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(Aien aristeuein) , motto_lang = grc , mottoeng = Ever to Excel
or
Ever to be the Best , established = , type =
Public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth Engli ...
research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in va ...
Ancient university The ancient universities are British and Irish medieval universities and early modern universities founded before the year 1600. Four of these are located in Scotland, two in England, and one in Ireland. The ancient universities in Britain and ...
, endowment = £95.6 million , budget = £256.6 million , chancellor = The Lord Campbell of Pittenweem , rector =
Leyla Hussein Leyla Hussein ( so, Leyla Xuseen) is a Somali people, Somali-born British psychotherapist and social activist. She is the founder of Dahlia project, one of the co-founders of the Daughters of Eve non-profit organization and a Chief Executive of ...

Leyla Hussein
, principal =
Sally Mapstone Sally Mapstone (born 1957) is an academic and Principal of the University of St Andrews, Principal and Vice-Chancellor of the University of St Andrews. Early life and education Sally Mapstone grew up in West London and read English Language and ...
, academic_staff = 1,230 (2020) , administrative_staff = 1,576 , students = () , undergrad = () , postgrad = () , doctoral = , other = , city =
St Andrews St Andrews ( la, S. Andrea(s); sco, Saunt Aundraes; gd, Cill Rìmhinn) is a town on the east coast of Fife Fife (, ; gd, Fìobha, ; sco, Fife) is a council area{{Unreferenced, date=May 2019, bot=noref (GreenC bot) A council area is o ...

St Andrews
, state = , country = Scotland , coor = , campus =
College town A college town or university town is a community (often a separate town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary cons ...
, colours = United College, St Andrews
St Mary's College
School of Medicine A medical school is a tertiary educational institution, or part of such an institution, that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons. Such medical degrees include the Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surge ...

St Leonard's College
, sports =
University of St Andrews Athletic Union (AIEN ARISTEUEIN) , established = 1901 , type = Athletic Union , president = Sophie Tyler , city = St Andrews , state = Fife , country = Scotland, United Kingdom, UK , affiliations = British Universities and Colleges Sport Scottish Student S ...
, nickname = , mascot = , affiliations = EUA
Europaeum The Europaeum is a network of eighteen universities A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several Disci ...

Universities Scotland Universities Scotland was formed in 1992 as the Committee of Scottish Higher Education Principals (COSHEP) adopting its current name in 2000, when Universities UK was also formed. It represents 16 Universities and three other higher education i ...

Universities UK Universities UK (UUK) is an advocacy organisation Advocacy groups, also known as special interest groups, use various forms of advocacy in order to influence public opinion and ultimately policy. They play an important role in the development of ...

Wallace Group The Wallace Group is a grouping of eight universities in the UK that have a shared interest in promoting sports and health workshops in developing countries. The members are the University of Bath A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is a ...

Sutton 13 The Sutton Trust is an educational charity in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a sy ...

, website
www.st-andrews.ac.uk
, logo = , footnotes = The University of St Andrews (, gd, Oilthigh Chill Rìmhinn; abbreviated as St And, from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...
''Sancti Andreae'', in
post-nominals Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles, designatory letters or simply post-nominals, are letters placed after a person's name to indicate that the individual holds a position, academic degree, accreditation, ...
) is a
public university #REDIRECT Public university #REDIRECT Public university #REDIRECT Public university#REDIRECT Public university A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receives significant Government spending, ...
in
St Andrews St Andrews ( la, S. Andrea(s); sco, Saunt Aundraes; gd, Cill Rìmhinn) is a town on the east coast of Fife Fife (, ; gd, Fìobha, ; sco, Fife) is a council area{{Unreferenced, date=May 2019, bot=noref (GreenC bot) A council area is o ...

St Andrews
,
Fife Fife (, ; gd, Fìobha, ; sco, Fife) is a council areas of Scotland, council area, Historic counties of Scotland, historic county, registration county and lieutenancy areas of Scotland, lieutenancy area of Scotland. It is situated between the ...

Fife
, Scotland. It is the oldest of the four
ancient universities of Scotland The ancient universities A university () is an of (or ) and which awards s in several . Universities typically offer both and programs in different schools or faculties of learning. The word ''university'' is derived from the ''univers ...
and, following
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...
and
Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a university city and the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' ...
universities, the third-oldest university in the
English-speaking world Speakers of English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the Wo ...
. St Andrews was founded in 1413 when the
Avignon Avignon (, ; ; oc, Avinhon, label= Provençal or , ; la, Avenio) is the prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. L ...
Antipope Benedict XIII Pedro Martínez de Luna y Pérez de Gotor (25 November 1328 – 23 May 1423), known as in Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish ...

Antipope Benedict XIII
issued a
papal bull A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Catholic Church. It is named after the leaden Seal (emblem), seal (''bulla (seal), bulla'') that was traditionally appended to the end in order to auth ...
to a small founding group of
AugustinianAugustinian may refer to: *Augustinians Augustinians are members of Christian religious orders that follow the Rule of Saint Augustine, written in about 400 AD by Augustine of Hippo. There are two distinct types of Augustinians in Catholic relig ...
clergy. Along with the universities of
Glasgow Glasgow ( ; sco, Glesga; gd, Glaschu) is the most populous city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia'' ...

Glasgow
,
Edinburgh Edinburgh (; sco, Edinburgh; gd, Dùn Èideann ) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 Council areas of Scotland, council areas. Historically part of the county of Midlothian (interchangeably Edinburghshire before 1921), it is ...
, and
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...
, St Andrews was part of the
Scottish Enlightenment The Scottish Enlightenment ( sco, Scots Enlichtenment, gd, Soillseachadh na h-Alba) was the period in 18th- and early-19th-century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments. By the eighteenth century ...
during the 18th century. St Andrews is made up of a variety of institutions, comprising three colleges — United College (a union of St Salvator's and St Leonard's Colleges), St Mary's College, and St Leonard's College, the last named being a non-statutory revival of St Leonard's as a post-graduate society. There are 18 academic schools organised into four faculties. The university occupies historic and modern buildings located throughout the town. The academic year is divided into two semesters, Martinmas and Candlemas. In term time, over one-third of the town's population are either staff members or students of the university. The student body is notably diverse: over 145 nationalities are represented with 45% of its intake from countries outside the UK; about one-eighth of the students are from the EU and the remaining third are from overseas—15% from North America alone. The university's sport teams compete in
BUCS British Universities & Colleges Sport (BUCS) is the governing body for higher education sport in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is m ...
competitions, and the student body is known for preserving ancient traditions such as Raisin Weekend, May Dip, and the wearing of distinctive academic dress. It has been twice named " University of the Year" by ''The Times and Sunday Times'' Good University Guide, one of only two UK universities to achieve this. In the 2022 Good University Guide, St Andrews was ranked as the best university in the UK, the first university to ever top Oxford and Cambridge in British rankings. In 2021, St Andrews had the highest entry standards for undergraduate admission in the UK, attaining an average UCAS Entry Tariff of 208 points. St Andrews has many notable alumni and affiliated faculty, including eminent mathematicians, scientists, theologians, philosophers, and politicians. Recent alumni include the former First Minister of Scotland
Alex Salmond Alexander Elliot Anderson Salmond (; born 31 December 1954) is a Scottish politician serving as leader of the Alba Party The Alba Party is a Scottish nationalism, Scottish nationalist and Scottish independence, pro-independence political par ...

Alex Salmond
; Cabinet Secretary and Head of the Civil Service
Mark Sedwill Mark Philip Sedwill, Baron Sedwill (born 21 October 1964) is a British diplomat and senior civil servant who served as Cabinet Secretary#REDIRECT Cabinet secretary {{Redirect category shell, {{R from move {{R from miscapitalization ... and H ...

Mark Sedwill
; Chief of the Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) ; former Secretary of State for Defence Sir
Michael Fallon Sir Michael Cathel Fallon (born 14 May 1952) is a British politician who served as Secretary of State for Defence The secretary of state for defence, also referred to as the defence secretary, is a Secretary of State (United Kingdom), s ...
; Olympic cycling gold medalist
Chris Hoy Sir Christopher Andrew Hoy, MBE (born 23 March 1976) is a British racing driver and former track cyclist from Scotland who represented Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of con ...

Chris Hoy
; Permanent Representative of the United Kingdom to the United Nations and former British Ambassador to China (2015-2020) Dame
Barbara Woodward Dame Barbara Janet Woodward (born 29 May 1961) is a British diplomat and China expert. She is the current Permanent Representative of the United Kingdom to the United Nations, having previously served as British Ambassador to China from 2015 t ...

Barbara Woodward
; author Alistair Reynolds and royals
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, (William Arthur Philip Louis; born 21 June 1982) is a member of the British royal family The British royal family comprises Queen Elizabeth II and her close relations. There is no strict legal or ...

Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
, and
Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, (born Catherine Elizabeth Middleton; 9 January 1982) is a member of the British royal family The British royal family comprises Queen Elizabeth II and her close relations. There is no strict legal ...
. Five Nobel Laureates are among St Andrews' alumni and former staff: three in
Chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. T ...
and two in Physiology or Medicine.


History


Foundation

The university was founded in 1410 when a group of
AugustinianAugustinian may refer to: *Augustinians Augustinians are members of Christian religious orders that follow the Rule of Saint Augustine, written in about 400 AD by Augustine of Hippo. There are two distinct types of Augustinians in Catholic relig ...
clergy, driven from the
University of Paris , image_name = Coat of arms of the University of Paris.svg , image_size = 150px , caption = , latin_name = Universitas magistrorum et scholarium Parisiensis , motto = ''Hic et ubique terrarum'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical ...
by the Avignon schism and from the universities of
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...
and
Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a university city and the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' ...
by the
Anglo-Scottish Wars The Anglo-Scottish Wars comprise the various battles which continued to be fought between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland from the time of the Wars of Scottish Independence, Wars of Independence in the early 14th century throu ...
, formed a society of higher learning in St Andrews, which offered courses of lectures in divinity, logic, philosophy, and law. A
charter A charter is the grant of authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social scie ...
of privilege was bestowed upon the society of masters and scholars by the
Bishop of St Andrews The Bishop of St. Andrews ( gd, Easbaig Chill Rìmhinn, sco, Beeshop o Saunt Andras) was the ecclesiastical head of the Diocese of St Andrews The Diocese or Archdiocese of St Andrews was a territorial episcopal jurisdiction in early modern ...
,
Henry Wardlaw Henry Wardlaw (died 6 April 1440) was a Scottish Scottish usually refers to something of, from, or related to Scotland, including: *Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family native to Scotland *Scottis ...

