bernhard Fernow Bernhard Eduard Fernow ( ; January 7, 1851 – February 6, 1923) was the third chief of the United States Department of Agriculture, USDA's Division of Forestry of the United States from 1886 to 1898, preceding Gifford Pinchot in that position, and ...
as dean, was Canada's first university faculty devoted to forest science. In 1910, the Faculty of Education opened its
laboratory school File:University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire - Laboratory School - Park School - Observation room alongside classroom with one-way mirror.jpg, The same room, showing observation room with a one-way mirror to the right of the classroom A laboratory sch ...
, the
University of Toronto Schools University of Toronto Schools (UTS) is an independent Independent or Independents may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Artist groups * Independents (artist group), a group of modernist painters based in the New Hope, Pennsylvania, area o ...

University of Toronto Schools
.


World wars and post-war years

The
First First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record A world record is usually the best global and most important performance that is ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill ...

First
and
Second World Wars World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for two major internationa ...
curtailed some university activities as undergraduate and graduate men eagerly enlisted. Intercollegiate athletic competitions and the Hart House Debates were suspended, although exhibition and interfaculty games were still held. The
David Dunlap Observatory The David Dunlap Observatory (DDO) is an astronomical observatory site just north of Toronto Toronto is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontario. With a recorded population of 2,731,571 in 2 ...
in Richmond Hill opened in 1935, followed by the
University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies The University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies (UTIAS, ) is an advanced research facility for aeronautics, aerospace engineering Aerospace engineering is the primary field of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific ...
in 1949. The university opened
satellite campus A satellite campus or branch campus or regional campus is a campus A campus is traditionally the land on which a college A college (Latin: ''collegium'') is an educational institution or a University system, constituent part of one. A ...
es in Scarborough in 1964 and in
Mississauga Mississauga ( ) is a city in the Canadian province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, fir ...
in 1967. The university's former affiliated schools at the
Ontario Agricultural College The Ontario Agricultural College (OAC) originated at the agricultural laboratories of the Toronto Normal School, and was officially founded in 1874 as an associate agricultural college of the University of Toronto The University of Toronto ( ...
and
Glendon Hall Glendon College is a public liberal arts college in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Formally the federated bilingual campus of York University, it is one of the school's nine colleges and 11 faculties with 100 full-time faculty members and a student popul ...
became fully independent of the University of Toronto and became part of
University of Guelph , mottoeng = "to learn the reasons of realities" , established = May 8, 1964 ()As constituents:Ontario Agricultural College, OAC: (1874) Macdonald Institute: (1903) Ontario Veterinary College, OVC: (1922) , type = public university , chancel ...
in 1964 and
York University York University (french: Université York), also known as YorkU or simply YU, is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization ...
in 1965, respectively. Beginning in the 1980s, reductions in government funding prompted more rigorous fundraising efforts.


Since 2000

In 2000, Kin-Yip Chun was reinstated as a professor of the university, after he launched an unsuccessful lawsuit against the university alleging racial discrimination. In 2017, a human rights application was filed against the University by one of its students for allegedly delaying the investigation of sexual assault and being dismissive of their concerns. In 2018, the university cleared one of its professors of allegations of discrimination and
antisemitism Antisemitism (also spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews. A person who holds such positions is called an antisemite. Antisemitism is generally considered to be a form of racism. A ...
in an internal investigation, after a complaint was filed by one of its students. The University of Toronto was the first Canadian university to amass a
financial endowment A financial endowment is a legal structure for managing, and in many cases indefinitely perpetuating, a pool of financial Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they operate within the financial system. It is ...
greater than billion in 2007. On September 24, 2020, the university announced a $250 million gift to the
Faculty of Medicine A medical school is a tertiary educational institution, or part of such an institution, that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons. Such medical degrees include the Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surge ...
from businessman and philanthropist James C. Temerty, the largest single philanthropic donation in Canadian history. This broke the previous record for the school set in 2019 when
Gerry Schwartz Gerald W. Schwartz, OC (born 1941) is the founder, chairman and CEO of Onex Corporation Onex Corporation is an investment manager founded in 1984. The firm manages capital on behalf of Onex shareholders, institutional investors and high net wo ...
and jointly donated $100 million for the creation of a innovation and artificial intelligence centre.


Grounds

The university grounds lie about north of the
Financial District A financial district is usually a central area in a city where financial services firms such as bank A bank is a financial institution Financial institutions, otherwise known as banking institutions, are corporation A corpora ...

Financial District
in
Downtown Toronto Downtown Toronto is the main central business district A central business district (CBD) is the commercial and business center of a city. It contains commercial space and offices. In larger cities, it is often synonymous with the city's "fi ...

Downtown Toronto
and immediately south of the neighbourhoods of Yorkville and
The Annex The Annex is a neighbourhood in Downtown Toronto Downtown Toronto is the main central business district A central business district (CBD) is the commercial and business center of a city. It contains commercial space and offices. In larger c ...

The Annex
. The site encompasses bounded mostly by
Bay Street Bay Street is a major thoroughfare in Downtown Toronto Downtown Toronto is the main central business district A central business district (CBD) is the commercial and business center of a city. It contains commercial space and offices. I ...

Bay Street
to the east,
Bloor Street Bloor Street is a major east–west residential and commercial thoroughfare in Toronto Toronto (, ) is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontario. With a recorded population of 2,731,571 in ...

Bloor Street
to the north,
Spadina Avenue Spadina Avenue (, less commonly ) is one of the most prominent streets in Toronto Toronto (, ) is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontario. With a recorded population of 2,731,571 in 2016 ...

Spadina Avenue
to the west and College Street to the south. An enclave surrounded by university grounds,
Queen's ParkThere are a number of places in the world called Queen's Park or Queens Park. Australia New South Wales * Queens Park, New South Wales, a Sydney suburb * Centennial Parklands#Queens Park, Queens Park, Sydney, the urban park, part of Centennial ...
, contains the
Ontario Legislative Building The Ontario Legislative Building (french: L'édifice de l'Assemblée législative de l'Ontario) is a structure in central Toronto Toronto (, ) is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontario. ...

