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, mottoeng = "Arts, Knowledge, Truth" , former_names = Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania (1817–1821) , budget = $8.99 billion (2018) , endowment = $17 billion (2021)As of October 25, 2021. , president =
Mark Schlissel Mark Steven Schlissel (born November 24, 1957) is the president of the University of Michigan The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, UMich, or Michigan) is a public university, public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Founded ...
, provost =
Susan Collins Susan Margaret Collins (born December 7, 1952) is an American politician serving as the senior Senior (shortened as Sr.) means "the elder" in Latin and is often used Suffix (name)#Generational titles, as a suffix for the elder of two or more p ...
, established = , type =
Public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth Engli ...
research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in va ...
, academic_affiliations = , students = 48,090 (2021) , undergrad = 31,329 (2021) , postgrad = 16,578 (2021) , administrative_staff = 18,986 , faculty = 6,771 , city =
Ann ArborANN may refer to: Media * All Night Nippon, Japan * All-Nippon News Network, Japan * Arab News Network, exile Syrian * Asia News Network, Asia * Anime News Network, online * Adventist News Network, online Transportation * Annan railway station, fr ...

Ann Arbor
, state =
Michigan Michigan () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Michigan
, country = United States , coor = , campus = Midsize City,
Total: , including arboretum , colors = Maize & Blue
, nickname =
Wolverines The wolverine () (also spelled wolverene), ''Gulo gulo'' (''Gulo'' is Latin for "gluttony, glutton"), also referred to as the glutton, carcajou, or quickhatch (from East Cree, ''kwiihkwahaacheew''), is the largest land-dwelling species of the f ...
, sporting_affiliations = , website = , logo = University of Michigan logo.svg , logo_upright = 1.0 , accreditation = HLC , free_label = Newspaper , free = ''
The Michigan Daily ''The Michigan Daily'' is the daily student newspaper of the University of Michigan. Its first edition was published on September 29, 1890. The newspaper is financially and editorially independent of the University's administration and other stude ...
'' The University of Michigan (Michigan, or UMich) is a
public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth Engli ...
research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in va ...
in
Ann Arbor, Michigan Ann Arbor is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan and the county seat of Washtenaw County, Michigan, Washtenaw County. The 2010 United States Census, 2010 census recorded its population to be 113,934. In 2019, its population was recorded at 120 ...

Ann Arbor, Michigan
. Founded in 1817 by an act of the old
Michigan Territory The Territory of Michigan was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from June 30, 1805, until January 26, 1837, when the final extent of the territory was admitted to the United States, Union as the Michigan, Stat ...
, as the ''Catholepistemiad'', or the ''University of Michigania'', 20 years before the
territory A territory is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names ...
became a state, the university is
Michigan Michigan () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Michigan
's oldest. The institution was moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 onto of what is now known as Central Campus, a U.S. historic district. Since its establishment in Ann Arbor, the university has expanded to include some 500 buildings spread out over the city. The university has been governed by an elected board of regents independently of the state since 1850, when the state's second constitution was officially adopted. The university consists of nineteen colleges and offers degree programs at
undergraduate Undergraduate education ieducationconducted after secondary education and prior to postgraduate education. It typically includes all postsecondary programs up to the level of a bachelor's degree. For example, in the United States, an entry-level ...
,
graduate Graduate refers to someone who has been the subject of a graduation, namely, someone who has completed the requirements of an academic degree. Education * Graduate, an alumnus * Graduate diploma, generally a postgraduate qualification, although ...
and
postdoctoral A postdoctoral researcher or postdoc is a person professionally conducting research after the completion of their doctoral studies (typically a PhD). The ultimate goal of a postdoctoral research position is to pursue additional research, train ...
levels in some 250 disciplines. Michigan has ten professional schools: the
Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning The A. Alfred Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning (also Taubman College) at the University of Michigan offers the following degrees: Bachelor of Science in Architecture, Master of Architecture (ranked #1 in 2010 by ''DesignIntelligen ...
, the
Ross School of BusinessThe Stephen M. Ross School of Business (Ross; formerly known as University of Michigan Business School) is a business school operated by the University of Michigan The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, UMich, or Michigan) is a public univ ...
, the
Medical School A medical school is a tertiary education Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary education, is the education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowled ...
, the
Law School A law school (also known as a law centre or college of law) is an institution specializing in legal education Legal education is the education of individuals in the principles, practices, and theory of law Law is a system A syste ...