Henry Wardlaw
, on 28 February 1411. Wardlaw then successfully petitioned the
Avignon Pope Benedict XIII Pedro Martínez de Luna y Pérez de Gotor (25 November 1328 – 23 May 1423), known as in Spanish and in English, was an Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous community in Spain , * gl, Re ...

Avignon Pope Benedict XIII
to grant the school university status by issuing a series of
papal bull A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Catholic Church. It is named after the leaden Seal (emblem), seal (''bulla (seal), bulla'') that was traditionally appended to the end in order to auth ...
s, which followed on 28 August 1413. King
James I of Scotland James I (late July 139421 February 1437) was King of Scots The monarch of Scotland was the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. ...

James I of Scotland
confirmed the
charter A charter is the grant of authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social scie ...
of the university in 1432. Subsequent kings supported the university, with King
James V of Scotland James V (10 April 1512 – 14 December 1542) was King of Scotland The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy, constitutional form of government by which a hereditary mo ...

James V of Scotland
"confirming privileges of the university" in 1532. A college of theology and arts, called St John's College, was founded in 1418 by Robert of Montrose and Lawrence of Lindores. St Salvator's College was established in 1450 by Bishop James Kennedy. St Leonard's College was founded in 1511 by Archbishop Alexander Stewart, who intended it to have a far more monastic character than either of the other colleges. St John's College was refounded by Cardinal
James Beaton James Beaton (or Bethune) (1473–1539) was a Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome * ...
under the name St Mary's College in 1538 for the study of divinity and law. It was intended to encourage traditional Catholic teachings in opposition to the emerging
Scottish Reformation The Scottish Reformation was the process by which Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic lang ...
, but once Scotland had formally split with the
Papacy The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...

Papacy
in 1560, it became a teaching institution for Protestant clergy. At its foundation in 1538 St Mary's was intended to be a College for instruction in Divinity, Law, and Medicine, as well as in Arts, but its career on this extensive scale was short-lived. Under a new foundation and erection, confirmed by Parliament in 1579, it was set apart for the study of Theology only, and it has remained a Divinity College ever since. Some university buildings that date from this period are still in use today, such as
St Salvator's Chapel St Salvator's Chapel is one of two collegiate chapels belonging to the University of St Andrews, the other being St Leonard's Chapel. It was founded in 1450, by Bishop James Kennedy, built in the Late Gothic architectural style, and refurbish ...

St Salvator's Chapel
, St Leonard's College Chapel and St Mary's College quadrangle. At this time, the majority of the teaching was of a religious nature and was conducted by clerics associated with the
cathedral A cathedral is a church Church may refer to: Religion * Church (building) A church building, church house, or simply church, is a building used for Christian worship services and other Christian religious activities. The term is used ...

cathedral
.


Development

During the 17th and 18th centuries, the university had mixed fortunes and was often beset by civil and religious disturbances. In a particularly acute depression in 1747, severe financial problems triggered the dissolution of St Leonard's College, whose properties and staff were merged into St Salvator's College to form the United College of St Salvator and St Leonard. Throughout this period student numbers were very low; for instance, when
Samuel Johnson Samuel Johnson (18 September 1709  – 13 December 1784), often called Dr Johnson, was an English writer who made lasting contributions as a poet, playwright, essayist, moralist, critic A critic is a person who communicates an asse ...
visited the university in 1773, the university had fewer than 100 students, and was in his opinion in a steady decline. He described it as "pining in decay and struggling for life". The poverty of Scotland during this period also damaged St Andrews, as few were able to patronise the university and its colleges, and with state support being improbable, the income they received was scarce.


Modern period

In the second half of the 19th century, pressure was building upon universities to open up higher education to women. In 1876, the university senate decided to allow women to receive an education at St Andrews at a level roughly equal to the Master of Arts degree that men were able to take at the time. The scheme came to be known as the ' LLA examination' (Lady Literate in Arts). It required women to pass five subjects at an ordinary level and one at honours level and entitled them to hold a degree from the university. In 1889 the Universities (Scotland) Act made it possible to formally admit women to St Andrews and to receive an education equal to that of male students. Agnes Forbes Blackadder became the first woman to graduate from St Andrews on the same level as men in October 1894, gaining her MA. She entered the university in 1892, making St Andrews the first university in Scotland to admit female undergraduates on the same level as men. In response to the increasing number of female students attending the university, the first women's hall was built in 1896 and was named University Hall. Up until the start of the 20th century, St Andrews offered a traditional education based on classical languages, divinity and philosophical studies, and was slow to embrace more practical fields such as science and medicine that were becoming more popular at other universities. In response to the need for modernisation and in order to increase student numbers and alleviate financial problems, the university merged with
University College, Dundee A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various Discipline (academia), academic d ...
in 1897, which had a focus on scientific and professional subjects. After the incorporation of University College Dundee, St Andrews' various problems generally receded. For example, it was able to offer medical degrees. Of note is that, up until 1967, many students who obtained a degree from the University of St Andrews had in fact spent most, and sometimes all, of their undergraduate career based in Dundee. In 1967, the union with Queen's College Dundee (formerly University College Dundee) ended, when that College became an independent institution under the name of the
University of Dundee , mottoeng = "My soul doth magnify the Lord" , established = 1967 – gained independent university status A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary educa ...
. As a result of this, St Andrews lost its capacity to provide degrees in many areas such as Medicine, Dentistry, Law, Accountancy, and Engineering. As well as losing the right to confer the undergraduate medical degree MBChB, it was also deprived of the right to confer the postgraduate degree MD. St Andrews was eventually able to continue to offer the opportunity to study medicine through a new arrangement with the
University of Manchester , mottoeng = Knowledge, Wisdom, Humanity , established = 2004 – University of Manchester Predecessor institutions: 1956 – UMIST , mottoeng = By Knowledge and Work , established = 1824 , closed = 2004 (merge ...

University of Manchester
in England. In 1972, the College of St Leonard was reconstituted as a postgraduate institute.


Links with the United States

St Andrews' historical links with the United States predate the country's independence.
James WilsonJames Wilson may refer to: Politicians and government officials Canada *James Wilson (Upper Canada politician) (1770–1847), English-born farmer and political figure in Upper Canada *James Crocket Wilson (1841–1899), Canadian MP from Quebec ...
, a signer of the
Declaration of Independence#REDIRECT Declaration of independence {{Redirect category shell, {{R from other capitalisation ...

Declaration of Independence
, attended (but did not graduate from) St Andrews. Wilson was one of six original justices appointed by
George Washington George Washington (February 22, 1732, 1799) was an American soldier, statesman, and Founding Father The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were credited with establishing a state. Natio ...

George Washington
to the
Supreme Court of the United States The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States of America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or Americ ...

Supreme Court of the United States
and was a founder of the
University of Pennsylvania Law School The University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School (also known as Penn Law or Penn Carey Law) is the law school A law school (also known as a law centre or college of law) is an institution specializing in legal education, usually involved as p ...
. Other prominent American figures associated with St Andrews include Scottish American industrialist
Andrew Carnegie Andrew Carnegie ( , November 25, 1835August 11, 1919) was a Scottish-American Scottish Americans or Scots Americans (Scottish Gaelic language, Scottish Gaelic: ''Ameireaganaich Albannach''; sco, Scots-American) are Americans whose ancestry ...

Andrew Carnegie
, who was elected
Rector Rector (Latin for the member of a vessel's crew who steers) may refer to: Style or title *Rector (ecclesiastical), a cleric who functions as an administrative leader in some Christian denominations *Rector (academia), a senior official in an educ ...
in 1901 and whose name is given to the prestigious Carnegie Scholarship, and
Edward Harkness Edward Stephen Harkness (January 22, 1874 – January 29, 1940) was an American philanthropist. Given privately and through his family's Commonwealth Fund, Harkness' gifts to private hospitals, art museums, and educational institutions in the Nort ...
, an American philanthropist who in 1930 provided for the construction of
St Salvator's Hall St Salvator's Hall (affectionately known as ''Sallies'') is a student Hall of residence at the University of St Andrews. It lies close to the quadrangle of the United College, St Andrews and St Salvator's Chapel, a foundation which was endowe ...

St Salvator's Hall
. American Bobby Jones, co-founder of the
Augusta National Golf Club Augusta National Golf Club, sometimes referred to as Augusta or the National, is a golf club A golf club is a club used to hit a golf ball A golf ball is a special ball designed to be used in the game of golf. Under the rules of golf, a g ...
and the
Masters Tournament The Masters Tournament (usually referred to as simply The Masters, or the U.S. Masters outside North America) is one of the four Men's major golf championships, major championships in Professional golf tours, professional golf. Scheduled for the ...

Masters Tournament
, was named a Freeman of the City of St Andrews in 1958, becoming only the second American to be so honoured, the other being Benjamin Franklin in 1759. Today a highly competitive scholarship exchange, The Robert T. Jones Scholarship, exists between St Andrews and
Emory University Emory University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two dec ...
in Atlanta. An undergraduate joint degree programme have been in place with the
College of William & Mary The College of William & Mary (also known as William & Mary, W&M, and officially The College of William and Mary in Virginia) is a public university, public research university in Williamsburg, Virginia. Founded in 1693 by letters patent issued ...
in Virginia that offers studies in some major areas. Links with the United States have been maintained into the present day and continue to grow. In 2009,
Louise Richardson Louise Mary Richardson Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, FRSE (born 8 June 1958 ) is an Irish political science, political scientist whose specialist field is the study of terrorism. In January 2016 she became the Vice Chancellor, Vice-Cha ...