Ontario Legislative Building
and several historic monuments. With its green spaces and many interlocking courtyards, the university forms a distinct region of
urban park An urban park or metropolitan park, also known as a municipal park (North America) or a public park, public open space, or municipal gardens (United Kingdom, UK), is a park in cities and other Municipal corporation, incorporated places that offe ...

urban park
land in the city's downtown core. The namesake University Avenue is a ceremonial
boulevard A boulevard (French, originally meaning bastion A bastion or bulwark is a structure projecting outward from the Curtain wall (fortification), curtain wall of a fortification, most commonly angular in shape and positioned at the corners of ...

boulevard
and arterial thoroughfare that runs through downtown between
Queen's ParkThere are a number of places in the world called Queen's Park or Queens Park. Australia New South Wales * Queens Park, New South Wales, a Sydney suburb * Centennial Parklands#Queens Park, Queens Park, Sydney, the urban park, part of Centennial ...
and Front Street. The , , , , and stations of the
Toronto subway The Toronto subway is a rapid transit Rapid transit or mass rapid transit (MRT), also known as heavy rail, metro, subway, tube, U-Bahn Rapid transit in Germany consists of four U-Bahn systems and fourteen S-Bahn systems. The U-Bahn o ...
system are nearby. The architecture is epitomized by a combination of
Romanesque Romanesque may refer to: In art and architecture *First Romanesque, or Lombard Romanesque architectural style *Pre-Romanesque art and architecture, a term used for the early phase of the style *Romanesque architecture, architecture of Europe wh ...
and
Gothic Revival Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic, neo-Gothic, or Gothick) is an Architectural style, architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England. The movement gained momentum and expanded in the first half of the 19th cent ...
buildings spread across the eastern and central portions of campus, most dating between 1858 and 1929. The traditional heart of the university, known as Front Campus, is near the campus centre in an oval lawn enclosed by King's College Circle. The centrepiece is the main building of
University College In a number of countries, a university college is a college institution that provides tertiary education but does not have full or independent university status. A university college is often part of a larger university. The precise usage varies ...
, built in 1857 with an eclectic blend of
Richardsonian Romanesque File:AMNHrearentrance.JPG, Architectural details of the American Museum of Natural History Richardsonian Romanesque is a architectural style, style of Romanesque Revival architecture named after Architect Henry Hobson Richardson (1838–1886). Th ...
and
Norman Norman or Normans may refer to: Ethnic and cultural identity * The Normans The Normans (Norman language, Norman: ''Normaunds''; french: Normands; la, Nortmanni/Normanni) were inhabitants of the early medieval Duchy of Normandy, descended from ...
architectural elements. The dramatic effect of this blended design by architect
Frederick William Cumberland :''See also Cumberland (disambiguation), Cumberland (surname).'' Frederick William Cumberland (10 April 1821 – 5 August 1881) was a Canadian engineer, architect and politician. He represented the riding of Algoma—Manitoulin (provincial ele ...

Frederick William Cumberland
drew praise from European visitors of the time: "Until I reached Toronto," remarked
Lord Dufferin Frederick Temple Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava (21 June 182612 February 1902) was a British public servant and prominent member of Victorian society. In his youth he was a popular figure in the court of Queen Vict ...
during his visit in 1872, "I confess I was not aware that so magnificent a specimen of architecture existed upon the American continent." The building was declared a
National Historic Site of Canada National Historic Sites of Canada (french: Lieux historiques nationaux du Canada) are places that have been designated by the federal Minister of the Environment An environment minister (sometimes minister of the environment or secretary of th ...
in 1968. Built in 1907,
Convocation Hall Convocation Hall is a domed rotunda (architecture), rotunda on the grounds of the University of Toronto in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Designed by Darling and Pearson and completed in 1907, its radially planned interior has been compared to the grand ...

Convocation Hall
is recognizable for its domed roof and
Ionic Ionic or Ionian may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Ionic meter, a poetic metre in ancient Greek and Latin poetry * Ionian mode, a musical mode or a diatonic scale Places and peoples * Ionian, of or from Ionia, an ancient region in western An ...

Ionic
-pillared rotunda. Although its foremost function is hosting the annual convocation ceremonies, the building is a venue for academic and social events throughout the year. The sandstone buildings of Knox College epitomizes the North American
collegiate Gothic Collegiate Gothic is an architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable. It is a sub-class of Style (visual arts), style i ...
design, with its characteristic
cloister A cloister (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the ...

cloister
s surrounding a secluded courtyard. A lawn at the northeast is anchored by Hart House, a Gothic-revival complex. Among its many common rooms, the building's Great Hall is noted for large stained-glass windows and a long quotation from
John Milton John Milton (9 December 16088 November 1674) was an English poet and intellectual who served as a civil servant for the under its Council of State and later under . He wrote at a time of religious flux and political upheaval, and is best kno ...

John Milton
's ''
Areopagitica ''Areopagitica; A speech of Mr. John Milton for the Liberty of Unlicenc'd Printing, to the Parlament of England'' is a 1644 prose polemic A polemic () is contentious rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of persuasion, which ...
'' inscribed around the walls. The adjacent
Soldiers' Tower Soldiers' Tower is a bell tower, bell and clock tower at the University of Toronto that commemorates members of the university who served in the World Wars. Designed by architects Henry Sproatt and Ernest Ross Rolph, the Gothic Revival architecture, ...
stands tall as the most prominent structure in the vicinity, its stone arches etched with the names of university members lost to the battlefields of the two World Wars. The tower houses a 51-bell
carillon A carillon ( or ; ) is a Pitched percussion instrument, pitched percussion idiophone that is played with a keyboard instrument, keyboard and consists of at least 23 bellfounding, cast bell metal, bronze bells in fixed suspension and tuned ...

carillon
played on special occasions such as
Remembrance Day Remembrance Day (also known as Poppy Day owing to the tradition of wearing a remembrance poppy The remembrance poppy is an artificial flower worn in some countries to commemorate their military personnel who died in war. Veterans' assoc ...
and convocation. North of University College, the main building of
Trinity CollegeTrinity College may refer to: Australia * Trinity Anglican College, an Anglican Church of Australia, Anglican coeducational primary and secondary school in , New South Wales * Trinity Catholic College, Auburn, a coeducational school in the inner-we ...

