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The University of Oslo ( no, Universitetet i Oslo; la, Universitas Osloensis) is a
public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth Engli ...
research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in v ...
located in
Oslo Oslo ( , , or ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and small ...

Oslo
,
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language Norwegian (Norwegian: ''norsk'') is a Nort ...

Norway
. It is the
oldest university
oldest university
in Norway. The
Academic Ranking of World Universities The ''Academic Ranking of World Universities'' (''ARWU''), also known as the Shanghai Ranking, is one of the annual publications of world university ranking College and university rankings are rankings A ranking is a relationship between a set ...

Academic Ranking of World Universities
ranked it the 58th best university in the world and the third best in the
Nordic countries The Nordic countries (also known as the Nordics or ''Norden''; lit. 'the North') are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impac ...

Nordic countries
. In 2016, the
Times Higher Education World University Rankings ''Times Higher Education World University Rankings'' is an annual publication of university ranking College and university rankings are rankings A ranking is a relationship between a set of items such that, for any two items, the first is e ...
listed the university at 63rd, making it the highest ranked Norwegian university. Until 1 January 2016 it was the largest Norwegian institution of higher education in terms of size, now surpassed only by the
Norwegian University of Science and Technology The Norwegian University of Science and Technology ( no, Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet, NTNU) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an indiv ...
. The university has approximately 27,700 students and employs around 6,000 people. Its faculties include (
Lutheran Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism that identifies with the teachings of Jesus Christ and was founded by Martin Luther, a 16th-century German monk and Protestant Reformers, reformer whose efforts to reform the theology ...
) theology (with the Lutheran
Church of Norway The Church of Norway ( nb, Den norske kirke, nn, Den norske kyrkja, se, Norgga girku, sma, Nöörjen gærhkoe) is an evangelical Lutheran Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christiani ...
having been Norway's
state church A Christian state is a country that recognizes a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachin ...
since 1536), law, medicine,
humanities Humanities are academic disciplines An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. ...

humanities
, mathematics,
natural science Natural science is a branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or ph ...

natural science
s,
social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist o ...

social science
s,
dentistry Dentistry, also known as dental medicine and oral medicine, is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the mouth, oral cavity (the mouth), commonly in the ...

dentistry
, and education. The university's original
neoclassical Neoclassical or neo-classical may refer to: * Neoclassicism or New Classicism, any of a number of movements in the fine arts, literature, theatre, music, language, and architecture beginning in the 17th century ** Neoclassical architecture, an arc ...
campus is located in the centre of Oslo; it is currently occupied by the
Faculty of Law A faculty is a division within a university or college comprising one subject area or a group of related subject areas, possibly also delimited by level (e.g. undergraduate). In American usage such divisions are generally referred to as colleges ...
. Most of the university's other faculties are located at the newer
Blindern Blindern is the main campus File:Université Laval.svg, Map of the main campus of Université Laval in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. A campus is traditionally the land on which a college or university and related institutional buildings are sit ...
campus in the suburban
West End West End most commonly refers to: * West End of London, an area of central London, England * West End theatre, a popular term for mainstream professional theatre staged in the large theatres of London, England West End may also refer to: Place ...
. The Faculty of Medicine is split between several university hospitals in the Oslo area. The university also includes some formally independent, affiliated institutes such as the
Centre for International Climate and Environmental Research The CICERO Center for International Climate Research (abbreviated CICERO; no, CICERO Senter for klimaforskning) is an interdisciplinary research centre for climate research and environmental science/environmental studies in Oslo. CICERO was establ ...
(CICERO),
NKVTS The Norwegian Centre for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies ( no, Nasjonalt kunnskapssenter om vold og traumatisk stress, NKVTS) is a research centre in Oslo, Norway Norway ( nb, ; nn, ; se, Norga; smj, Vuodna; sma, Nöörje), o ...
 and the Frisch Centre. The university was founded in 1811 and was modeled after the
University of Copenhagen The University of Copenhagen ( da, Københavns Universitet, abbr. ''KU'') is a public university, public research university in Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. Founded in 1479, the University of Copenhagen is the second-oldest university in Sca ...

University of Copenhagen
and the recently established
University of Berlin Humboldt University of Berlin (german: Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, abbreviated HU Berlin) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an ...
. It was originally named for King
Frederick VI of Denmark Frederick VI (Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of Denmark * Danish people or Danes, people with a Danish ancestral or ...