Louise Richardson
, an Irish-American political scientist specialising in the study of terrorism, was drawn from Harvard to serve as the first female
Principal Principal may refer to: Title or rank * Principal (academia) The principal is the chief executive and the chief academic officer of a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher ...
and
Vice Chancellor A chancellor is a leader of a college or university, usually either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system A university system is a set of multiple affiliated universities and coll ...
of St Andrews. She later went on to her next appointment as the Vice Chancellor to the
University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the List of oldest universit ...
. Active recruitment of students from North America first began in 1984, with Americans now making up around 1 in 6 of the student population in 2017. Students from almost every state in the United States and province in Canada are represented. This is the highest proportion and absolute number of American students amongst all British universities. Media reports indicate growing numbers of American students are attracted to the university's academics, traditions, prestige, internationalism, and comparatively low
tuition fees Tuition payments, usually known as tuition in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English languag ...
. The university also regularly features as one of the few non-North American universities in the
Fiske Guide to Colleges The Fiske Guide to Colleges is an United States, American media company that publishes, ''inter alia'', rankings and analysis for more than 320 Higher education in the United States, U.S. colleges and universities. It is the best-selling college gui ...
, an American college guide, as a 'Best Buy'. St Andrews has developed a sizable alumni presence in the United States, with over 8000 alumni spread across all 50 states. Most major cities host alumni clubs, the largest of which is in New York. Both London and New York also host the St Andrews Angels, an alumni led angel investment network, which centres upon the wider university communities in both the United Kingdom and United States. St Andrews has also established relationships with other university alumni clubs and private membership clubs in the United States to provide alumni with social and networking opportunities. For example, alumni are eligible for membership at the
Princeton Club of New York The Princeton Club of New York is a private club located in Midtown Manhattan Midtown Manhattan is the central portion of the New York City borough of Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as the City and the urban core of the New Yo ...
, the
Penn Club of New York City The Penn Club of New York (usually referred to as The Penn Club) is an American private, social club located in the Midtown Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as the City and the urban core of the New York metropolitan area, is the ...
and the
Algonquin ClubImage:Algonquin Club facade, Boston.JPG, 250px, The Algonquin Club at 217 Commonwealth Avenue in Boston (2008) The Algonquin Club of Boston is a gentlemen's club, private social club in Boston, Massachusetts, founded in 1886 by a group including Gen ...

Algonquin Club
in Boston. In 2013,
Hillary Clinton Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton ( Rodham; born October 26, 1947) is an American politician, diplomat, lawyer, writer, and public speaker who served as the 67th United States secretary of state The United States secretary of state is an of ...

Hillary Clinton
, former United States Secretary of State, took part in the academic celebration marking the 600th anniversary of the founding of the University of St Andrews. Clinton received an honorary degree of Doctor of Laws and provided the graduation address, in which she said,


Governance and administration

As with the other ancient universities of Scotland, the governance of the university is determined by the
Universities (Scotland) Act 1858 A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior". Institutions can refer to mechanisms which govern the behavior Behavio ...
. This act created three bodies: the
General Council#REDIRECT General council {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation {{R ambig ...
, University Court and Academic Senate (''Senatus Academicus'').


General Council

The General Council is a standing advisory body of all the
graduates Graduation is the award of academic degree, or the ceremony that is sometimes associated with it. The date of the graduation ceremony is often called graduation day. The graduation ceremony is also sometimes called: commencement, convocation o ...
, academics and former academics of the university. It meets twice a year and appoints a business committee to manage business between these meetings. Its most important functions are to appoint two assessors to the University Court and elect the university's
chancellor Chancellor ( la, links=no, cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations. The original chancellors were the ''cancellarii Cancelli are lattice-work, placed before a window, a door-way, the tribunal o ...
.


University Court

The University Court is the body responsible for administrative and financial matters, and is in effect the governing body of the university. It is chaired by the
rector Rector (Latin for the member of a vessel's crew who steers) may refer to: Style or title *Rector (ecclesiastical), a cleric who functions as an administrative leader in some Christian denominations *Rector (academia), a senior official in an educ ...
, who is elected by the
matriculated Matriculation is the formal process of entering a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which award ...

matriculated
students of the University. Members are appointed by the General Council, Academic Senate and Fife Council. The President of the
Students' Association A students' union, also known by many other names, is a student organization present in many colleges, universities, and high schools. In higher education, the students' union is often accorded its own building on the campus, dedicated to social, ...
and Director of Education are ''ex officio'' members of the Court. Several
lay Lay may refer to: Places *Lay Range, a subrange of mountains in British Columbia, Canada *Lay, Loire, a French commune *Lay (river), France *Lay, Iran, a village *Lay, Kansas, United States, an unincorporated community People * Lay (surname) * L ...
members are also co-opted and must include a fixed number of alumni of the University.


''Senatus Academicus''

The Academic Senate (Latin ''Senatus Academicus'') is the supreme academic body for the university. Its members include all the professors of the university, certain senior readers, a number of
senior lecturer Senior lecturer is an academic rank. In the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Ireland, New Zealand, Australia, Switzerland, and Israel senior lecturer is a faculty position at a university or similar institution. The position is tenured and is ...
s and
lecturer Lecturer is an academic rank Academic rank (also scientific rank) is the rank of a scientist or teacher in a college, high school, university or research establishment. The academic ranks indicate relative importance and power of individua ...

lecturer
s and three elected student senate representatives – one from the arts and divinity faculty, one from the science and medicine faculty and one postgraduate student. It is responsible for authorising degree programmes and issuing all degrees to graduates, and for managing student discipline. The President of the Senate is the
University Principal The principal is the chief executive A chief executive officer (CEO), chief administrator, or just chief executive (CE), is one of a number of corporate executives in charge of managing an organization especially an independent legal entity ...
.


Office of the Principal

The Principal is the chief executive of the university and is assisted in that role by several key officers, including the Deputy Principal, Master of the United College and
Quaestor A ( , ; "investigator") was a public official in Ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest ...
. The principal has responsibility for the overall running of the university and presides over the University Senate.


Rector

In Scotland, the position of rector exists at the four
ancient universities The ancient universities are British and Irish medieval universities A medieval university was a Corporation#History, corporation organized during the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period last ...
(St Andrews,
Glasgow Glasgow ( ; sco, Glesga; gd, Glaschu) is the most populous city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia'' ...
,
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...
and
Edinburgh Edinburgh (; sco, Edinburgh; gd, Dùn Èideann ) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 Council areas of Scotland, council areas. Historically part of the county of Midlothian (interchangeably Edinburghshire before 1921), it is ...
) – as well as the
University of Dundee , mottoeng = "My soul doth magnify the Lord" , established = 1967 – gained independent university status A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary educa ...
. The post was made an integral part of these universities by the Universities (Scotland) Act 1889. The Rector of the University of St Andrews chairs meetings of the University Court, the governing body of the university; and is elected by the matriculated student body to ensure that their needs are adequately considered by the university's leadership. Through St Andrews' history a number of notable people have been elected to the post, including the actor
John Cleese John Marwood Cleese ( ; born 27 October 1939) is an English actor, comedian, screenwriter, and producer. Emerging from the Footlights, Cambridge Footlights in the 1960s, he first achieved success at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe and as a scrip ...

John Cleese
, industrialist and philanthropist
Andrew Carnegie Andrew Carnegie ( , November 25, 1835August 11, 1919) was a Scottish-American Scottish Americans or Scots Americans (Scottish Gaelic language, Scottish Gaelic: ''Ameireaganaich Albannach''; sco, Scots-American) are Americans whose ancestry ...

Andrew Carnegie
, author and poet
Rudyard Kipling Joseph Rudyard Kipling ( ; 30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936)''The Times ''The Times'' is a British daily Daily or The Daily may refer to: Journalism * Daily newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical pub ...

Rudyard Kipling
and the
British Prime Minister The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), b ...
Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery Archibald Philip Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, 1st Earl of Midlothian, (7 May 1847 – 21 May 1929) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of gover ...
.


Colleges

The university encompasses three
college A college (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in rel ...

college
s: United College, St Mary's College and St Leonard's College. The purpose of the colleges at St Andrews is mainly ceremonial, as students are housed in separate residential halls or private accommodations. United College is responsible for all students in the faculties of arts, sciences and medicine, and is based around St Salvator's Quadrangle. St Mary's College is responsible for all students studying in the Faculty of Divinity, and has its own dedicated site in St Mary's Quadrangle. St Leonard's College is now responsible for all postgraduate students.


Faculties and schools

The four academic faculties collectively encompass 18 schools. A
dean Dean may refer to: People * Dean (given name) * Dean (surname), a surname of Anglo-Saxon English origin * Dean (South Korean singer), a stage name for singer Kwon Hyuk * Dean Delannoit, a Belgian singer most known by the mononym Dean Title ...
is appointed by the Master of the United College to oversee the day-to-day running of each faculty. Students apply to become members of a particular faculty, as opposed to the school within which teaching is based. The faculties and their affiliated schools are: *Faculty of Arts: art history, classics, economics, English, film studies, history, international relations, management, modern languages, philosophy, social anthropology. * Faculty of Divinity: divinity. *
Faculty of Medicine A medical school is a tertiary educational institution, or part of such an institution, that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons. Such medical degrees include the Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surge ...
: medicine. *Faculty of Science: biology, chemistry, computer science, geography and geosciences, mathematics, physics and astronomy, psychology and neuroscience. Certain subjects are offered both within the Faculties of Arts and Sciences, the six subjects are: economics, geography, management, mathematics, psychology and sustainable development. The content of the subject is the same regardless of the faculty.