Trinity College
displays
Jacobethan The Jacobethan or Jacobean Revival architectural style is the mixed national Renaissance revival style that was made popular in England from the late 1820s, which derived most of its inspiration and its repertory from the English Renaissance#Arch ...
Tudor architecture The Tudor architectural style is the final development of Medieval architecture in England and Wales, during the Tudor period (1485–1603) and even beyond, and also the tentative introduction of Renaissance architecture to Britain. It fo ...
, while its chapel was built in the
Perpendicular Gothic Perpendicular Gothic (also Perpendicular, Rectilinear, or Third Pointed) architecture was the third and final style of English Gothic architecture English Gothic is an architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics ...
style of
Giles Gilbert Scott Sir Giles Gilbert Scott (9 November 1880 – 8 February 1960) was a British architect known for his work on the New Bodleian Library, Cambridge University Library, Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford, Battersea Power Station, Liverpool Cathedral, and d ...
. The chapel features exterior walls of sandstone and interiors of
Indiana Limestone Indiana limestone — also known as Bedford limestone — has long been an economically important building material Building material is material used for construction. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, rocks, sand, and woo ...
and was built by Italian stonemasons using ancient building methods.
Philosopher's Walk The is a pedestrian path that follows a cherry tree, cherry-tree-lined canal in Kyoto, Japan between Ginkaku-ji and Nanzen-ji. First opened in 1890 and extended again in 1912, the path follows the course of a shallow irrigation channel bringin ...
is a scenic footpath that follows a meandering, wooded
ravine A ravine is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body A planet is an astronomical body Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the scie ...

ravine
, the buried
Taddle Creek Taddle Creek is a buried Buried may refer to: Television episodes * Buried (Breaking Bad), "Buried" (''Breaking Bad'') * Buried (Fear the Walking Dead), "Buried" (''Fear the Walking Dead'') * Buried (Law & Order: UK), "Buried" (''Law & Order: UK ...
, linking with Trinity College,
Varsity Arena Varsity Arena, located at 299 Bloor Street West, Toronto Toronto is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontario. With a recorded population of 2,731,571 in 2016, it is the List of the 100 largest ...
and the
Faculty of Law A faculty is a division within a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degree ...
. Victoria College is on the eastern side of Queen's Park, centred on a Romanesque main building made of contrasting red sandstone and grey limestone. Developed after the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, the western section of the campus consists mainly of
modernist Modernism is both a philosophical movement A philosophical movement refers to the phenomenon defined by a group of philosophers A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and ...

modernist
and internationalist structures that house laboratories and faculty offices. The most significant example of
Brutalist architecture Brutalist architecture, also called New Brutalism, is an architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable. It is a sub-class of ...
is the massive
Robarts Library The John P. Robarts Research Library, commonly referred to as Robarts Library, is the main humanities Humanities are academic disciplines An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge that is Education, taught and ...

Robarts Library
complex, built in 1972 and opened a year later in 1973. It features raised podia, extensive use of triangular geometric designs and a towering fourteen-storey concrete structure that cantilevers above a field of open space and mature trees. Sidney Smith Hall is the home to the Faculty of Arts and Science, as well as a few departments within the faculty. The Leslie L. Dan Pharmacy Building, completed in 2006, exhibits the high-tech architecture, high-tech architectural style of glass and steel by British architect Norman Foster, Baron Foster of Thames Bank, Norman Foster.


Governance and colleges

The University of Toronto has traditionally been a decentralization, decentralized institution, with governing authority shared among its central administration, academic faculties and colleges. The Governing Council is the unicameralism, unicameral legislative organ of the central administration, overseeing general academic, business and institutional affairs. Before 1971, the university was governed under a bicameralism, bicameral system composed of the board of governors and the university senate. The chancellor, usually a former Governor General of Canada, governor general, Lieutenant Governor of Ontario, lieutenant governor, Premier of Ontario, premier or diplomat, is the ceremonial head of the university. The president is appointed by the council as the chief executive. Unlike most North American institutions, the University of Toronto is a
collegiate university A collegiate university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in ...
with a model that resembles those of the University of Cambridge and the University of Oxford in Britain. The colleges hold substantial autonomy over admissions, scholarships, programs and other academic and financial affairs, in addition to the housing and social duties of typical residential colleges. The system emerged in the 19th century, as ecclesiastical colleges considered various forms of union with the University of Toronto to ensure their viability. The desire to preserve religious traditions in a secular institution resulted in the federative collegiate model that came to characterize the university.
University College In a number of countries, a university college is a college institution that provides tertiary education but does not have full or independent university status. A university college is often part of a larger university. The precise usage varies ...
was the founding nondenominational college, created in 1853 after the university was secularized. Knox College, a Presbyterianism, Presbyterian institution, and Wycliffe College, Toronto, Wycliffe College, a low church seminary, both encouraged their students to study for non-divinity degrees at University College. In 1885, they entered a formal affiliation with the University of Toronto, and became federated schools in 1890. The idea of federation initially met strong opposition at Victoria University, Toronto, Victoria University, a Methodism, Methodist school in Cobourg, but a financial incentive in 1890 convinced the school to join. Decades after the death of John Strachan, the Anglicanism, Anglican seminary
Trinity CollegeTrinity College may refer to: Australia * Trinity Anglican College, an Anglican Church of Australia, Anglican coeducational primary and secondary school in , New South Wales * Trinity Catholic College, Auburn, a coeducational school in the inner-we ...

Trinity College
entered federation in 1904, followed in 1910 by University of St. Michael's College, St. Michael's College, a Catholic Church, Roman Catholic college founded by the Congregation of St. Basil, Basilian Fathers. Among the institutions that had considered federation but ultimately remained independent were McMaster University, a Baptism, Baptist school that later moved to Hamilton, Ontario, Hamilton, and Queen's College, a Presbyterianism, Presbyterian school in Kingston, Ontario, Kingston that later became Queen's University at Kingston, Queen's University. The post-war era saw the creation of New College, Toronto, New College in 1962, Innis College, Toronto, Innis College in 1964 and Woodsworth College, Toronto, Woodsworth College in 1974, all of them nondenominational. Along with University College, they comprise the university's constituent colleges, which are established and funded by the central administration and are therefore financially dependent. Massey College, Toronto, Massey College was established in 1963 by the Massey Foundation as a college exclusively for graduate students. Regis College, Toronto, Regis College, a Society of Jesus, Jesuit seminary, entered federation with the university in 1979. In contrast with the constituent colleges, the colleges of Knox, Massey, Regis, St. Michael's, Trinity, Victoria and Wycliffe continue to exist as legally distinct entities, each possessing a separate
financial endowment A financial endowment is a legal structure for managing, and in many cases indefinitely perpetuating, a pool of financial Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they operate within the financial system. It is ...
. While St. Michael's, Trinity and Victoria continue to recognize their religious affiliations and heritage, they have since adopted secular policies of enrolment and teaching in non-divinity subjects. Some colleges have, or once had, collegiate structures of their own: Emmanuel College, Toronto, Emmanuel College is a college of Victoria and St. Hilda's College, University of Toronto, St. Hilda's College is part of Trinity; St. Joseph's College had existed as a college within St. Michael's until it was dissolved in 2006. Ewart College existed as an affiliated college until 1991, when it was merged into Knox College. Postgraduate theology degrees are conferred by the colleges of Knox, Regis and Wycliffe, along with the divinity faculties within Emmanuel, St. Michael's and Trinity, including joint degrees with the university through the Toronto School of Theology.