Frederick VI of Denmark
and Norway, and received its current name in 1939. The university is informally also known as ''Universitetet'' ("the university"), having been the only university in Norway, until 1946 and was commonly termed "The Royal Frederick's" (''Det Kgl. Frederiks''), before the name change. The
Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prize The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel Alfred Bernhard Nobel ( , ; 21 October 1833 – 10 Decemb ...
was awarded in the university's Atrium, from 1947 to 1989 and will be so again in 2020, making it the only university in the world to be involved in awarding a Nobel Prize. Since 2003, the Abel Prize is awarded in the Atrium. Five researchers affiliated with the university have been Nobel laureates and three have been Turing Award winners.


History


Early history

In 1811, a decision was made to establish the first university in the Dano-Norwegian Union, after an agreement was reached with King Frederik VI, who had earlier believed that such an institution might encourage political separatist tendencies. In 1813, The Royal Frederik's University was founded in Christiania (later renamed Oslo), a small city at that time. Circumstances then changed dramatically one year into the commencement of the university, as Norway proclaimed independence. However, independence was somewhat restricted, as Norway was obliged to enter into a legislative union with Sweden based on the outcome of the War of 1814. Norway retained its own constitution and independent state institutions, although royal power and foreign affairs were shared with Sweden. At a time when Norwegians feared political domination by the Swedes, the new university became a key institution that contributed to Norwegian political and cultural independence. The main initial function of The Royal Frederick University was to educate a new class of upper-echelon civil servants, as well as parliamentary representatives and government ministers. The university also became the centre for a survey of the country—a survey of culture, language, history and folk traditions. The staff of the university strove to undertake a wide range of tasks necessary for developing a modern society. Throughout the 1800s, the university's academic disciplines gradually became more specialised. One of the major changes in the university came during the 1870s when a greater emphasis was placed upon research, the management of the university became more professional, academic subjects were reformed, and the forms of teaching evolved.
Classical Classical may refer to: European antiquity *Classical antiquity, a period of history from roughly the 7th or 8th century B.C.E. to the 5th century C.E. centered on the Mediterranean Sea *Classical architecture, architecture derived from Greek and ...

Classical
education came under increasing pressure. When the union with Sweden was dissolved in 1905, the university became important for producing highly educated experts in a society which placed increasing emphasis on ensuring that all its citizens enjoy a life of dignity and security. Education, health services and public administration were among those fields that recruited personnel from the university's graduates.


1900–1945

Research changed qualitatively around the turn of the century as new methods, scientific theories and forms of practice changed the nature of research. It was decided that teachers should arrive at their posts as highly qualified academics and continue academic research alongside their role as teachers. Scientific research—whether to launch or test out new theories, to innovate or to pave the way for discoveries across a wide range of disciplines—became part of the increased expectations placed on the university. Developments in society created a need for more and more specialised and practical knowledge, not merely competence in theology or law, for example. The university strove to meet these expectations through increasing academic specialisation. The position of rector was established by Parliament in 1905 following the Dissolution of the Union. Waldemar Christofer Brøgger was Professor of Geology and became the university's first rector. Brøgger vacillated between a certain pessimism and a powerfully energetic attitude regarding how to procure finances for research and fulfill his more general funding objectives. With the establishment of the national research council after World War II, Brøgger's vision was largely fulfilled; research received funding independent of teaching. This coincided with a massive rise in student enrollment during the 1960s, which again made it difficult to balance research with the demands for teaching. In the years leading up to 1940, research was more strongly linked with the growth of the nation, with progress and self-assertion; research was also seen to contribute to Norway's commitment to international academic and cultural development. During the period after World War I, research among Norwegian researchers resulted in two Nobel prizes. The
Nobel prize in Economics The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, officially the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel ( sv, Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), is an economics award administered ...
was awarded to
Ragnar Frisch Ragnar Anton Kittil Frisch (3 March 1895 – 31 January 1973) was an influential Norwegian Norwegian, Norwayan, or Norsk may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Norway, a country in northwestern Europe *Norwegians, both a nation and an ...
. The Nobel prize in Chemistry was awarded to
Odd Hassel Odd Hassel (17 May 1897 – 11 May 1981) was a Norwegian physical chemistry, physical chemist and Nobel Laureate. Biography Hassel was born in Oslo, Kristiania (now Oslo), Norway. His parents were Ernst Hassel (1848–1905), a gynaecology, g ...