Academics


Semesters

The academic year at St Andrews is divided into two semesters,
Martinmas Saint Martin's Day, also called the Funeral of Saint Martin, Martinstag or Martinmas, as well as Old Halloween and Old Hallowmas Eve, is the Funeral day of Saint Martin of Tours In religious belief, a saint is a person who is recognized as hav ...
and
Candlemas Candlemas (also spelled Candlemass), also known as the Feast of the Presentation of Jesus Christ, the Feast of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and the Feast of the Holy Encounter, is a Christian Holy Day commemorating the presentatio ...
, named after two of the four Scottish Term and Quarter Days. Martinmas, on 11 November, was originally the feast of
Saint Martin of Tours Martin of Tours ( la, Sanctus Martinus Turonensis; 316 – 8 November 397) was the third bishop of Tours The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Tours (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch ...
, a 4th-century bishop and hermit. Candlemas originally fell on 2 February, the day of the feast of the Purification, or the Presentation of Christ. Martinmas semester runs from early September until mid-December, with examinations taking place just before the Christmas break. There follows an inter-semester period when Martinmas semester business is concluded and preparations are made for the new Candlemas semester, which starts in January and concludes with examinations at the end of May. Graduation is celebrated at the end of June.


Rankings and reputation

In the 2022 The Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide, St Andrews ranked as the best university in the UK, as the first university to ever top Oxford and Cambridge in a British ranking In a ranking conducted by ''The Guardian'' in 2009, St Andrews placed 5th in the UK for national reputation behind Oxford, Cambridge, Imperial & LSE. When size is taken into account, St Andrews ranks second in the world out of all small to medium-sized fully comprehensive universities (after
Brown University Brown University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two de ...

Brown University
) using metrics from the QS Intelligence Unit in 2015. The 2014
Research Excellence FrameworkThe Research Excellence Framework (REF) is a research impact evaluation of British higher education institutions. It is the successor to the Research Assessment Exercise and it was first used in 2014 to assess the period 2008–2013. REF is underta ...
ranked St Andrews 14th in the UK, and 2nd in Scotland, amongst multi-faculty institutions for the research quality (GPA) of its output profile. St Andrews was ranked 9th overall in ''The Sunday Times'' 10-year (1998–2007) average ranking of British universities based on consistent league table performance, and is a member of the '
Sutton 13 The Sutton Trust is an educational charity in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a sy ...
' of top ranked Universities in the UK. Nearly 86% of its graduates obtain a First Class or an Upper Second Class Honours degree. The ancient Scottish universities award
Master of Arts A Master of Arts ( la, Magister Artium or ''Artium Magister''; abbreviated MA or AM) is the holder of a master's degree A master's degree (from Latin ) is an academic degree awarded by University, universities or colleges upon completion of a ...
degrees (except for science students who are awarded a Bachelor of Science degree) which are classified upon graduation, in contrast to
Oxbridge Oxbridge is a portmanteau A portmanteau (, ) or portmanteau word (from "portmanteau (luggage) A portmanteau is a piece of luggage Baggage or luggage consists of bags, cases, and containers which hold a travel Travel is the move ...
where one becomes a Master of Arts after a certain number of years, and the rest of the UK, where graduates are awarded BAs. These can be awarded with honours; the majority of students graduate with honours. In 2017, St Andrews was named as the university with the joint second highest graduate employment rate of any UK university (along with
Warwick Warwick ( ) is a market town and the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use ...
), with 97.7 per cent of its graduates in work or further study three and a half years after graduation. St Andrews is placed 7th in the UK (1st in Scotland) for the employability of its graduates as chosen by recruiters from the UK's major companies with graduates expected to have the best graduate prospects and highest starting salaries in Scotland as ranked by The Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide 2016 and 2017. According to data released by the
Department for Education The Department for Education (DFE) is the UK government department responsible for child protection Child protection is the safeguarding of children from violence, exploitation, abuse, and neglect. Article 19 of the UN Convention on th ...
in 2018, St Andrews was rated as the 5th best university in the UK for boosting male graduate earnings with male graduates seeing a 24.5% increase in earnings compared to the average graduate, and the 9th best university for females, with female graduates seeing a 14.8% increase in earnings compared to the average graduate. An independent report conducted by Swedish investment firm, found that despite its small undergraduate body, St Andrews is the joint-5th best university in the UK for producing millionaires. A study by ''High Fliers'' confirmed this by reporting that the university also features in the top 5 of UK universities for producing self-made millionaires. According to a study by the Institute of Employment Research, St Andrews has produced more directors of
FTSE 100 The Financial Times Stock Exchange 100 Index, also called the FTSE 100 Index, FTSE 100, FTSE, or, informally, the "Footsie" , is a share index Image:Comparison of three stock indices after 1975.svg, 300px, A comparison of three major U.S. stock ...

FTSE 100
companies in proportion to its size than any other educational institution in Britain. In the 2019
Complete University Guide Complete may refer to: Logic * Completeness (logic) * Completeness of a theory, the property of a theory that every formula in the theory's language or its negation is provable Mathematics * The completeness of the real numbers, which implies ...
, 24 out of the 25 subjects offered by St Andrews rank within the top 10 nationally, making St Andrews one of only three multi-faculty universities (along with
Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a university city and the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' ...
and
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...
) in the UK to have over 95% of their subjects in the top 10. The Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide 2017 revealed that 24 of the 26 subjects offered by St Andrews ranked within the top 6 nationally with 10 subjects placing within the top 3 including English, Management, Philosophy, International Relations, Italian, Physics and Astronomy and Classics and Ancient History.
The Guardian ''The Guardian'' is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as ''The Manchester Guardian'', and changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers ''The Observer ''The Observer'' is a British newspaper published on Sun ...

The Guardian
University Guide 2019 ranked Biosciences, Computer Science, International Relations, Physics and Psychology first in the UK. Earth and Marine Sciences, Economics, English, Management, Mathematics, Philosophy and Theology placed within the top three nationally. In the 2015-16
Times Higher Education World University Rankings ''Times Higher Education World University Rankings'' is an annual publication of university ranking College and university rankings are rankings A ranking is a relationship between a set of items such that, for any two items, the first is e ...
, St Andrews is ranked 46th in the world for Social Sciences, 50th in the world for Arts and Humanities and 74th in the world for Life Sciences. The 2014 CWTS Leiden rankings, which "aims to provide highly accurate measurements of the scientific impact of universities", placed St Andrews 39th in the world, ranking it 5th domestically. The philosophy department is ranked 6th worldwide (3rd in Europe) in the 2020
QS World University Rankings ''QS World University Rankings'' is an annual publication of university rankings College and university rankings are rankings of institutions in higher education Higher education is tertiary education leading to award of an academic degree. H ...
whilst the graduate programme was ranked 17th worldwide (2nd in the UK) by the 2009 Philosophical Gourmet's biennial report on
Philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, language. Such questio ...

Philosophy
programs in the English-speaking world.


Admissions

The university receives applications mainly through
UCAS The Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS ) is a UK-based organisation whose main role is to operate the application process for British universities. It operates as an independent charity, funded by fees charged to applicants and ...
and the
Common Application The Common Application (informally known as the Common App) is an undergraduate College admissions in the United States, college admission College application, application that applicants may use to apply to any of more than 900 member colleges a ...
with the latest figures showing that there are generally 12 applications per undergraduate place available. Overall, the university is one of the most competitive universities in the UK, with 2016-17 having an acceptance rate of 8.35% and offer rate of 22.5% for Scottish/EU applicants where places are capped by the
Scottish Government The Scottish Government ( gd, Riaghaltas na h-Alba, ) is the Devolution in the United Kingdom, devolved government of Scotland. It was formed in 1999 as the Scottish Executive following the 1997 Scottish devolution referendum, 1997 referendum on S ...
. In 2017, the most competitive courses for Scottish/EU applicants were those within the Schools of International Relations, Management, and Economics and Finance with offer rates of 8.0%, 10.9% and 11.5% respectively. The standard offer of a place tends to require five best Highers equivalent to AAAAB, three best A-levels equivalent to AAA or a score of at least 38 points on the International Baccalaureate. Successful entrants have, on average, 525 UCAS points (the equivalent of just above A*A*AA at A Level) ranking it as the 5th highest amongst higher education institutions in the UK for the 2015 admissions cycle with '''' naming it as the hardest university into which to gain admission in Scotland. The university has one of the smallest percentages of students (13%) from lower income backgrounds, out of all higher education institutions in the UK. Around 40% of the student body is from
independent schools An independent school is independent in its finances and governance. Also known as private schools, non-governmental, privately funded, or non-state schools, they are not administered by local, state or national governments. In British Engli ...
and the university hosts the highest proportion of financially independent students (58%) in the UK. The university participates in widening access schemes such as the
Sutton Trust The Sutton Trust is an educational Charitable organization, charity in the United Kingdom which aims to improve social mobility and address educational disadvantage. The charity was set up by educational philanthropist Sir Peter Lampl in 1997 and ...
Summer School, First Chances Programme, REACH & SWAP Scotland, and Access for Rural Communities (ARC) in order to promote a more widespread uptake of those traditionally under-represented at university. In the seven-year period between 2008 and 2015, the number of pupils engaged with annual outreach programmes at the university has increased by about tenfold whilst the number of students arriving at St Andrews from the most deprived backgrounds has increased by almost 50 per cent in the past year of 2015. The university has a higher proportion of female than male students with a female ratio of 59.7% in the undergraduate population.


Lecture series

To commemorate the university's 600th anniversary the ''600th Lecture Series'' was commissioned in 2011, which brought diverse speakers such as former Prime Minister
Gordon Brown James Gordon Brown (born 20 February 1951) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is either the h ...

Gordon Brown
, naturalist
David Attenborough Sir David Frederick Attenborough (; born 8 May 1926) is an English broadcaster, natural historian Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμό ...

David Attenborough
and linguist
Noam Chomsky Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gesture ...

Noam Chomsky
to St Andrews. As part of the celebration of the 400th establishment of the King James Library, the ''King James Library lectures'' were initiated in 2009 on the subject of 'The Meaning of the Library'. The
Andrew Lang LectureThe Andrew Lang Lecture series is held at the University of St. Andrews. The lectures are named after Andrew Lang Andrew Lang (31 March 1844 – 20 July 1912) was a Scottish poet, novelist, literary critic, and contributor to the field of ant ...
series was initiated in 1927, and named for alumnus and poet
Andrew Lang Andrew Lang (31 March 1844 – 20 July 1912) was a Scottish poet, novelist, literary critic Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation Evaluation is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interactin ...