Academics

The University of Toronto Faculty of Arts and Science, Faculty of Arts and Science is the university's main Undergraduate education, undergraduate faculty, and administers most of the courses in the college system. While the colleges are not entirely responsible for teaching duties, most of them house specialized academic programs and lecture series. Among other subjects, Trinity College is associated with programs in international relations, as are University College with Canadian studies, Victoria College with Renaissance studies, Innis College with film studies and urban studies, New College with gender studies, Woodsworth College with industrial relations and St. Michael's College with Medievalism. The faculty teaches undergraduate commerce in collaboration with the Rotman School of Management. The Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering is the other major direct-entry undergraduate faculty. The University of Toronto is the birthplace of an influential school of thought on
communication theory A communication theory is a proposed description of communication phenomena, the relationships among them, a storyline describing these relationships, and an argument for these three elements. Communication theory provides a way of talking about ...

communication theory
and
literary criticism Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. Modern literary criticism is often influenced by literary theory, which is the philosophical analysis, philosophical discussion of literature ...
known as the Toronto School. Described as "the theory of the primacy of communication in the structuring of human cultures and the structuring of the human mind", the school is rooted in the works of Eric A. Havelock and Harold Innis and the subsequent contributions of Edmund Snow Carpenter, Northrop Frye and Marshall McLuhan. Since 1963, the McLuhan Program in Culture and Technology of the University of Toronto Faculty of Information, Faculty of Information has carried the mandate for teaching and advancing the Toronto School. Several notable works in arts and humanities are based at the university, including the ''Dictionary of Canadian Biography'' since 1959 and the ''Collected Works of Erasmus'' since 1969. The ''Records of Early English Drama'' collects and edits the surviving documentary evidence of dramatic arts in pre-Puritans, Puritan England, while the ''Dictionary of Old English'' compiles the early vocabulary of the English language from the Anglo-Saxons, Anglo-Saxon period. The Munk School of Global Affairs encompasses the university's various programs and curricula in international affairs and foreign policy. As the Cold War heightened, Toronto's Slavic studies program evolved into an important institution on Soviet politics and economics, financed by the Rockefeller Foundation, Rockefeller, Ford Foundation, Ford and Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, Mellon foundations. The Munk School is also home to the G20 Research Group, which conducts independent monitoring and analysis on the G20, Group of Twenty, and the Citizen Lab, which conducts research on Internet censorship as a joint founder of the OpenNet Initiative. The university operates international offices in Berlin, Hong Kong and Siena. The Dalla Lana School of Public Health is a Faculty of the University of Toronto that began as one of the Schools of Hygiene begun by the Rockefeller Foundation in 1927. The School went through a dramatic renaissance after the 2003 Severe acute respiratory syndrome, SARS crisis, and it is now Canada's largest public health school, with more than 750 faculty, 800 students, and research and training partnerships with institutions throughout Toronto and the world. With more than $39 million in research funding per year, the School supports discovery in global health, tobacco impacts on health, occupational disease and disability, air pollution, inner city, circumpolar health, and many other pressing issues in population health. The University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine, Temerty Faculty of Medicine is affiliated with a network of ten teaching hospitals, providing medical treatment, research and advisory services to patients and clients from Canada and abroad. A core member of the network is University Health Network, itself a specialized federation of Toronto General Hospital, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto Western Hospital, and Toronto Rehabilitation Institute. Physicians in the medical institutes have cross-appointments to faculty and supervisory positions in university departments. The Rotman School of Management developed the discipline and methodology of integrative thinking, upon which the school bases its curriculum. Founded in 1887, the
Faculty of Law A faculty is a division within a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degree ...
's emphasis on formal teachings of Liberal arts education, liberal arts and legal theory was then considered unconventional, but gradually helped shift the country's legal education system away from the apprenticeship model that prevailed until the mid-20th century. The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education is the normal school, teachers college of the university, affiliated with its two
laboratory school File:University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire - Laboratory School - Park School - Observation room alongside classroom with one-way mirror.jpg, The same room, showing observation room with a one-way mirror to the right of the classroom A laboratory sch ...
s, the Institute of Child Study and the
University of Toronto Schools University of Toronto Schools (UTS) is an independent Independent or Independents may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Artist groups * Independents (artist group), a group of modernist painters based in the New Hope, Pennsylvania, area o ...

University of Toronto Schools
(a private high school run by the university). Autonomous institutes at the university include the Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, the Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies and the Fields Institute. Within the Faculty of Arts and Science, notable departments include the Department of Computer Science and the University of Toronto Department of Mathematics, Department of Mathematics.


Library and collections

The University of Toronto Libraries is the third-largest academic library system in North America, following those of Harvard Library, Harvard and Yale University Library, Yale, measured by number of volumes held. Its collections include more than 12 million print books, 1.9 million digital books, over 160,000 journal titles, and close to 30,000 metres of archival materials. The largest of the libraries,
Robarts Library The John P. Robarts Research Library, commonly referred to as Robarts Library, is the main humanities Humanities are academic disciplines An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge that is Education, taught and ...

Robarts Library
, holds about five million bound volumes that form the main collection for humanities and social sciences. The Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library constitutes one of the largest repositories of publicly accessible Book collecting, rare books and manuscripts. Its collections range from ancient Egyptian Papyrus, papyri to incunable, incunabula and Libretto, libretti; the subjects of focus include British, Western literature, Western and Canadian literature, Aristotle, Charles Darwin, Darwin, the Spanish Civil War, the history of science and history of medicine, medicine, Canadiana and the history of books. The Cheng Yu Tung East Asian Library has a rare 40,000-volume Chinese collection from the Song dynasty, Song Dynasty (960–1279) to the Qing dynasty, Qing Dynasty (1644–1911) that was originally held by scholar Mu Xuexun (1880–1929). The Richard Charles Lee Canada-Hong Kong Library has the largest research collection for Hong Kong and Canada–Hong Kong studies outside of Hong Kong. The rest of the library collections are dispersed at departmental and faculty libraries in addition to about 1.3 million bound volumes the colleges hold. The university has collaborated with the Internet Archive since 2005 to digitization, digitize some of its library holdings. Housed within University College, the University of Toronto Art Centre contains three major art collections. The Malcove Collection is primarily represented by Early Christianity, Early Christian and Byzantine Empire, Byzantine sculptures, bronzeware, furniture, icons and liturgical items. It also includes glassware and stone reliefs from the Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman period, and the painting ''Adam and Eve'' by Lucas Cranach the Elder, dated from 1538. The University of Toronto Collection features Contemporary Canadian art, Canadian contemporary art, while the University College Art Collection holds significant works by the Group of Seven (artists), Group of Seven and 19th century Landscape painting, landscape artists.