Odd Hassel
. In the field of linguistics, several Norwegian researchers distinguished themselves internationally. Increased research activity during the first half of the 1900s was part of an international development that also included Norway. Student enrollment doubled between 1911 and 1940, and students were recruited from increasingly broad geographical, gender and social bases. The working class was still largely left behind, however. During the German occupation, which lasted from 1940–1945, the university rector,
Didrik Arup Seip Didrik Arup Seip (31 August 1884 – 3 May 1963) was a professor of North Germanic languages at the University of Oslo. He earned his doctorate (dr.philos.) in 1916 and was appointed professor the same year, retiring in 1954. Together with Herman ...
, was imprisoned. The university was then placed under the management of Adolf Hoel, a NS (Norwegian Nazi Party) appointee. A number of students participated in the
Norwegian resistance movement The Norwegian resistance (Norwegian language, Norwegian: ''Motstandsbevegelsen'') to the German occupation of Norway, occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany began after Operation Weserübung in 1940 and ended in 1945. It took several forms: *As ...
; after fire was set in the university auditorium, Reich Commissar Terboven ordered the university closed and the students arrested. A number of students and teachers were detained by the Germans nearly until the end of the war.


1945–2000

After WWII, public authorities made loans available to students whose families were unable to provide financial assistance; the State Educational Loan Fund for Young Students was established in 1947. As a result, the post-war years saw a record increase in student numbers. Many of these students had been unable to begin their studies or had seen their studies interrupted because of the war; they could now enroll. For the 1945 autumn semester, 5951 students registered at the university. This represented the highest student enrollment at UiO up to that time. In 1947, the number had risen to more than 6000 students. This represented a 50 per cent increase in the number of students compared to the number enrolled before the war. In no prior period had one decade brought so many changes for the university as the 1960s. The decade represented an unparalleled period of growth. From 1960 to 1970, student enrollment tripled, rising from 5,600 to 16,800. This tremendous influx would have been enough in itself to transform the way the university was perceived, from both the inside and the outside. As it turned out, the changes were even more comprehensive. The university campus at Blindern was expanded, and the number of academic and administrative employees rose. The number of academic positions doubled, from fewer than 500 to around 1,200. The increase in the number of students and staff transformed traditional forms of work and organisation. The expansion of the Blindern complex allowed the accommodation of 7,000 students. The explosive rise in student numbers during the 1960s impacted the Blindern campus in particular. The faculties situated in central Oslo—Law and Medicine—experienced only a doubling in student enrollment during the 1960s, while the number of students in the humanities and social sciences tripled. By 1968, revolutionary political ideas had taken root in earnest among university students. The "Student Uprising" became a turning point in the history of universities throughout the western world. Often, the outlook for students in the 1960s was bleak. More than ever before came from non-academic backgrounds and had few role models. The "University of the Masses" was unable to lift all its students to the "lofty, elite positions" enjoyed by prior generations of academics. Many students dissociated themselves, therefore, from the so-called "establishment" and from the way it functioned. Many were impatient and wanted to use their knowledge to change society. It was thought that academics should stand in solidarity with the underprivileged. The most fundamental change in the student population was the increasing proportion of women students. Throughout the 1970s, the number of women increased until it made up the majority of students. At the same time, the university became a centre for the organised
women's liberation movement The women's liberation movement (WLM) was a political alignment of women and feminist Feminism is a range of social movements and ideology, ideologies that aim to define and establish the political, economic, personal, and social gender ...
, which emerged in the 1970s. Up until the millennium, the number of students enrolled at the university rose exponentially. In 1992, UiO implemented a restriction on admissions for all of its faculties for the first time. A large part of the explanation for the high student numbers was thought to be found in the poor job market. In 1996, there were 38,265 students enrolled at UiO. This level was approximately 75 per cent above the average during the 1970s and 1980s. The strong rise in student numbers during the 1990s was attributed partly to the poor labour market.