Andrew Lang
. The most famous lecture in this series is that given by J. R. R. Tolkien in March 1939, entitled 'Fairy Stories', but published subsequently as '
On Fairy-Stories "On Fairy-Stories" is an essay by J. R. R. Tolkien which discusses the fairy-story as a literary form. It was initially written (and entitled simply "Fairy Stories") for presentation by Tolkien as the Andrew Lang lectureThe Andrew Lang Lecture ...
'. The computing ''Distinguished Lecture Series'' was initiated in 1969 by Jack Cole.


Exchange programmes

St Andrews has developed student exchange partnerships with universities around the globe, though offerings are largely concentrated in North America, Europe, and Asia. Exchange opportunities vary by School and eligibility requirements are specific to each exchange program. In North America, the highly competitive Bachelor of Arts International Honours program, run in conjunction with
The College of William and Mary ''The'' () is a grammatical article in English, denoting persons or things already mentioned, under discussion, implied or otherwise presumed familiar to listeners, readers or speakers. It is the definite article in English. ''The'' is the mo ...
in
Williamsburg, Virginia Williamsburg is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routle ...
, allows students studying Classical Studies, Film Studies, International Relations, English, History, or Economics to spend two years at each institution and earn a joint degree from both. The Robert T. Jones Memorial Trust funds the Robert T. Jones Jr. Scholarship, which allows select St Andrews students to study, fully funded, for a year at
Emory University Emory University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two dec ...
in
Atlanta Atlanta () is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Georgia (U.S. state), most populous city of the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia. With an estimated 2019 population of 506,811, it is also the List of United ...

Atlanta
, and Western University and Queen's University in Canada. The Robert Lincoln McNeil Scholarship allows students to study at the
University of Pennsylvania The University of Pennsylvania (Penn or UPenn) is a in , Pennsylvania. The university, established as the College of Philadelphia in 1740, is one of the nine chartered prior to the . , Penn's founder and first president, advocated an edu ...

University of Pennsylvania
. One of the largest North American exchanges is with the
University of California The University of California (UC) is a public university, public Land-grant university, land-grant research university, research university system in the U.S. state of California. The system is composed of the campuses at University of Califor ...
system, in which students can study at
UC Berkeley The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization ...

UC Berkeley
, UC Los Angeles (UCLA), UC Santa Cruz (UCSC) and UC San Diego (UCSD). Other North American partners offering multiple exchanges include the
University of Virginia The University of Virginia (U.Va. or UVA) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisat ...

University of Virginia
, the
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC, UNC-Chapel Hill, North Carolina, Chapel Hill, or simply Carolina) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information f ...
,
Washington University in St. Louis Washington University in St. Louis (WashU, or WUSTL) is a private research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher ( ...

Washington University in St. Louis
,
Washington and Lee University , mottoeng = "Not Unmindful of the Future" , established = , type = Private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dus ...
,
Elon University Elon University is a private university in Elon, North Carolina, United States. Founded in 1889 as Elon College, Elon is organized into six schools, most of which offer bachelor's degrees and several of which offer master's degrees or professi ...
, and the
University of Toronto The University of Toronto (U of T or UToronto) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organ ...

University of Toronto
. Some exchanges are offered within specific research institutes at St Andrews, rather than across entire Schools. For example, the Handa Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence (CSTPV), within the School of International Relations, offers student exchanges in partnership with the
School of Foreign Service The Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service, or simply the SFS, is the school of international relations International relations (IR), international affairs (IA) or international studies (IS) is the scientific study of interactions ...
at
Georgetown University Georgetown University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly ...

Georgetown University
. St Andrews participates in the
Erasmus Programme The Erasmus Programme ("EuRopean Community Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students") is a European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are ...
and has direct exchanges with universities across Europe. For example, in France exchanges are offered at the
Sorbonne The Sorbonne ( , , ) is a building in the Latin Quarter The Latin Quarter of Paris (french: Quartier latin, ) is an area in the 5th and the 6th arrondissements of Paris The city of Paris is divided into twenty ''municipal arrondissem ...
,
Sciences Po The Paris Institute of Political Studies (french: Institut d'études politiques de Paris), commonly referred to as Sciences Po Paris or just Sciences Po (), is a ''Grandes écoles, grande école'' and ''grands établissements, grand établisseme ...
, and
University of Paris VI Pierre and Marie Curie University (french: link=no, Université Pierre-et-Marie-Curie), titled as UPMC from 2007 to 2017 and also known as Paris 6, was a public university, public research university in Paris, France, from 1971 to 2017. The univer ...
. In the Netherlands students can study at
Leiden University Leiden University (abbreviated as ''LEI''; nl, Universiteit Leiden) is a Public university, public research university in Leiden, Netherlands. Founded in 1575 by William the Silent, William, Prince of Orange as a reward to the city of Leiden for ...
and
Utrecht University Utrecht University (UU; nl, Universiteit Utrecht, formerly ''Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht'') is a public university, public research university in Utrecht, Netherlands. Established , it is one of the oldest universities in the Netherlands. In 2018, ...

Utrecht University
. Narrower exchanges include those with the
University of Copenhagen The University of Copenhagen ( da, Københavns Universitet, abbr. ''KU'') is a public university, public research university in Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. Founded in 1479, the University of Copenhagen is the second-oldest university in Sca ...

University of Copenhagen
, the
University of Oslo The University of Oslo ( no, Universitetet i Oslo; la, Universitas Osloensis) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization ...
, and
Trinity College Dublin , name_Latin = Collegium Sanctae et Individuae Trinitatis Reginae Elizabethae juxta Dublin , motto = ''Perpetuis futuris temporibus duraturam'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Ital ...

Trinity College Dublin
. Exchanges are also available for postgraduate research students, such as the opportunity for social scientists to study at the
European University Institute The European University Institute (EUI) is an international postgraduate Postgraduate education (graduate education in North America) involves learning and studying for Academic degree, academic or professional degrees, academic or professi ...
in Florence, Italy. More recently, St Andrews has developed exchanges with partners in Asia and Australia. Notable partners include the
University of Hong Kong The University of Hong Kong (abbreviated as HKU) is a public university, public research university in Hong Kong. Founded in 1911, its origins trace back to the Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese, which was founded in 1887. It is the ol ...

University of Hong Kong
and
Renmin University of China Renmin University of China, often referred to as RUC (), or colloquially Renda (), is a public university, public research university located in Haidian District of Beijing. RUC is classified as a Class A university under the Double First Class ...
,
National University of Singapore The National University of Singapore (NUS) is a national National may refer to: Common uses * Nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, ...
, and the
University of Melbourne The University of Melbourne is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (English in t ...

University of Melbourne
in Australia.


Buildings, collections and facilities

The University of St Andrews is situated in the small town of St Andrews in rural Fife, Scotland. The university has teaching facilities, libraries, student housing and other buildings spread throughout the town. Generally, university departments and buildings are concentrated on North Street, South Street, The Scores, and the North Haugh. The university has two major sites within the town. The first is the
United College, St Andrews The United College of St Salvator and St Leonard (commonly referred to as United College) is one of the two statutory colleges of the University of St Andrews in St Andrews, Scotland. It was founded in 1747 by the merger of St Salvator's College, ...
(also known as the Quad or St Salvator's) on North Street, which functions both as a teaching space and venue for student events, incorporating the Departments of Social Anthropology and Modern Languages. The second is
St Mary's College, St Andrews (In the Beginning was the Word) , established = , type = College A college (Latin: ''collegium'') is an educational institution or a University system, constituent part of one. A college may be a academic degree, degree-awarding Tert ...
, based on South Street, which houses the Schools of Divinity, Psychology and Neuroscience, as well as the King James Library. Several schools are located on The Scores including Classics, English, History, Philosophy, the School of Economics and Finance, and International Relations, as well as the Admissions department, the
Museum of the University of St Andrews The Museum of the University of St Andrews (MUSA) opened in October 2008 and is associated with the University of St Andrews (Aien aristeuein) , motto_lang = grc , mottoeng = Ever to ExcelorEver to be the Best , established = , type = Publi ...
, and the Principal's residence, University House. North Street is also the site of several departments including, the Principal's Office, Younger Hall, Department of Film Studies, and the University Library. The North Haugh is principally home to the Natural Sciences such as Chemistry, Physics, Biology, as well as Mathematics, Computer Science, Medicine and the School of Management.


Libraries and museums

The University of St Andrews maintains one of the most extensive Academic library, university library collections in the United Kingdom, which includes significant holdings of books, manuscripts, muniments and photographs. The library collection contains over a million volumes and over two hundred thousand rare and antique books. The university library was founded by King James VI in 1612, with the donation of 350 works from the royal collection, at the urging of George Gledstanes, the then chancellor of St Andrews, although the libraries of the colleges of St Leonard's College, St Salvator's College and St Mary's College had existed prior to this. From 1710 to 1837 the library functioned as a legal deposit library, and as a result has an extensive collection of 18th-century literature. The library's main building is located on North Street, and houses over 1,000,000 books. The library was designed by the architects Faulkner-Brown Hendy Watkinson Stonor based in North East England at Killingworth. Faulkner-Brown specialised in libraries and leisure facilities and also designed the National Library of Canada in Ottawa and the Robinson Library at Newcastle University In 2011 the main library building underwent a £7 million re-development. The historic King James library, built in 1643, houses the university's Divinity and Medieval history collections. In 2012 the university purchased the vacant Martyrs' Kirk on North Street, with the purpose of providing reading rooms for the Special Collections department and university postgraduate research students and staff. The university maintains several museums and galleries, open free to the public. Museum of the University of St Andrews, The Museum of the University of St Andrews (MUSA) opened in 2008 and displays some highlights of the university's extensive collection of over 100,000 artefacts. It displays objects relating both to the history of the university, such as its collection of 15th-century maces, and also unrelated objects, such as paintings by John Opie, Alberto Morrocco and Charles Sims (painter), Charles Sims. Several of the university's collections have been recognised as being of 'national significance for Scotland' by Museums Galleries Scotland. The Bell Pettigrew Museum houses the university's natural history collections. Founded in 1912, it is housed in the old Bute Medical School Building in St. Mary's Quad. Among its collections are the remains of several extinct species such as the dodo and Thylacine, Tasmanian tiger as well as fossilised fish from the nearby Dura Den, Fife, which when found in 1859 stimulated the debate on evolution.