Reputation

In the 2021 ''Academic Ranking of World Universities'' (also known as the Shanghai Ranking), the university ranked 22nd in the world and first in Canada. The 2022 ''QS World University Rankings'' ranked the university 26th in the world, and first in Canada. In 2019, it ranked 11th among the universities around the world by ''SCImago Institutions Rankings''. The 2022 ''Times Higher Education World University Rankings'' ranked the university 18th in the world, and first in Canada. In the Times' 2020 reputational ranking, the publication placed the university 19th in the world. In the 2022 ''U.S. News & World Report Best Global University Ranking'', the university ranked 16th in the world, and first in Canada. The Canadian-based ''Maclean's'' magazine ranked the University of Toronto second in their 2022 Canadian Medical Doctoral university category. ''Maclean's'' 2021 university rankings also ranked the University of Toronto first in its reputation rankings, the sixth consecutive time the university placed there. The university was ranked in spite of having opted out — along with several other universities in Canada — of participating in ''Maclean's'' graduate survey since 2006. The university's research performance has been noted in several bibliometrics, bibliometric university rankings, which use citation analysis to evaluate the impact factor, impact a university has on academic publications. In 2019, the Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities ranked the university fourth in the world, and first in Canada. The University Ranking by Academic Performance 2019–2020 rankings placed the university second in the world, and first in Canada. Along with academic and research-based rankings, the university has also been ranked by publications that evaluate the employment prospects of its graduates. In the ''Times Higher Education's'' 2020 global employability ranking, the university ranked eighth in the world, and first in Canada. In ''QS's'' 2020 graduate employability ranking, the university ranked 16th in the world, and first in Canada. In a 2013 employment survey conducted by the ''The New York Times, New York Times'', the University of Toronto was ranked 14th in the world. In 2018, the University of Toronto Entrepreneurship was ranked the fourth best university-based Business incubator, incubator in the world by UBI Global in the "World Top Business Incubator – Managed by a University" category.


Research

Since 1926, the University of Toronto has been a member of the
Association of American Universities The Association of American Universities (AAU) is an organization of American research universities devoted to maintaining a strong system of academic research Research is "creativity, creative and systematic work undertaken to increase ...
, a consortium of the leading North American research universities. The university manages by far the largest annual Funding of science, research budget of any university in Canada with sponsored direct-cost expenditures of $878 million in 2010. In 2018, the University of Toronto was named the top research university in Canada by Research Infosource, with a sponsored research income (external sources of funding) of $1,147.584 million in 2017. In the same year, the university's faculty averaged a sponsored research income of $428,200, while graduate students averaged a sponsored research income of $63,700. The federal government was the largest source of funding, with grants from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council amounting to about one-third of the research budget. About eight percent of research funding came from corporations, mostly in the healthcare industry. The first practical
electron microscope An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination. As the wavelength of an electron can be up to 100,000 times shorter than that of visible light photons, electron microscopes have a high ...

electron microscope
was built by the physics department in 1938. During World War II, the university developed the G-suit, a life-saving garment worn by Allied fighter plane pilots, later adopted for use by astronauts. Development of the infrared chemiluminescence technique improved analyses of energy behaviours in chemical reactions. In 1963, the asteroid 2104 Toronto is discovered in the
David Dunlap Observatory The David Dunlap Observatory (DDO) is an astronomical observatory site just north of Toronto Toronto is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontario. With a recorded population of 2,731,571 in 2 ...
in Richmond Hill and is named after the university. In 1972, studies on
Cygnus X-1 Cygnus X-1 (abbreviated Cyg X-1) is a galactic Astrophysical X-ray source, X-ray source in the constellation Cygnus (constellation), Cygnus and was the first such source widely accepted to be a black hole. It was discovered in ...

Cygnus X-1
led to the publication of the first observational evidence proving the existence of s. Toronto astronomers have also discovered the Uranus, Uranian moons of Caliban (moon), Caliban and Sycorax (moon), Sycorax, the dwarf galaxy, dwarf galaxies of Andromeda I, Andromeda II, II and Andromeda III, III, and the supernova SN 1987A. A pioneer in computing technology, the university designed and built UTEC, one of the world's first operational computers, and later purchased ''Ferut'', the second commercial computer after UNIVAC I. Multi-touch technology was developed at Toronto, with applications ranging from Mobile device, handheld devices to Multi-Touch Collaboration Wall, collaboration walls. The AeroVelo Atlas, which won the Igor I. Sikorsky Human Powered Helicopter Competition in 2013, was developed by the university's team of students and graduates and was tested in Vaughan. The discovery of
insulin Insulin (, from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republi ...

insulin
at the University of Toronto in 1921 is considered among the most significant events in the history of medicine. The
stem cell In multicellular organisms Multicellular organisms are organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Biology, properties o ...
was discovered at the university in 1963, forming the basis for Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, bone marrow transplantation and all subsequent research on adult stem cell, adult and embryonic stem cells. This was the first of many findings at Toronto relating to stem cells, including the identification of Pancreas, pancreatic and retinal stem cells. The cancer stem cell was first identified in 1997 by Toronto researchers, who have since found stem cell associations in leukemia, brain tumors and colorectal cancer. Medical inventions developed at Toronto include the Glycemic index, glycaemic index, the infant cereal Pablum, the use of protective hypothermia in open heart surgery and the first
artificial cardiac pacemaker A cardiac pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the natural pacemaker of the heart The heart is a muscle, muscular Organ (anatomy), organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the cir ...
. The first successful lung transplantation, single-lung transplant was performed at Toronto in 1981, followed by the first
nerve A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of fibers (called axon An axon (from Greek ἄξων ''áxōn'', axis), or nerve fiber (or nerve fibre: see American and British English spelling differences#-re, -er, spelling differences), is a long, ...

nerve
transplant in 1988, and the first double-lung transplant in 1989. Researchers identified the maturation promoting factor that regulates cell division, and discovered the T-cell receptor, which triggers responses of the immune system. The university is credited with isolating the genes that cause Fanconi anemia, cystic fibrosis and early-onset Alzheimer's disease, among numerous other diseases. Between 1914 and 1972, the university operated the Connaught Medical Research Laboratories, now part of the pharmaceutical corporation Sanofi-Aventis. Among the research conducted at the laboratory was the development of gel electrophoresis. The University of Toronto is the primary research presence that supports one of the world's largest concentrations of biotechnology firms. More than 5,000 principal investigators reside within from the university grounds in Toronto's Discovery District, conducting $1 billion of medical research annually. MaRS Discovery District is a research park that serves commercial enterprises and the university's technology transfer ventures. In 2008, the university disclosed 159 inventions and had 114 active start-up companies. Its SciNet Consortium operates the most powerful supercomputer in Canada.