Hierarchy

The highest position at the university is Professor, i.e. "full Professor." In Norway, the title "Professor," which is protected by law, is only used for full professors. Before 1990, all professors were appointed for life to their
chairs One of the basic pieces of furniture Furniture refers to movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating (e.g., chairs, stools, and sofas), eating (table (furniture), tables), and sleeping (e.g., beds). Furn ...
by the
King-in-Council The King-in-Council or the Queen-in-Council, depending on the gender Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between femininity Femininity (also called womanliness or girlishness) is a set of attribut ...
, i.e. by the
King King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, queen, which title is also given to the queen consort, consort of a king. *In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contempora ...
upon the advice of the
Cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent glass sheets or transparent polycarbonate sheets * Filing ...
. The position below Professor was historically Docent (translated as Reader in a UK context and Professor in an American context). In 1985, all Docents became full professors. The most common positions below that are '' førsteamanuensis'' (translated as Associate Professor), and ''
amanuensis An amanuensis () is a person employed to write or type what another dictates or to copy what has been written by another, and also refers to a person who signs a document on behalf of another under the latter's authority. The term is often used ...
'' or ''universitetslektor'' (translated as Lecturer or Assistant Professor). At the University of Oslo, almost all new permanent positions are announced at the Associate Professor level; an associate professor may apply for promotion to full professor if he or she holds the necessary competence. Additionally, there are temporary, qualifying positions such as ''stipendiat'' (Research Fellow) and ''postdoktor'' (Postdoctoral Fellow). A small number of employees with few or no teaching obligations hold the special research career pathway ranks ''researcher'', ''senior researcher'' and ''research professor'', which correspond to assistant professor, associate professor and professor, respectively. Several other less common academic positions also exist. Historically, only professors had the right to vote and be represented in the governing bodies of the university. Originally, all professors were automatically members of the ''Collegium Academicum'', the highest governing body of the university, but soon afterwards its membership was limited. Docents were granted the right to vote and be represented in 1939 and other academics and students in 1955. In 1975, the technical-administrative support staff was also granted the right to vote and be represented in certain bodies, as the last group. Formerly by law, and now by tradition, the highest positions, such as Rector or Dean, are only held by professors. They are elected by the academic community (academics and students) and by the technical-administrative support staff, but the votes of the academics carry significantly more weight.


Faculties

The university's research structure consists of eight schools, or "faculties." They are the Faculties of Dentistry, Educational Sciences, Humanities, Law, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Medicine, Social Sciences and Theology. The university's old campus, strongly influenced by Prussian architect
Karl Friedrich Schinkel Karl Friedrich Schinkel (13 March 1781 – 9 October 1841) was a Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging t ...
's
neoclassical Neoclassical or neo-classical may refer to: * Neoclassicism or New Classicism, any of a number of movements in the fine arts, literature, theatre, music, language, and architecture beginning in the 17th century ** Neoclassical architecture, an arc ...
style, is located in the centre of Oslo near the
National TheatreNational Theatre or National Theater may refer to: Africa *National Arts Theatre, Lagos, Nigeria *Ethiopian National Theatre, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia *National Theatre of Ghana, Accra, Ghana *Kenya National Theatre, Nairobi, Kenya *National Theatre of ...

National Theatre
, the
Royal Palace This is a list of royal palaces, sorted by continent. Africa * Abdin Palace, Cairo * Al-Gawhara Palace, Cairo * Koubbeh Palace, Cairo * Tahra Palace, Cairo * Menelik Palace * National Palace (Ethiopia), Jubilee Palace * Guenete Leul Palace ...

Royal Palace
and the
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...

Parliament
. The old campus was then occupied by the
Faculty of Law A faculty is a division within a university or college comprising one subject area or a group of related subject areas, possibly also delimited by level (e.g. undergraduate). In American usage such divisions are generally referred to as colleges ...
and most of the other faculties have been transferred to the
Blindern Blindern is the main campus File:Université Laval.svg, Map of the main campus of Université Laval in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. A campus is traditionally the land on which a college or university and related institutional buildings are sit ...
campus in the suburban
West End West End most commonly refers to: * West End of London, an area of central London, England * West End theatre, a popular term for mainstream professional theatre staged in the large theatres of London, England West End may also refer to: Place ...
, erected in the 1930s. The Faculty of Medicine is split between several university hospitals in the Oslo area.


Theology

The Faculty of Theology sponsors 8 research groups in the following fields: * The New Testament * Historical Protestantism * Interreligious studies * Jewish Religion and Literature in Persian and Hellenistic Periods * Canon and Canonicalization * Gender, Theology and Religion * Professional Ethics, Diaconal Science and Practical Theology * Religious Esthetics


Law

* Centre for European Law * Department of Criminology and the Sociology of Law * Department of Private Law * Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law (NRCCL) * Department of Public and International Law * Norwegian Centre for Human Rights * Scandinavian Institute of Maritime Law


Medicine

* Institute of Health and Society * Institute of Basic Medical Sciences * Institute of Clinical Medicine Centres of Excellence: * Norwegian Centre for Mental Disorders Research (NORMENT) * Centre for Immune Regulation (CIR) * Centre for Cancer Biomedicine (CCB)