Chapels

The University has two collegiate chapels. St Salvator's Chapel, The chapel of St Salvator's was founded in 1450 by James Kennedy (bishop), Bishop James Kennedy, and today it is a centre of university life. St Salvator's has a full peal of six bells, and is therefore the only university chapel in Scotland suitable for change ringing. The Chapel of St Leonard's is located in the grounds of the nearby St Leonards School. It is the university's oldest building, some parts dating from 1144 and is the smaller of the two chapels. St Salvator's and St Leonard's both have their own choirs, whose members are drawn from the student body.


Student halls

St Andrews is characterised amongst Scottish universities as having a significant number of students who live in Residential college, university-maintained accommodation. As of 2012, 52% of the student population live in university halls. The halls vary widely in age and character; the oldest, Deans Court dates from the 12th century, and the newest, Whitehorn Hall, built in 2018. They are built in styles from Gothic revival to brutalist. All are now co-educational and non-smoking, and several are catered. The university guarantees every first year student a place of accommodation, and many students return to halls in their second, third and final years at St Andrews. From September 2015 onward, students have had the option of living in alcohol-free flats in David Russell Apartments on the grounds of medical conditions that do not allow drinking or for religious reasons. Halls of residence include: * Agnes Blackadder Hall * Albany Park (demolished 2019-2021) * Andrew Melville Hall * David Russell Apartments * Fife Park Apartments * Gannochy House * Hamilton Hall (University of St Andrews), Hamilton Hall * John Burnet Hall * McIntosh Hall * Powell Hall (Postgraduate only) * St Regulus Hall *
St Salvator's Hall St Salvator's Hall (affectionately known as ''Sallies'') is a student Hall of residence at the University of St Andrews. It lies close to the quadrangle of the United College, St Andrews and St Salvator's Chapel, a foundation which was endowe ...

St Salvator's Hall
* University Hall (University of St Andrews), University Hall * Whitehorn Hall (addition to University Hall, 2018) * Angus and Stanley Smith Houses (Postgraduate only) * Deans Court (Postgraduate only) * St Gregory's (Postgraduate only) * Hepburn Hall


Renewable energy projects

Since 2013, the university's endowment has been invested under the Principles for Responsible Investment, United Nations Principles of Responsible Investment (UNPRI) initiative with a sustainable ethical policy enforced since 2007. The university has the target of being the UK's first carbon neutral university and has invested in creating two new macro-scale renewable energy sites. The Guardbridge Biomass Energy Centre will generate power using locally sourced wood-fuelled biomass, hot water will be transported to the university through underground pipes to heat and cool laboratories and student residences. The £25 million project is expected to save 10,000 tonnes of carbon annually and the university aims to establish the site as a knowledge exchange hub which would provide "missing link" facilities to allow research and discoveries made in university labs to be translated to working prototypes. Work began onsite in 2014 and the centre is expected to be operational by December 2015. In October 2013, the university received permission to build six medium-sized turbines at Kenly Wind Farm, near Boarhills. The wind farms are expected to be operational by 2017 and will bring an estimated £22 million boost to the local and national economy with 19,000 tonnes of carbon saved annually.


Student life


Students' Association

The University of St Andrews Students' Association is the organisation which represents the student body of the University of St Andrews. It was founded in 1885 and comprises the students' representative council (SRC) and the Student Activities Forum (SAF) (previously known as the Students' Services Council (SSC)). The Students' Association has 10 SRC subcommittees and 11 SAF subcommittees: SRC: Accommodation, Alumni, BAME Students' Network, Community Relations (ComRels), Disabled Students Network (DSN), Environment, Equal Opportunities (EqualOps), Life Long and Flexible Learners (Lifers), SaintsLGBT+, and Wellbeing. SAF: The Entertainments 'Ents' Committee, Charities Campaign, University of St Andrews Union Debating Society, Union Debating Society, STAR (St Andrews Radio), Mermaids Performing Arts Fund, Design Team, SVS (Student Voluntary Service), the Music Fund (prev. Music is Love), On the Rocks (an annual arts festival), Societies Committee, and the Postgraduate Society. Every matriculated student is automatically a member of each subcommittee. The Students' Association Building (informally known as ''the Union'') is located on St Mary's Place, St Andrews. Union facilities include a Blackwell UK, Blackwells bookshop, several bars and the University's Student Support Services. In 2013 the Students' Association Building underwent a refurbishment. The Students' Association is affiliated to, and a founding member of, the Coalition of Higher Education Students in Scotland but unlike many other students' unions in the UK is not a member of the National Union of Students (United Kingdom), National Union of Students, having most recently rejected membership in a referendum in November 2012.


Societies

St Andrews is home to over 200 student societies which cover a wide range of interests. The oldest student society in St Andrews is the University of St Andrews Celtic Society which has run continuously without mergers since 1796. It promotes Scottish culture to students of the university and the wider community. Currently it does this through Scottish Country Dance and Scottish Gaelic Language Classes. Its Scottish Country Dance activities are affiliated with the Royal Scottish Country Dance Society (RSCDS). All matriculated students are members of the "University of St Andrews Union Debating Society, Union Debating Society", a Debating society, student debating society that holds weekly public debates in Lower Parliament Hall, often hosts notable speakers, and participates in competitive debating in both national and international competitions. Its origins go back to the 1794 founding of the Literary Society, however its current form only dates back to the 1890 merger with the Classical Society. Since its roots can be traced back to 1794, it claims to be the oldest continuously-run student debating society in the world. There is a strong tradition of student media at St Andrews. The university's two newspapers are ''The Saint (UK newspaper), The Saint'', a fortnightly publication and ''The Stand'', an online publication founded in 2011. There is also the ''Foreign Affairs Review'' ran by the Foreign Affairs Society and the first legal publication in town - the ''St Andrews Law Review -'' was launched in 2020. There are also a number of smaller student publications including ''The Wynd'', a student-run magazine and ''The Regulus'', a student magazine focusing on politics and current affairs. In addition to this there are several student-led academic journals, most notably, ''Stereoscope Magazine'' which is focused on student photography and raising awareness of the university's historic photographic collection, ''Ha@sta'', an annual journal for those interested in art history, ''Aporia'', the journal of the Philosophy Society, and the ''Postgraduate Journal of Art History and Museum Studies''. The university's radio station is ''STAR radio'', an online station that broadcasts 24/7 during term time. ''Scoot Around'' is a literary-cultural magazine based in St Andrews with contributors from universities around the world.''The Sinner'' is an independent website and discussion forum set up by students of the university. The university's Music Society comprises many student-run musical groups, including the university's flagship symphony orchestra, wind band, and chorus. One of the oldest choirs in the university is the St Andrews University Madrigal Group, which performs a concert each term and has an annual summer tour. The A cappella, A Cappella Society represents all four a cappella groups at St Andrews: The Other Guys (University of St Andrews), The Other Guys, The Alleycats (University of St Andrews), The Alleycats, List of collegiate a cappella groups in the UK#The Accidentals, The Accidentals and List of collegiate a cappella groups in the UK#The Hummingbirds, The Hummingbirds. From 2009–2011, all four of these groups participated in The Voice Festival UK(VF-UK) competition, and The Other Guys, The Accidentals and The Alleycats all reached the London final. Student theatre at the University of St Andrews is funded by the Mermaids Performing Arts fund. There are regular dramatic and comedic performances staged at the Barron theatre. Blind Mirth is the university's Improvisational theatre, improvisational theatre troupe, which performs weekly in the town, and annually takes a production to the Edinburgh Fringe Festival. The Kate Kennedy Club plays a significant role in the life of the university, maintaining university traditions such as the Kate Kennedy Procession, in which students parade through the town dressed as eminent figures from the university's history, and organising social events such as the Opening and May balls. Founded in 1926, the club is composed of around thirty matriculated students, who are selected by the club's members. The club has received criticism from the university's former principal, Louise Richardson, and alumna the Duchess of Cambridge, Kate Middleton, over its previously male-only admission policy. In 2012, the club decided to allow female students to join. St Andrews is home to several other private clubs, such as The Kensington Club, founded in 1739 by Alexander Laird Balgonie and is an all-male dining club that organises private events for members. The St Andrews Fight Club hosts an annual boxing match, training 20 amateur boxers in an intensive course.


Sports clubs and the Athletic Union

The University of St Andrews Athletic Union is the student representative body for sport. Established in 1901, it is affiliated to British Universities and Colleges Sport, BUCS and encompasses around sixty sport clubs, who compete at both a recreational and high-performance level. A notable club is the University of St Andrews Rugby Football Club, which played a pivotal role in shaping the sport and has produced Scottish international players such as J. S. Thomson and Alfred Clunies-Ross. The university is currently going through a £14 million five-phase development of the student sports centre which will include a new 400-seat eight-court sports hall, a new reception area and expanded gym facilities. The Scottish Varsity, also known as the 'world's oldest varsity match', is played annually against the Edinburgh University RFC, University of Edinburgh.


Traditions


''Sponsio Academica''

In order to become a student at the university a person must take an oath in Latin at the point of matriculation, called the ''Sponsio Academica'', although this tradition now has been digitised and is agreed to as part of an online matriculation process. ''
'' In English:
We students who set down our names hereunder in all good faith make a solemn promise that we shall show due deference to our teachers in all matters relating to order and good conduct, that we shall be subject to the authority of the Senatus Academicus and shall, whatever be the position we attain hereafter, promote, so far as lies in our power, the profit and the interest in our University of St Andrews. Further, we recognise that, if any of us conducts ourselves in an unbecoming or disorderly manner or shows insufficient diligence in their studies and, though admonished, does not improve, it is within the power of the Senatus Academicus to inflict on such students a fitting penalty or even expel them from the University.