Athletics

The 44 sports teams of the Varsity Blues represent the university in intercollegiate competitions. The two main leagues in which the Blues participate are
U Sports U Sports (stylized as U SPORTS) is the national sport governing body of university sport in Canada, comprising the majority of degree-granting universities in the country. Its equivalent body for organized sports at college (Canada), colleges in ...
(formerly known as Canadian Interuniversity Sport (CIS)) for national competitions and the auxiliary Ontario University Athletics (OUA) conference at the provincial level. The athletic nickname of Varsity Blues was not consistently used until the 1930s; previously, references such as "Varsity", "The Big Blue", "The Blue and White", "The Varsity Blue" and simply "The Blues" also appeared interchangeably. ''The Blue and White'' is commonly played and sung in athletic games as a fight song. Gridiron football, North American (gridiron) football traces its very origin to the University of Toronto with the first documented football game played at University College on November 9, 1861. The Blues played their first College football, intercollegiate football match in 1877 against the University of Michigan in a game that ended with a scoreless draw. Since intercollegiate seasons began in 1898, the Blues have won four Grey Cup, two Vanier Cup and 25 Yates Cup championships, including the inaugural championships for all three trophies. However, the football team has hit a rough patch following its last championship in 1993. From 2001 until 2008, the Blues suffered the longest losing streak in Canadian collegiate history, recording 49 consecutive winless games. This was preceded by a single victory in 2001 that ended a run of 18 straight losses. The site of Varsity Stadium has served as the primary playing grounds of the Varsity Blues football and soccer programs since 1898. It also served as the venue for Archery at the 2015 Pan American Games, archery during the 2015 Pan American Games. Formed in 1891, the storied Toronto Varsity Blues men's ice hockey, Varsity Blues men's ice hockey team has left many legacies on the national, professional and international hockey scenes. Conn Smythe played for the Blues as a centre (ice hockey), centre during his undergraduate years, and was a Blues coach from 1923 to 1926. When Smythe took over the Toronto Maple Leafs in 1927, his new team adopted the Varsity Blues' familiar blue-and-white sweater design. Blues hockey competed at the Ice hockey at the 1928 Winter Olympics, 1928 Winter Olympics and captured the gold medal for Canada at the 1928 Winter Olympics, Canada. At the 1980 Winter Olympics, Blues coach Tom Watt served as co-coach of the Canadian hockey team in which six players were Varsity grads. In all, the Blues have won the David Johnston University Cup, U Sports University Cup national hockey title ten times, last in 1984.
Varsity Arena Varsity Arena, located at 299 Bloor Street West, Toronto Toronto is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontario. With a recorded population of 2,731,571 in 2016, it is the List of the 100 largest ...
has been the permanent home of the Blues ice hockey programs since it opened in 1926. In men's basketball, the Varsity Blues have won 14 conference titles, including the inaugural championship in 1909, but have not won a national title. In swimming, the men's team has claimed the national crown 16 times since 1964, while the women's team has claimed the crown 14 times since 1970. Established in 1897, the University of Toronto Rowing Club is Canada's oldest collegiate rowing club. It earned a silver medal for the country in the 1924 Summer Olympics, finishing second to Yale's crew. Back Campus Fields, The back campus of University College was used for Field hockey at the 2015 Pan American Games, field hockey during the 2015 Pan American Games and the field was renamed Pan Am / Parapan Am Fields for the duration of the Pan American Games.


Culture and student life

In the heart of social, cultural and recreational life at the University of Toronto lies Hart House, the sprawling Gothic Revival architecture, neo-Gothic student center, student activity centre that was conceived by alumnus-benefactor Vincent Massey and named for his grandfather Hart Massey, Hart. Opened in 1919, the complex established a communitarian spirit in the university and its students, who at the time kept largely within their own colleges under the decentralized collegiate system. At Hart House, a student can read in the library, dine casually or formally, have a Hairstyle, haircut, visit the art gallery, watch a play in the theatre, listen to a concert, observe or join in debates, play billiards, or go for a swim and find a place to study, all under the same roof and within the span of a day. The confluence of assorted functions is the result of a deliberate effort to create a holistic educational experience, a goal summarized in the Founders' Prayer. The Hart House model was influential in the planning of student centres at other universities, notably Cornell University's Willard Straight Hall. Hart House resembles some traditional aspects of student representation through its financial support of student clubs, and its standing committees and board of stewards that are composed mostly of undergraduate students. However, the main students' unions on administrative and policy issues are the University of Toronto Students' Union, Association of Part-time Undergraduate Students and the Graduate Students' Union. Student representative bodies also exist at the various colleges, academic faculties and departments. The Hart House Debating Club employs a Debate, debating style that combines the American emphasis on analysis and the British use of wit. Smaller debating societies at Trinity, University and Victoria College have served as initial training grounds for debaters who later progress to Hart House. The club won the World Universities Debating Championship in 1981 and 2006. The North American Model United Nations (NAMUN) hosts an annual Model United Nations conference on campus, while the United Nations Society participates in various North American and international conferences. The Toronto chess team has captured the top title six times at the Pan American Intercollegiate Team Chess Championship. The Formula SAE Racing Team won the Formula Student European Championships in 2003, 2005 and 2006.


Greek life

The University of Toronto is home to the first Fraternities and sororities in Canada, collegiate fraternity in Canada, Zeta Psi, whose Toronto chapter has been active since 1879. Other fraternity chapters at the University of Toronto include Alpha Delta Phi, Alpha Epsilon Pi, Delta Kappa Epsilon, Sigma Chi, Delta Upsilon, Phi Delta Theta, Phi Kappa Sigma, Phi Gamma Delta, Psi Upsilon, Beta Theta Pi, Phi Kappa Pi, Kappa Sigma, Lambda Phi Epsilon, Sigma Nu, Theta Delta Chi, Alpha Kappa Nu, Alpha Omicron Pi, Delta Delta Delta, Pi Beta Phi and Lambda Chi Alpha. Other Greek-letter societies include Alpha Gamma Delta, Alpha Phi, Alpha Sigma Nu, Delta Phi Nu, Gamma Phi Beta, Kappa Alpha Society, Delta Psi Delta, Gamma Delta Nu, Kappa Phi Xi, Delta Pi, Chi Sigma Xi, Zeta Beta Omega, Kappa Kappa Gamma, and alpha Kappa Delta Phi. A Collegiate secret societies in North America, secret society known as ''Episkopon'' has operated from Trinity College since 1858.