Humanities

The Faculty of Humanities is the University of Oslo's largest faculty, and has approximately 8000 students and 917 employees. * Department of Archaeology, Conservation and History * Department of Cultural Studies and Oriental Languages * Department of Philosophy, Classics, History of Art and Ideas * Department of Literature, Area Studies and European Languages * Department of Linguistics and Scandinavian Studies * Department of Media and Communication * Department of Musicology * Centre for Ibsen Studies * Centre for the Study of Mind in Nature * The Norwegian University Centre in St. Petersburg * The Norwegian Institute in Rome * Centre for French-Norwegian research cooperation within the social sciences and the humanities * Center for Development and Environment


Mathematics and natural sciences

* Department of Biosciences * Department of Chemistry * Department of Geosciences * Department of Informatics * Department of Mathematics * Department of Physics * Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics * Department of Pharmacy * Department of Technology Systems * Centre for Entrepreneurship * Centre for Earth Evolution and Dynamics (CEED) * Centre for Material sciences and Nanotechnology (SMN) * Centre of Mathematics for Applications (CMA) * Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis (CEES) * Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry (CTCC) * Centre for Innovative Natural Gass Processes and Products (inGAP) * Centre for Accelerator Based Research and Energy Physics (SAFE)


Dentistry

* Institute of Oral Biology * Institute of Clinical Dentistry


Social sciences

* Department of Sociology and Human Geography * Department of Political Science * Department of Psychology * Department of Social Anthropology * Department of Economics * Centre for technology, innovation and culture * ARENA – Centre for European Studies * Centre of Equality, Social Organization, and Performance (ESOP)


Education

* Department of Teacher Education and School Research * Department of Special Needs Education * Department for Educational Research * Centre for Educational Measurement at the University of Oslo (CEMO) * InterMedia


Other units

The University of Oslo has several units which are not part of one of the faculties, including some interdisciplinary research centres, research centres abroad, the scientific museums, and libraries:


Research centres and other special units

* The Biotechnology Centre of Oslo * Centre for Gender Research * Norwegian Institute in Rome (wholly owned by the university) *
Barony Rosendal Barony Rosendal (''Baroniet Rosendal'') is a historic estate and manor house situated in Kvinnherad in Hordaland county, Norway. History The history of Rosendal dates back to the 1650s, when the nobleman Ludvig Holgersen Rosenkrantz (1628-1685) c ...
(wholly owned by the university) * Molecular Life Science * International Summer School


Affiliated institutes

Affiliated institutes are independent institutes that have a formal cooperation agreement with and close ties to the University of Oslo. Most of them were established by the University of Oslo, but have been organised as entities formally separate from the university for various reasons. *
Centre for International Climate and Environmental Research The CICERO Center for International Climate Research (abbreviated CICERO; no, CICERO Senter for klimaforskning) is an interdisciplinary research centre for climate research and environmental science/environmental studies in Oslo. CICERO was establ ...
* Frisch Centre *
Norwegian Centre for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies The Norwegian Centre for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies ( no, Nasjonalt kunnskapssenter om vold og traumatisk stress, NKVTS) is a research centre A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for doin ...
*
Center for Studies of the Holocaust and Religious Minorities The Center for Studies of the Holocaust and Religious Minorities ( no, Senter for studier av Holocaust og livssynsminoriteter, or ''HL-senteret'') is a Norwegian research institution. It is organised as an independent foundation and is an Universit ...
* Simula Research Laboratory


Library

* Library of Medicine and Health Sciences * Library of Humanities and Social Sciences * Faculty of Law Library * Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences Library


Museums

;Natural history * Mineralogical-geological Museum * Paleontological Museum * Zoological Museum *
Botanical Garden A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms ''botanic'' and ''botanical'' and ''garden'' or ''gardens'' are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word ''botanic'' is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens. is ...
* Botanical Museum ;Cultural history * Historical Museum * Collection of Coins and Medals * Ethnographic Museum * Viking Ship Museum


Notable people

The University of Oslo has a long list of notable academics and alumni, spanning the fields of scholarship covered by the university. The university is home to five Nobel Prize winners and is institutionally tied to some of the most prestigious prizes in the world. The
Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prize The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel Alfred Bernhard Nobel ( , ; 21 October 1833 – 10 Decemb ...
was awarded in the university's atrium between 1947 and 1989, thus making it the only university to host a Nobel Prize ceremony. Since 2003, the Abel Prize is awarded in the university's atrium. In July 2015, the University received intense criticism for allowing
Anders Behring Breivik Fjotolf Hansen (born Anders Behring Breivik (; 13 February 1979), also known by his pseudonym Andrew Breivik, is a Norwegian terrorist and right-wing extremist who committed the 2011 Norway attacks. On 22 July 2011, he killed eight people by d ...
to be admitted to study for a 3-year baccalaureate degree in
political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as ...
(including courses on
democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people have the authority to deliberate and decide legislation ("direct democracy"), or to cho ...