Gowns

One of the most conspicuous traditions at St Andrews is the wearing of academic dress, particularly the distinctive red undergraduate gown of the United College. Undergraduates in Arts and Science subjects can be seen wearing these garments at the installation of a rector or chancellor, at chapel services, on 'Pier Walks', at formal hall dinners, at meetings of the Union Debating Society, and giving tours to prospective students and visitors as well as on St Andrews Day. Divinity students wear a black undergraduate gown with a purple saltire cross on the left facing. Postgraduates wear the graduate gown or, as members of St Leonard College, may wear a black gown trimmed with burgundy, introduced for graduate students whose original university is without academic dress. (See Academic dress of the University of St Andrews.) St Mary's College Post Graduates, however, wear their graduate gown with a purple saltire cross on the left facing.


Bejant

Bejant is a term used to refer to first year male students; females being described as Bejantines. Second-year students are known as a Semis, a student in their third year may be referred to as a Tertian, and in their final year as a Magistrand. These terms are thought to be unique to St Andrews. When wearing their traditional red gowns, students in each year may be identified according to the way they wear their gowns. In the first year, the gown is worn on the shoulders, in the second year it is worn slightly off the shoulders. In the third year arts students wear their gowns off their left shoulders, and science students off their right shoulders. Finally, fourth years wear their gowns right down to their elbows, ready to shed their scarlet gowns for the black graduation gown. The gown is never to be joined at the top as this is considered bad luck.


Academic parents

The students of the university enjoy an unusual ''family tradition'' designed to make new students feel at home and build relationships within the student body. Traditionally, a Bejant or Bejantine acquires academic parents who are at least in their third year as students. These older students act as informal mentors in academic and social matters and it is not uncommon for such academic family ties to stretch well beyond student days. Tradition has it that a Bejant may ask a man to be his ''Senior Man'' but must be invited by a woman who is prepared to be his ''Senior Woman''. Similarly, a Bejantine may ask a male to be her Senior Man but there is no overt ''rule'' regarding how she acquires a Senior Woman. The establishment of these relationships begins at the very start of the first semester – with the aim of being in place ahead of Raisin Weekend.


Raisin Weekend

Raisin Weekend celebrates the relationship between the Bejants/Bejantines (first-year students) and their respective academic parents who, in St Andrews' tradition, guide and mentor them in their time at the university. It is traditionally said that students went up to study with a sack of oatmeal and a barrel of salt-herring as staple foods to last them a term and that, therefore, anything more exotic was seen as a luxury. In return for the guidance from academic parents a further tradition sprang up of rewarding these "parents" with a pound of raisins. Since the 19th century the giving of raisins was steadily transformed into the giving of a more modern alternative, such as a bottle of wine (although presents are now rarely expected). In return for the raisins or equivalent present, the parents give their "children" a formal receipt — the ''Raisin Receipt'' — composed in Latin. Over time this receipt progressively became more elaborate and often humorous. The receipt can be written on anything and is to be carried everywhere by the Bejant/Bejantine on the morning of Raisin Monday until midday. Raisin Weekend is held annually over the last weekend of October. Affairs often begin with a tea party (or similar) thrown by the mother(s) and then a pub-crawl or house party led by the father(s). It is fairly common for several academic families to combine in the latter stages of the revels. At midday all the First-Years gather in Quad of St Salvator's College to compare their receipts and also to be open to challenge from older students who may look for errors in the Latin of the receipt (an almost inevitable occurrence). Upon detection of such error(s) the bearer may be required to sing the Gaudeamus igitur, Gaudie. In more recent years the gathering has culminated in a shaving foam fight. Since 2014, the foam fight has been moved from St Salvator's Quad to the adjacent Lower College Lawn. Raisin Weekend has also become synonymous with binge drinking and a certain amount of humiliation of "academic children", commonly involving embarrassing costumes or drinking games. The University Students' Association provides a special First Aid hotline for Raisin Weekend.Archived a
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Cobblestones

Situated around the town of St Andrews are cobblestone markings denoting where Protestant martyrs were burnt at the stake. To students, the most notable of these is the cobblestone initials "PH" located outside the main gate of St Salvator's College. These cobblestones denote where Patrick Hamilton (martyr), Patrick Hamilton was martyred in 1528. According to student tradition, stepping on the "PH" will cause a student to become cursed, with the effect that the offender will fail his or her degree and so students are known to jump over the cobblestones when passing. The 'curse' is said to be lifted by participating in the May Dip.


May Dip

The May Dip is a student tradition held annually at dawn on May Day. Students usually stay awake until dawn, at which time they collectively run into the North Sea to the sound of Madrigal (music), madrigals sung by the University Madrigal Group. Students purportedly do so to cleanse themselves of any academic sins (which they may have acquired by stepping on the PH cobblestone) before they sit exams in May. In 2011, the event was "officially" moved by the Students' Association to East Sands in response to concerns for health and safety in its former location on Castle Sands.


Publications

The Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence (CSTPV), within the School of International Relations, publishes the online open-access journal ''Contemporary Voices: St Andrews Journal of International Relations'' (formerly ''Journal of Terrorism Research'').


Notable people


Alumni

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Notable University of St Andrews alumni include James II of Scotland, King James II of Scotland; United States Declaration of Independence signatory
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(1761); Governor General of Canada John Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll, John Campbell; discoverer of logarithms John Napier (1563); founder of the Church of Scotland and leader of the Protestant Reformation John Knox (1531); notable Leader of the Church of Scotland Thomas Chalmers; founder of and the first Chancellor of the University of Glasgow William Turnbull (bishop), William Turnbull; founder of the University of Edinburgh Robert Reid (bishop), Robert Reid; founder of the world's first commercial Trustee Savings Bank, savings bank Henry Duncan (minister), Henry Duncan (1823); journalist and politician during the French Revolution Jean-Paul Marat (1775 MD); inventor of beta-blockers, H2 receptor antagonists and Nobel Prize in Medicine winner James W. Black (1946 MB ChB); the 'father of military medicine' John Pringle (physician), Sir John Pringle, 1st Baronet; pioneer of the smallpox vaccine Edward Jenner (1792 MD);
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, (William Arthur Philip Louis; born 21 June 1982) is a member of the British royal family The British royal family comprises Queen Elizabeth II and her close relations. There is no strict legal or ...

Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
(2005) and
Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, (born Catherine Elizabeth Middleton; 9 January 1982) is a member of the British royal family The British royal family comprises Queen Elizabeth II and her close relations. There is no strict legal ...
(2005). Alumni in the fields of academia and education have gone on to found the University of Melbourne Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne Medical School (Anthony Brownless) and the Scottish Church College in Calcutta (Alexander Duff (missionary), Alexander Duff was also the first Scottish missionary to India), become the first Regent and first Principal of the University of Edinburgh (Robert Rollock), Dean of Harvard Divinity School (David N. Hempton, David Hempton), the Vice-chancellor (education), Vice Chancellors of Aberdeen University (Ian Diamond), University of Nottingham (Shearer West), Open University (Walter Perry was also the first Vice-Chancellor) and Sydney University (Gavin Brown (academic), Gavin Brown), Chancellor of the University of Maine system (James H. Page), provost of Eton College (Eric Anderson (educator), Eric Anderson), discoverer of the Berry Phase (Sir Michael Berry (physicist), Michael Berry) and inventor of the Leslie cube John Leslie (physicist), John Leslie. In business and finance, St Andrews graduates have become the Chief executive officer, CEOs of multinational companies including the Bank of Russia, BHP (Andrew Mackenzie (businessman), Andrew Mackenzie), BP (Robert Horton (businessman), Robert Horton), FanDuel (Nigel Eccles co-founded the company with fellow St Andrews graduate, Lesley Eccles), Rolls-Royce Holdings (John Rose (businessman), John Rose), Royal Dutch Shell (Bob Reid (executive), Robert Paul Reid), Tate & Lyle (Iain Ferguson (businessman), Iain Ferguson) and Royal Bank of Scotland (George Mathewson). Other notable businesspeople include Banker Olivier Sarkozy, Director of the Edinburgh Festival Fringe Alistair Moffat and the CEO of Scottish Rugby Union and ATP World Tour Finals Phil Anderton. Former St Andrews students active in politics and national intelligence include two Chief of the Secret Intelligence Service, Chiefs of MI6 and John Sawers, two deputy directors of the Secret Intelligence Service (MI6), George Kennedy Young and J. M. Bruce Lockhart, Secretary of State for Scotland Michael Forsyth, Baron Forsyth of Drumlean, Lord Forsyth (Forsyth is also former Deputy Chairman of JP Morgan Chase, JP Morgan), former First Minister of Scotland and leader of the Scottish National Party, SNP for over 20 years
Alex Salmond Alexander Elliot Anderson Salmond (; born 31 December 1954) is a Scottish politician serving as leader of the Alba Party The Alba Party is a Scottish nationalism, Scottish nationalist and Scottish independence, pro-independence political par ...

Alex Salmond
, former Cabinet Secretary (United Kingdom), Cabinet Secretary and Head of the Civil Service Sir
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, former Secretary of State for Defence Sir
Michael Fallon Sir Michael Cathel Fallon (born 14 May 1952) is a British politician who served as Secretary of State for Defence The secretary of state for defence, also referred to as the defence secretary, is a Secretary of State (United Kingdom), s ...
, Deputy Leader of the Liberal Democrats (UK), Liberal Democrats Malcolm Bruce and leader of the Christian Party (UK), Christian Party George Hargreaves (politician), James George Hargreaves. Outside of the UK, alumni include the Financial Secretary of Hong Kong credited with laying the foundations for Hong Kong's economic success John James Cowperthwaite, former Senior Director for European and Russian Affairs on the United States National Security Council, Fiona Hill (presidential advisor), Fiona Hill, David Holmes (diplomat), David Holmes (both were involved in the Impeachment inquiry against Donald Trump), and the first female cabinet minister in Egypt Hikmat Abu Zayd. Alumni have also gone on to serve as diplomats including the current Permanent Representative of the United Kingdom to the United Nations and former British Ambassador to China (2015-2020) Dame
Barbara Woodward Dame Barbara Janet Woodward (born 29 May 1961) is a British diplomat and China expert. She is the current Permanent Representative of the United Kingdom to the United Nations, having previously served as British Ambassador to China from 2015 t ...