Theatre and music

Hart House Theatre is the university's student amateur theatre, generally producing four major plays every season. As old as Hart House itself, the theatre is considered a pioneer in Theatre of Canada, Canadian theatre for introducing the Little Theatre Movement from Europe. It has cultivated numerous performing-arts talents, including Donald Sutherland, Lorne Michaels, Wayne and Shuster and William Hutt (actor), William Hutt. Three members of the Group of Seven (artists), Group of Seven painters (Lawren Harris, Harris, Arthur Lismer, Lismer and J. E. H. MacDonald, MacDonald) have been set designers at the theatre, and composer Healey Willan was director of music for fourteen productions. The theatre also hosts annual variety shows run by several student theatrical companies at the colleges and academic faculties, the most prominent of which are ''U.C. Follies'' of University College, ''Skule Nite'' of the Faculty of Engineering, and ''Daffydil'' of the Faculty of Medicine, the latter in its hundredth year of production in 2010–2011. The main musical ensembles at Hart House are the orchestra, the chamber strings, the chorus, the jazz choir, the jazz ensemble and the symphonic band. The ''Jazz at Oscar's'' concert series performs big band and vocal jazz on Friday nights at the period lounge and bar of the Hart House Arbor Room. ''Open Stage'' is the monthly open mic event featuring singers, comics, poets and storytellers. The Sunday Concert is the oldest musical series at Hart House; since 1922, the series has performed more than 600 classical music concerts in the Great Hall, freely attended by the university community and general audiences. The public may also screen midday events held at noon, when concerts are recited prior to formal debut.


Student media

''The Varsity (newspaper), The Varsity'' is one of Canada's oldest student-run newspapers in publication since 1880. The paper was originally a daily broadsheet, but has since adopted a compact format and is now weekly during the Fall and Winter semesters. It publishes online in the summer. ''Hart House Review'', a literary magazine, publishes prose, poetry, and visual art from emerging Canadian writers and artists. ''The Newspaper'' is an independent student-run community newspaper, published weekly since 1978. CIUT-FM is the university's campus radio station, while the University of Toronto Television broadcasts student-produced content. Students at each college and academic faculty also produce their own set of journals and news publications. University College's ''The Gargoyle (newspaper), The Gargoyle'' was an early training ground for such notables as journalist Naomi Klein and musician/comedian Paul Shaffer. Victoria University's ''Acta Victoriana'' is the oldest active literary journal in Canada, and provided first publication credits to such literary figures as Margaret Atwood and Northrop Frye. ''Juxtaposition Magazine, Juxtaposition Global Health Magazine'' is another peer-reviewed student publication at the campus. The magazine focuses on global health and international development, and is published in association with the university's Centre for International Health. Members of the student press have contributed to activist causes on several notable occasions. At the height of debate on coeducation in 1880, ''The Varsity'' published an article in its inaugural issue voicing in favour of admitting women. In 1895, the university suspended the editor of ''The Varsity'' for breach of collegiality, after he published a letter that harshly criticized the provincial government's dismissal of a professor and involvement in academic affairs. University College students then approved a motion by ''Varsity'' staff member and future Prime Minister of Canada, Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King and boycotted lectures for a week. After Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau LGBT rights in Canada, decriminalized homosexuality throughout Canada in 1969, a medical research assistant placed an advertisement in ''The Varsity'' seeking volunteers to establish the first university homophile association in Canada.


Student social media

Several Facebook pages that posts memes about student life at the university were created in the 2010s, particularly True , and has impacted the student culture of the institution.


Residences

Each college at the University of Toronto operates its own set of residence halls and Cafeteria, dining halls clustered in a different area of the campus. Innis, New, St. Michael's, Trinity, University, Victoria, and Woodsworth colleges reserve most of their dormitories for their undergraduate students within the Faculty of Arts and Science while setting a portion available to students from the professional and postgraduate faculties. Massey College, Toronto, Massey College is exclusively for graduate students, while Knox and Wycliffe Colleges mainly house graduate theology students. Annesley Hall of Victoria College, a National Historic Sites of Canada, National Historic Site, was the first university residence for women in Canada. After St. Hilda's College, University of Toronto, St. Hilda's College became coeducational in 2005, Annesley Hall and Loretto College of St. Michael's College are the last remaining women's halls at the university. As campus residences accommodate just 6,400 students in all, the university guarantees housing only for undergraduates in their first year of study, while most upper-year and graduate students reside off-campus. Traditionally, the adjacent neighbourhoods of
The Annex The Annex is a neighbourhood in Downtown Toronto Downtown Toronto is the main central business district A central business district (CBD) is the commercial and business center of a city. It contains commercial space and offices. In larger c ...

The Annex
and Harbord Village are popular settling grounds for University of Toronto students, forming a distinct student quarter enclave, though Chinatown, Toronto, Chinatown and Kensington Market are increasingly populated by students. In 2004, the university purchased and converted a nearby hotel in the district that would later become First Chinatown, Toronto, Little Japan to the south into the Chestnut Residence, which houses students from all colleges and faculties. There are also numerous fraternity houses and student housing cooperatives, where boarders pay reduced rent for assuming housekeeping duties.


Demographics

The University of Toronto is known for having a high enrolment of international students. In 2016–17, 19.7 percent of students were international. The University plans to grow its international enrolment to 20.1 percent by 2021–22. In 2017, the University of Toronto had more international students enrolled than all other Canadian post-secondary institutions. In 2011, 78 percent of incoming first-year students identified as a visible minority. In 2001–02, the overall gender ratio was about 57.1 percent female to 42.9 percent male for enrolled students, or about 15 males for every 20 females. This gender gap has improved slightly in recent years to 55.8% female and 44.2% male, or about 16 males for every 20 females in 2014–15 (non-binary genders were not reported). This gap is more pronounced for graduation rates, with 59% of degrees conferred on females. Gender ratios also depend on undergraduate versus graduate enrolment, and department. The overall average of high school grades for first-year students was about 86% for fall 2014. The retention rate was 92.1%. In 2011–12, 40.3% of the students were enrolled in the Social Science and Humanities departments, 23.9% were enrolled in Biology, Engineering, and Mathematics & Physical Sciences. General education accounted for 14.7% enrolment (all undergraduates). Health Professions was 12.7%, Education 5.8%, and Fine Arts 2.6%.