democracy
,
human rights Human rights are moral A moral (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. ...
, and respect for minorities). He is the perpetrator of the 22 July,
2011 Norway attacks The 2011 Norway attacks, referred to in Norway as 22 July ( no, 22. juli) or as 22/7, were two sequential domestic terrorist attacks by Anders Behring Breivik Fjotolf Hansen (born Anders Behring Breivik (; 13 February 1979), also known by h ...
, Norway's worst incident of violence since
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
; he received 21 years in prison (he can be paroled after 10 years; but he can be confined after the 21 years are up, allowable for five years at a time, if he is viewed as still dangerous, resulting in an actual life sentence). The Rector said they were obliged to follow the regulations, which allowed it because his grades were good enough. It will be done in solitary confinement, with guards delivering his assignments and the finished work and the grades. In October 2018, it was reported that course materials were being provided to Breivik by a prison officer and that he had no contact with students or academics or access to the internet.


Academics

Some of the notable academics of the university are: *
Vilhelm Aubert Johan Vilhelm Aubert (7 June 1922 – 19 July 1988) was an influential Norwegian Norwegian, Norwayan, or Norsk may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Norway, a country in northwestern Europe *Norwegians, both a nation and an ethnic gr ...
(Professor of Sociology) *
Fredrik Barth Thomas Fredrik Weybye Barth (22 December 1928 – 24 January 2016) was a Norwegian social anthropologist who published several ethnographic Ethnography (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or rela ...

Fredrik Barth
(Professor of Social Anthropology) *
Jon Bing
Jon Bing
(Professor of Law; pioneer of legal
informatics Informatics is the study of computational systems, especially those for data storage and retrieval. According to ACM ''Europe and'' ''Informatics Europe Informatics Europe is the European association of university departments and research laborat ...
) *
Nils Christie Nils Christie (24 February 1928 – 27 May 2015) was a Norwegian sociology, sociologist and criminology, criminologist. He was a professor of criminology at the Faculty of Law, University of Oslo. Personal life Christie was born in Oslo on 24 Feb ...
(Professor of Criminology) *
Ole-Johan Dahl Ole-Johan Dahl (12 October 1931 – 29 June 2002) was a Norwegian computer scientist A computer scientist is a person who has acquired the knowledge of computer science, the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computatio ...
(Professor of Computer Science) * Tove Stang Dahl (Professor of Law; pioneer of
feminist jurisprudence Feminist legal theory, also known as feminist jurisprudence, is based on the belief that the law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a u ...
) * Nancy D. Erbe (Visiting Professor 2000-2001. Professor of Conflict Resolution and
Fulbright Scholar The Fulbright Program, including the Fulbright–Hays Program, is one of several United States Cultural Exchange Programs United States cultural exchange programs, particularly those programs with ties to the Bureau of Educational and Cultura ...
) *
Ivar Giæver
Ivar Giæver
(Professor of Physics) *
Johan Galtung Johan Vincent Galtung (born 24 October 1930) is a Norwegian sociologist, and the principal founder of the discipline of peace and conflict studies. He was the main founder of the Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO) in 1959 and served as its first ...

Johan Galtung
(Professor of Peace and Conflict Studies; founder of the field) *
Victor Goldschmidt Victor Moritz Goldschmidt (27 January 1888 in Zürich – 20 March 1947 in Oslo) was a Norwegian Mineralogy, mineralogist considered (together with Vladimir Vernadsky) to be the founder of modern geochemistry and crystal chemistry, developer of ...
(Professor of Mineralogy and Petrography, founder of geochemistry and crystal chemistry) * Erik Grønseth (Professor of Sociology; founder of Norwegian family sociology) *
Francis Hagerup George Francis Hagerup (22 January 1853 – 8 February 1921) was a Norway, Norwegian law professor, diplomat, politician for the Conservative Party of Norway, Conservative Party and women's rights advocate. He was the 7th prime minister of Nor ...
(Professor of Law) * Viggo Hagstrøm (Professor of Law) *
Odd Hassel Odd Hassel (17 May 1897 – 11 May 1981) was a Norwegian physical chemistry, physical chemist and Nobel Laureate. Biography Hassel was born in Oslo, Kristiania (now Oslo), Norway. His parents were Ernst Hassel (1848–1905), a gynaecology, g ...