Law School
, the Ford School of Public Policy, the
College of Pharmacy This article is a list of pharmacy schools by country. A Albania Algeria Argentina Australia Austria B Bangladesh Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Bulgaria C Cambodia Canada China Beijing Hong Kong Jian ...
, the School of Social Work, the
School of Public Health Public health has been defined as "the science and art of Preventive healthcare, preventing disease”, prolonging life and improving quality of life through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations (public and private), ...
, and the . It affiliates with two regional universities (
satellite campuses A satellite campus or branch campus or regional campus is a campus of a university or college that is physically at a distance from the original university or college area. This branch campus may be located in a different city, state, or country, ...
) in
Flint Flint is a sedimentary Sedimentary rocks are types of rock (geology), rock that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of mineral or organic matter, organic particles at Earth#Surface, Earth's surface, followed by cementation (geology ...
and Dearborn (each separately accredited universities), and a
Center Center or centre may refer to: Mathematics *Center (geometry) In geometry, a centre (or center) (from Ancient Greek language, Greek ''κέντρον'') of an object is a point in some sense in the middle of the object. According to the speci ...
in Detroit. Michigan has been a
coeducational Mixed-sex education, also known as mixed-gender education, co-education, or coeducation (abbreviated to co-ed or coed), is a system of education Education is the process of facilitating , or the acquisition of , s, , morals, s, s, and ...
institution since 1871. The university's enrollment is approximately 32,000 undergraduate students and 16,000 graduate students. Undergraduate admission to the university is categorized as "most selective." Nearly half of the students are from out of state. International students from some 130 countries account for 5 percent of the entire student body. In 2021, Michigan's six-year graduation rate was 93 percent. Michigan is one of the earliest American
research universities A research university is a university that is committed to research as a central part of its mission. They can be public education, public or private education, private, and often have well-known brand names. Undergraduate courses at many research ...
, part of the URA, as well as a founding member of the
Association of American Universities The Association of American Universities (AAU) is an organization of American research universities devoted to maintaining a strong system of academic research Research is "creativity, creative and systematic work undertaken to increase ...
. The university achieved the fourth-highest overall research publication output among American research universities in the 2020
Nature IndexThe Nature Index is a database, that tracks institutions and countries and their scientific output since its introduction in 2016. Each year, Nature Index ranks the leading institutions (which can be companies, universities, government agencies, rese ...
, after
Harvard Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly t ...

Harvard
,
Stanford Stanford University, officially Leland Stanford Junior University, is a Private university, private research university in Stanford, California. The campus occupies , among the largest in the United States, and enrolls over 17,000 students. Sta ...

Stanford
and
MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private land-grant research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, hi ...

MIT
. It has been consistently ranked among the top universities in the United States by college and university rankings. In international comparison, the university occupies top positions in rankings and enjoys a high academic reputation. The university's noted alumni include eight domestic and foreign
heads of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head of statebeing an embodiment of the State itself or representatitve of its international persona." in its unity and leg ...
or
heads of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authority and responsibility for the administrati ...
; 42 cabinet-level officials; and 26 living billionaires. Michigan is home to the country's oldest continuously existing legal organization, oldest international professional dental fraternity, oldest continuously running university hospital and longest-standing laboratory for interdisciplinary research in the social sciences. , 26 Nobel Prize winners, 53 MacArthur "genius award" winners ( 29 alumni winners and 24 faculty winners), six Turing Award winners, one Fields Medalist and one Mitchell Scholar have been affiliated with the university. It also has many alumni who are
Fulbright Scholars The Fulbright Program, including the Fulbright–Hays Program, is one of several United States Cultural Exchange Programs with the goal to improve intercultural relations, cultural diplomacy, and intercultural competence between the people of ...
. As of 2021, Wolverine athletes have won 155 medals at the
Olympic Games The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (french: Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes An athlete (also sportsman or sportswoman) is a pe ...
.


History

The University of Michigan was founded in 1817, as the ''Catholepistemiad'', or the University of Michigania, by an act of the
Michigan Territory The Territory of Michigan was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from June 30, 1805, until January 26, 1837, when the final extent of the territory was admitted to the United States, Union as the Michigan, Stat ...
. Of the total amount subscribed to start the institute two-thirds came from Zion Masonic Lodge and its members. Early benefactors of the university included businessman (donor of
Ferry Field Ferry Field is a multi-purpose stadium in Ann Arbor, Michigan. It opened in 1906 and was home to the Michigan Wolverines football team prior to the opening of Michigan Stadium in 1927. It had a capacity of 46,000. It is currently used as a tailg ...

Ferry Field
), Arthur Hill (regent, donor of
Hill Auditorium Hill Auditorium is the largest performance venue on the University of Michigan campus, in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The auditorium was named in honor of Arthur Hill (1847-1909), who served as a regent of the university from 1901 to 1909. He bequeathed ...