Barbara Woodward
, former Ambassador to Russia (2008-2011) Dame Anne Pringle and Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin, Thomas Bruce who is known for the removal of the Elgin Marbles from the Parthenon. Alumni from the media and the arts include founder of ''Forbes'' magazine B. C. Forbes, founder of ''The Week'' Jolyon Connell, current Downing Street Director of Communications and former Controller of BBC World News Craig Oliver (British journalist), Craig Oliver, Political Editor of BBC Scotland Brian Taylor (journalist), Brian Taylor, BBC News presenter Louise Minchin, BBC Sport TV presenter Hazel Irvine, Primetime Emmy Award winning screenwriter David Butler (screenwriter), David Butler, Pulitzer Prize winning author James Michener, feminist writer Fay Weldon, musician The Pictish Trail and actors Siobhan Redmond, Crispin Bonham-Carter, Ian McDiarmid and Jonathan Taylor Thomas. Other notable alumni include 'father of the Tax per head, poll tax' Douglas Mason, founders of the Adam Smith Institute, Madsen Pirie and Eamonn Butler, former Lord Justice General William Cullen, Baron Cullen of Whitekirk, Lord Cullen, two currently sitting members of the Inner House, Ronald Mackay, Lord Eassie, Lord Eassie and Lynda Clark, Baroness Clark of Calton, Baroness Clark of Calton, one of the leading figures in the formation of the United States Golf Association Charles B. Macdonald, the captain of Tottenham Hotspur F.C. during its double-winning season Danny Blanchflower, and the wildlife conservationist Saba Douglas-Hamilton. The university also boasts of a rich roll of honorary graduates whose members vary from Benjamin Franklin to
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Hillary Clinton
, from Bob Dylan to Arvo Pärt, from Maggie Smith to Sean Connery, from Nora K. Chadwick to
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Noam Chomsky
, from Joseph Stevenson to Lisa Jardine, from Seamus Heaney to Bahram Beyzai, from Georg Cantor to
David Attenborough Sir David Frederick Attenborough (; born 8 May 1926) is an English broadcaster, natural historian Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμό ...

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.


Academics

Notable University of St Andrews faculty include Nobel Prize in Medicine winner Maurice Wilkins (Lecturer in Physics 1945-46) and discoverer of herring bodies Percy Theodore Herring (Chandos Chair of Medicine and Anatomy 1908-1948). The Morris water navigation task was developed by Richard G. Morris, Richard Morris at the university's Gatty Marine Laboratory. ;Anthropology *Paloma Gay y Blasco *Peter Gow (anthropologist), Peter Gow *Ladislav Holý *Joanna Overing ;Biology *Struther Arnott *Maria Dornelas *Patrick Geddes *Tracey Gloster *Adrian Horridge *Susan D. Healy *D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson ;Business and Management *Meaghan Delahunt *Robert Gray (accountancy academic), Robert Gray ;Chemistry *Peter Bruce *Rebecca Goss (chemist), Rebecca Goss *Norman Haworth *James Irvine (chemist), James Irvine *Russell E. Morris, Russell E Morris *James Naismith (chemist), James H Naismith *Catherine Steele *Michael Bühl ;Classics *Walter Burkert *Lewis Campbell (classicist), Lewis Campbell *Chris Carey *John Craig (classicist), John Craig *James Donaldson (classical scholar), James Donaldson *Stephen Halliwell (academic), Stephen Halliwell *Wallace Lindsay *William Lorimer (scholar), William Lorimer ;Computer Science * Jack Cole *Ian Gent ;Divinity *John Adamson (minister), John Adamson *Mario Aguilar (academic), Mario Aguilar *Robert Arnot *Donald Macpherson Baillie *Robert Baron (theologian), Robert Baron *Richard Bauckham *Matthew Black *Ian Bradley *David Brown (theologian), David Brown *Thomas Chalmers *Nicol Dalgleish *Ivor Davidson *George Duncan (Biblical scholar), George Duncan *Philip Esler *Timothy Gorringe *James Haldenston *Robert Halliday (bishop), Robert Halliday *Daphne Hampson *Alexander Henderson (theologian), Alexander Henderson *George Hill (minister), George Hill *N. T. WNicholas Thomas Wright ;Economics *Ralph Harris, Baron Harris of High Cross *David A. Jaeger *Clara Ponsatí i Obiols ;Engineering *Angus Robertson Fulton ;English, Literature, and Poetry *Michael J. Alexander *Meg Bateman *John Burnside (writer), John Burnside *Robert Crawford (Scottish poet), Robert Crawford *Douglas Dunn *Roger Lancelyn Green *Robert Irwin (writer), Robert Irwin *Kathleen Jamie *John Johnston (poet), John Johnston *A. L. Kennedy *William Angus Knight *Don Paterson ;Languages and Linguistics *Peter Branscombe *George Hadow ;Geology *Christopher Hawkesworth ;History and Art History *G.W.S. Barrow *Robert Bartlett (historian), Robert Bartlett *Alison Beach *Paul Bibire *Michael Brown (historian), Michael Brown *George Buchanan *Nora K. Chadwick *Barrie Dobson *Norman Gash *John Guy (historian), John Guy *Robert Kerr Hannay *John Hudson (historian), John Hudson *Martin Kemp (art historian), Martin Kemp *John Philipps Kenyon *Hamish Scott (historian), Hamish Scott *Alex Woolf *Tomasz Kamusella ;International Relations and Politics *Bruce Hoffman *John Lindsay of Balcarres, Lord Menmuir *Hew Strachan *David Veness *Paul Wilkinson (political scientist), Paul Wilkinson ;Mathematics and Astronomy *John Couch Adams *Rosemary A. Bailey *Kenneth Falconer (mathematician), Kenneth Falconer *Eric Priest *James Gregory (mathematician), James Gregory *John Mackintosh Howie *Douglas Samuel Jones *Peter Cameron (mathematician), Peter Cameron ;Media and Film Studies *Dina Iordanova ;Medicine and Physiology *John Adamson (physician), John Adamson *Oswald Taylor Brown *George Edward Day *Margaret Fairlie *John Forfar *Percy Theodore Herring *Robert Hunter (physician), Robert Hunter *Joseph Fairweather Lamb ;Philosophy and Logic *Thomas Spencer Baynes *Piers Benn *Bernard Bosanquet (philosopher), Bernard Bosanquet *C. D. Broad *Sarah Broadie *Herman Cappelen *Gershom Carmichael *Laurence Jonathan Cohen *James Main Dixon *James Drever *James Frederick Ferrier *John Joseph Haldane *Bob Hale (philosopher), Bob Hale *Geoffrey Hunter (logician), Geoffrey Hunter *Malcolm Knox *John Major (philosopher), John Major *Graham Priest *John Skorupski *George Stout *Crispin Wright ;Physics and Astronomy *H. Stanley Allen *John F. Allen *Adam Anderson (physicist), Adam Anderson *Michael Berry (physicist), Sir Michael Berry *David Brewster *Charles Coulson *Dirk ter Haar *Emilios T. Harlaftis *Alan Hood *Thomas F Krauss *Johannes Kuenen * Andrew P. Mackenzie Fellow of the Royal Society, FRS ;Psychology *W. Tecumseh Fitch, William Fitch *Kay Redfield Jamison *Malcolm Jeeves ;Zoology *Ian L. Boyd *H. G. Callan *William Thomas Calman


In popular culture

The University of St Andrews has appeared in or been referenced by a number of popular media works, in film and literature.


Film

* West Sands Beach in St Andrews was used as a location for the film ''Chariots of Fire'' (1981), the scene, in which several of the main characters run along the beach, has become widely recognised and one of the most famous scenes in British film history. * The student hall, Andrew Melville Hall, was used for location shooting of the Never Let Me Go (2010 film), 2010 film adaptation of Kazuo Ishiguro's novel, ''Never Let Me Go (novel), Never Let Me Go'' starring Keira Knightley and Carey Mulligan.


Literature

* In Enid Blyton's ''Malory Towers'' novel series, the main heroine Darrell Rivers plans to attend the University of St Andrews after Sixth Form with some of her fellow characters. * St Andrews appeared in
Samuel Johnson Samuel Johnson (18 September 1709  – 13 December 1784), often called Dr Johnson, was an English writer who made lasting contributions as a poet, playwright, essayist, moralist, critic A critic is a person who communicates an asse ...
's Travel literature, travel narrative ''A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland'' (1775), in which he visited the University. * Bruce Marshall's romance novel, ''Girl in May'' (1956), is set in St Andrews. * Adam Nevill's horror novel ''Banquet for the Damned'' (2004) takes place in St Andrews. * Jay Parini's memoir ''Borges and Me'' (2020) recounts the author's road trip from St Andrews to the Highlands with Jorge Luis Borges.


See also

* :Academics of the University of St Andrews * Chancellor of the University of St Andrews * St Andrews Cathedral * List of medieval universities * Gaudy * Town and gown


Notes


References


Sources

* R.G. Cant ''The University of St Andrews, A Short History'' (Oliver and Boyd Ltd. 1946)


External links

*
University of St Andrews Students' Association Website

Research@StAndrews:FullText
the university's digital repository of research output * BBC Your Paintings
Public Catalogue Foundation
{{DEFAULTSORT:St Andrews, University Of University of St Andrews, 1413 establishments in Scotland Education in Fife Educational institutions established in the 15th century Universities in Scotland 15th-century establishments in Scotland Universities UK