Odd Hassel
(Professor of Chemistry) * Harriet Holter (Professor of Social Psychology) *
Trygve Haavelmo Trygve Magnus Haavelmo (13 December 1911 – 28 July 1999), born in Skedsmo, Norway, was an economist whose research interests centered on econometrics. He received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1989. Biography After attendi ...

Trygve Haavelmo
(Professor of Economics) *
Thomas Mathiesen Thomas Mathiesen (5 October 1933 – 29 May 2021) was a Norwegian sociologist. Background Mathiesen grew up in the Norwegian county of Akershus, as the only child of Einar Mathiesen (1903–1983) and Birgit Mathiesen (1908–1990).Mathiesen, ...
(Professor of Sociology) *
Fridtjof Nansen Fridtjof Wedel-Jarlsberg Nansen (; 10 October 186113 May 1930) was a Norwegian polymath A polymath ( el, πολυμαθής, , "having learned much"; la, homo universalis, "universal human") is an individual whose knowledge spans a substa ...

Fridtjof Nansen
(Professor of Zoology) * Arnved Nedkvitne (Professor of History) *
Arne Næss Arne Dekke Eide Næss ( ; ; 27 January 1912 – 12 January 2009) was a Norwegian philosopher who coined the term " deep ecology" and was an important intellectual and inspirational figure within the environmental movement of the late twenti ...
(Professor of Philosophy; founder of
deep ecology Deep ecology is an environmental philosophy that promotes the inherent worth of all living beings regardless of their instrumental utility to human needs, and the restructuring of modern human societies in accordance with such ideas. Deep ecolo ...

deep ecology
) *
Kristen Nygaard Kristen Nygaard (27 August 1926 – 10 August 2002) was a Norwegian computer scientist A computer scientist is a person who has acquired the knowledge of computer science, the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computa ...
(Professor of Computer Science) * Trygve Reenskaug (Professor of Informatics) * Vibeke Roggen (Associate Professor of Classics) *
Sophus Lie Marius Sophus Lie ( ; ; 17 December 1842 – 18 February 1899) was a Norway, Norwegian mathematician. He largely created the theory of continuous symmetry and applied it to the study of geometry and differential equations. Biography Marius So ...

Sophus Lie
(Professor of Mathematics, pioneer in
abstract algebra In algebra, which is a broad division of mathematics, abstract algebra (occasionally called modern algebra) is the study of algebraic structures. Algebraic structures include group (mathematics), groups, ring (mathematics), rings, field (mathema ...
; largely created the theory of
continuous symmetry In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and t ...
) * Peter Ludwig Mejdell Sylow (Professor of Mathematics) *
Carl Marstrander Carl Johan Sverdrup Marstrander (26 November 1883 – 23 December 1965) was a Norwegian linguist, known for his work on the Irish language. His works, largely written in Norwegian, on the Celtic and Norse components in Norwegian culture, are consid ...
(Professor of Celtic Languages) *
Georg Morgenstierne Georg Valentin von Munthe af Morgenstierne (2 January 1892 – 3 March 1978) was a Norwegian professor of linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communic ...
(Professor of Linguistics)


Alumni

*
Niels Henrik Abel Niels Henrik Abel ( , ; 5 August 1802 – 6 April 1829) was a Norwegian mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (a ...

Niels Henrik Abel
(1802–1829) – mathematician, the Abel Prize in mathematics is named in his honour *
Gro Harlem Brundtland Gro Brundtland (; born Gro Harlem, 20 April 1939) is a Norwegian politician, who served three terms as the 29th prime minister of Norway The prime minister of Norway ( no, statsminister, which directly translates to "minister of state") is th ...
– former prime minister of Norway * Elisabeth Erke (born 1962) – Norwegian Sami educator and politician *
Åse Kleveland Åse Maria Kleveland (born 18 March 1949) is a Norwegian singer, guitarist, politician and activist. A well-known folk singer and traditional guitarist in Norway, she was appointed Minister of Culture and Church Affairs (Norway), Minister of Cul ...
– Norwegian singer and politician *
Fridtjof Nansen Fridtjof Wedel-Jarlsberg Nansen (; 10 October 186113 May 1930) was a Norwegian polymath A polymath ( el, πολυμαθής, , "having learned much"; la, homo universalis, "universal human") is an individual whose knowledge spans a substa ...

Fridtjof Nansen
– Arctic explorer and Nobel Prize laureate *
Harrison Schmitt Harrison Hagan "Jack" Schmitt (born July 3, 1935) is an American geologist A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid, liquid, and gaseous matter that constitutes Earth and other terrestrial planets, as well as the processes that shape ...