Campus suicides

The University of Toronto has faced significant criticism due to its handling of student suicides and students' mental health problems. From 2017 to 2019, four students committed suicide at the school, three of them in the Bahen Centre for Information Technology. Student advocacy groups have said that the university contributed to the suicides by failing to provide mental health resources, with computer science student Shahin Imtiaz saying in an interview that "the university has turned into a pressure-cooker of intense demands, without the resources to meet the student needs to back it up." While the university does not generally acknowledge student deaths as suicides, the university responded to the deaths by adding additional safety barriers to the Bahen Centre and by promising additional support, adding close to three million dollars in funding for student wellbeing.


Notable people

File:King60th.jpg, William Lyon Mackenzie King, the longest-serving Prime Minister of Canada, Prime Minister in Canadian history with over 21 years in office, BA, MA File:Lester B. Pearson with a pencil.jpg, Lester B. Pearson, Canadian Prime Minister of Canada, Prime Minister and winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957, BA File:Paul martin 2004.jpg, Paul Martin, List of prime ministers of Canada, 21st Canadian Prime Minister of Canada, Prime Minister, LLB File:John Kenneth Galbraith 1982.jpg, John Kenneth Galbraith, noted economist and a leading proponent of 20th-century Modern liberalism in the United States, American liberalism, B.Sc.(Agr.) File:John charles fields.jpg, John Charles Fields, mathematician and the founder of the prestigious Fields Medal File:Harold Innis public-domain library archives-canada.jpg, Harold Innis, professor of political economy, helped develop the staples thesis and the Toronto School of communication theory File:Frederick Banting 3.jpg, Frederick Banting, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Nobel Laureate in Medicine and the first person to use
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on humans, MD File:Roberta Bondar NASA.jpg, Roberta Bondar, Canadian Space Agency, CSA astronaut and the first Canadian female in space, PhD File:Julie Payette 2017.jpg, Julie Payette, CSA astronaut and the List of governors general of Canada, 29th Governor General of Canada, MASc File:Smillie portrait.jpg, Jennie Smillie Robertson, First female surgeon in Canada, MD
In addition to Eric A. Havelock, Havelock, Harold Innis, Innis, Northrop Frye, Frye, Edmund Snow Carpenter, Carpenter and Marshall McLuhan, McLuhan, former professors of the 20th century include Frederick Banting, Harold Scott MacDonald Coxeter, Robertson Davies, John Charles Fields, Leopold Infeld and C. B. Macpherson. Twelve List of Nobel laureates, Nobel laureates studied or taught at the University of Toronto. As of 2006, University of Toronto academics accounted for 15 of 23 Canadian members in the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (65%) and 20 of 72 Canadian fellows in the American Association for the Advancement of Science (28%). Among honorees from Canada between 1980 and 2006, University of Toronto faculty made up 11 of 21 Canada Gairdner International Award recipients (52%), 44 of 101 Guggenheim Fellowship, Guggenheim Fellows (44%), 16 of 38 Royal Society fellows (42%), 10 of 28 members in the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, United States National Academies (36%) and 23 of 77 Sloan Research Fellowship, Sloan Research Fellows (30%). Alumni of the University of Toronto's colleges, faculties and professional schools have assumed notable roles in a wide range of fields and specialties. In government, Governor General of Canada, Governors General Vincent Massey, Adrienne Clarkson, and Julie Payette, Prime Minister of Canada, Prime Ministers William Lyon Mackenzie King, Arthur Meighen, Lester B. Pearson, Paul Martin and Stephen Harper, and 17 List of Justices of the Supreme Court of Canada, Justices of the Supreme Court have all graduated from the university, while world leaders include President of Latvia Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga, Premier of the Republic of China Liu Chao-shiuan, President of Trinidad and Tobago Noor Hassanali, and List of spouses and partners of Icelandic presidents, First Lady of Iceland Eliza Reid. Economist John Kenneth Galbraith, political scientist David Easton, historian Margaret MacMillan, philosophers David Gauthier and Ted Honderich, anthropologist Davidson Black, social activist Ellen Pence, sociologist Erving Goffman, psychologists Endel Tulving, Daniel Schacter, and Lisa Feldman Barrett, physicians Norman Bethune and Charles Best (medical scientist), Charles Best, geologists Joseph Tyrrell and John Tuzo Wilson, mathematicians Irving Kaplansky and William Kahan, physicists Arthur Leonard Schawlow and Bertram Brockhouse, religion scholar Amir Hussain, architect James Strutt, engineer Gerald Bull, computer scientists Alfred Aho and Brian Kernighan, and astronauts Roberta Bondar and Julie Payette are also some of the most well-known academic figures from the university. In business, University of Toronto alumni include Rogers Communications' Edward S. Rogers Jr., Ted Rogers, Toronto-Dominion Bank's W. Edmund Clark, Bank of Montreal's Bill Downe, Scotiabank's Peter Godsoe, Barrick Gold's Peter Munk, BlackBerry Limited, BlackBerry's Jim Balsillie, eBay's Jeffrey Skoll, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, Fiat S.p.A.'s Sergio Marchionne, and Apotex's Barry Sherman, Bernard Sherman. In literature and media, the university has produced writers Stephen Leacock, John McCrae, Rohinton Mistry, Margaret Atwood and Michael Ondaatje, film directors Arthur Hiller, Norman Jewison, David Cronenberg and Atom Egoyan, actor Donald Sutherland, screenwriter David Shore, television producer and writer Hart Hanson, musician Paul Shaffer, and journalists Malcolm Gladwell, Naomi Klein and Barbara Amiel. The University of Toronto alumni-founded companies generate roughly equivalent to one quarter of the Canadian GDP according to a survey published in 2021.


Notes


References


Further reading

* Claude Bissell, Bissell, Claude T. (1974). ''Halfway up Parnassus: A Personal Account of the University of Toronto''. University of Toronto Press. . * Ford, Ann Rochon. (1985). ''A Path Not Strewn with Roses''. University of Toronto Press. . * Martin Friedland, Friedland, Martin L. (2002).
The University of Toronto: A History
'. University of Toronto Press. . * Levi, Charles Morden. (2003).
Comings and Goings
'. McGill-Queen's University Press. . * A. B. McKillop, McKillop, A. Brian. (1994). ''Matters of Mind''. University of Toronto Press. . * Slater, John G. (2005).
Minerva's Aviary: Philosophy at Toronto
'. University of Toronto Press. . * Wallace, W. Stewart. ''A History of the University of Toronto, 1827–1927.'' University of Toronto Press, 1927.


External links

*
Heritage University of Toronto
– U of T's ongoing history in images, text and rich media {{DEFAULTSORT:University Of Toronto University of Toronto, Universities in Canada Organizations based in Canada with royal patronage, Toronto, University Educational institutions established in 1827, Toronto, University Forestry education 1827 establishments in Upper Canada Universities in Ontario U15 Group of Canadian Research Universities, Toronto