Harrison Schmitt
– former American astronaut *
Petrit Selimi Petrit Selimi (born 1 May 1979 in Pristina, Kosovo) is a former Kosovar Albanian politician, who has served as a Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Kosovo, Republic of Kosovo. He initially served in the position of a Deputy Foreign Minister during ...
– deputy minister of foreign affairs of Kosovo *
Baldwin Spencer Winston Baldwin Spencer (born October 8, 1948) is an Demographics of Antigua and Barbuda, Antiguan politician who was the third List of Prime Ministers of Antigua and Barbuda, Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda from 2004 to 2014. Spencer led ...

Baldwin Spencer
– prime minister of Antigua and Barbuda *
Jens Stoltenberg Jens Stoltenberg (born 16 March 1959) is a Norwegian politician who has served as the 13th Secretary General of NATO, secretary general of NATO since 2014. A member of the Labour Party (Norway), Labour Party, he previously served as the 34th prim ...

Jens Stoltenberg
– former prime minister of Norway, current secretary general of NATO * Andreas Thorud – footballer *
Thor Heyerdahl Thor Heyerdahl (; 6 October 1914 – 18 April 2002) was a Norwegian Norwegian, Norwayan, or Norsk may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Norway, a country in northwestern Europe *Norwegians, both a nation and an ethnic group native t ...

Thor Heyerdahl
ethnographer Ethnography (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is ap ...
, adventurer *
Kåre Willoch Kåre Isaachsen Willoch (; 3 October 1928 – 6 December 2021) was a Norwegian politician who served as the 30th prime minister of Norway from 1981 to 1986 and as leader of the Conservative Party (Norway), Conservative Party from 1970 to 1974. H ...
– former prime minister of Norway * Ingeborg Hoff – Norwegian linguist, who later was Senior Archivist at the Norwegian Dialect Archive * Ernst S. Selmer - mathematician and Cryptography, cryptologist *Atle Selberg - mathematician and Fields Medal winner


Rectors


Seal

The Seal (device), seal of the University of Oslo features Apollo with the Lyre, and dates from 1835. The seal has been redesigned several times, most recently in 2009.


Fees

Like all public institutions of higher education in Norway, the university does not charge tuition fees. However, a small fee of (roughly ) per term goes to the student welfare organisation Foundation for Student Life in Oslo, to subsidise kindergartens, health services, housing and cultural initiatives, the weekly newspaper ''Universitas (newspaper), Universitas'' and the radio station Radio Nova (Norway), Radio Nova. In addition the students are charged a copy and paper fee of (roughly ) for full-time students and (roughly ) for part-time students. Lastly a voluntary sum of (roughly ) is donated to SAIH (Studentenes og Akademikernes Internasjonale Hjelpefond).


Rankings

In 2018, Shanghai Jiao Tong University's
Academic Ranking of World Universities The ''Academic Ranking of World Universities'' (''ARWU''), also known as the Shanghai Ranking, is one of the annual publications of world university ranking College and university rankings are rankings A ranking is a relationship between a set ...

Academic Ranking of World Universities
ranked UiO 59th worldwide and the best in Norway, while the 2018
Times Higher Education World University Rankings ''Times Higher Education World University Rankings'' is an annual publication of university ranking College and university rankings are rankings A ranking is a relationship between a set of items such that, for any two items, the first is e ...
ranked UiO 121th. The 2018 rankings of the QS World University Rankings ranked UiO 119th worldwide, and the 2015 Webometrics Ranking of World Universities ranked UiO 68th worldwide. The 2015 rankings of the College and university rankings#Center for World University Rankings, Center for World University Rankings (CWUR), which "publishes the only global university ranking that measures the quality of education and training of students as well as the prestige of the faculty members and the quality of their research without relying on surveys and university data submissions", ranked UiO 99th worldwide.


International cooperation

The University of Oslo administers the Henrik Steffens Professorship at the Humboldt University of Berlin jointly with the Humboldt University. The professorship was established and is funded by the Norwegian government. The University participates to several of the experiments in the CERN research programme.


See also

* Higher education in Norway * List of modern universities in Europe (1801–1945)


Transport

Universitetet Blindern tram stop, Universitet Blindern is a tram stop on the Ullevål Hageby Line and it is near the university. The Blindern (station), Blindern metro station, is only near the university.


References


Further reading

*John Peter Collett: ''Historien om Universitetet i Oslo'', Universitetsforlaget 1999,


External links

* {{DEFAULTSORT:University Of Oslo University of Oslo, Educational institutions established in 1811, Oslo, University of 1811 establishments in Norway Institutes associated with CERN, Oslo, University of