Hill Auditorium
), the Nichols family (regents, donors of the Nichols Arboretum), William E. Upjohn (donor of the Peony Garden), William P. Trowbridge, John S. Newberry, who funded the construction of Helen H. Newberry Residence, and Henry N. Walker, a politician who led a group of prominent Detroit businessmen to fund the
Detroit Observatory The Detroit Observatory is located on the corner of Observatory and Ann streets in Ann Arbor, Michigan. It was built in 1854, and was the first scientific research facility at the University of Michigan and one of the oldest observatories of its typ ...

Detroit Observatory
. Clara Harrison Stranahan, a close friend of Scottish-American industrialist
Andrew Carnegie Andrew Carnegie ( , November 25, 1835August 11, 1919) was a Scottish-American Scottish Americans or Scots Americans (Scottish Gaelic language, Scottish Gaelic: ''Ameireaganaich Albannach''; sco, Scots-American) are Americans whose ancestry ...

Andrew Carnegie
, donated $25,000 to the university in 1895 as a memorial of her father, Seth Harrison. Rev. John Monteith became its first president, and Father
Gabriel Richard Father Gabriel Richard (15 October 1767 – 13 September 1832) was a French Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman peopl ...
, a Catholic priest, was vice president. In 1821, the territorial government reorganized the ''Catholepistemiad'' as the University of Michigan. A board of trustees was appointed to oversee the university; the positions of president and vice president were eliminated, and Monteith and Richard were appointed to the board. The ''Catholepistemiad'' was not a university in the modern sense but rather a centralized system of schools, libraries, and other cultural institutions borrowing its model from the
University of FranceThe University of France (french: Université de France; originally the ''Imperial University of France'') was a highly centralized educational state organization founded by Napoleon I in 1808 and given authority not only over the individual (previo ...
founded by
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General o ...

Napoleon
a decade earlier. It was only after the State of Michigan entered the Union in 1837 that a new plan was adopted to focus the university on higher education. After the State of Michigan entered the Union in 1837, the new state’s early constitution granted the university an unusual degree of autonomy as a “coordinate branch of state government”. It delegated full powers over all university matters granted to its governing Board of Regents. On June 3–5, the Board of Regents held its first meeting in
Ann Arbor ANN may refer to: Media * All Night Nippon (a.k.a. ''All Night'' and ''ANN'') is a Japanese Radio programming, radio program broadcast by Nippon Broadcasting System and other radio stations from 1–5 am (JST). It preempts broadcasts from ...
and formally accepted the proposal by the town to locate the university there. The town of Ann Arbor had existed for only 13 years and had a population of about 2,000. The original was the basis of the present Central Campus. This land was obtained through the
Treaty of Fort Meigs Image:Royce-areas-ohio.jpg, 300px, The treaty ceded the lighter yellow area (87) south of the Maumee and Lake Erie and north of the Greenville Treaty Line. The Treaty of Fort Meigs, also called the Treaty of the Maumee Rapids, formally titled, "Trea ...
. In 1838, the Regents contracted with Alexander J. Davis, who provided landmark campus designs in the
Gothic Revival style Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic, neo-Gothic, or Gothick) is an Architectural style, architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England. Its momentum grew in the early 19th century, when increasingly serious and le ...
. Although approving Davis's designs, the tight budget of the fledgling university forced the Regents to ultimately abandon them and instead build in other classical styles, including
Greek Revival The Greek Revival was an architectural upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in P ...
and
Italianate The Italianate style was a distinct 19th-century phase in the history of Classical architecture Classical architecture usually denotes architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Co ...
and
Carpenter Gothic Carpenter Gothic, also sometimes called Carpenter's Gothic or Rural Gothic, is a North American architectural style-designation for an application of Gothic Revival architecture, Gothic Revival architectural detailing and picturesque massing a ...
. The superintendent of construction on the first structure to be built for the university was Isaac Thompson, an associate of Davis.
Asa Gray Asa Gray (November 18, 1810 – January 30, 1888) is considered the most important American botany, botanist of the 19th century. His ''Darwiniana'' was considered an important explanation of how religion and science were not necessarily mutual ...
was the first professor appointed to Michigan on July 17, 1837. His position was also the first one devoted solely to
botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek wo ...

botany
at any educational institution in America. The first classes in Ann Arbor were held in 1841, with six freshmen and a sophomore, taught by two professors. Eleven students graduated in the first commencement in 1845. Michigan was the first university in the West to pursue professional education, establishing its
medical school A medical school is a tertiary education Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary education, is the education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowled ...
in 1850, engineering courses in 1854, and a
law school A law school (also known as a law centre or college of law) is an institution specializing in legal education Legal education is the education of individuals in the principles, practices, and theory of law Law is a system A syste ...
in 1859. The university was among the first to introduce instruction in fields as diverse as
zoology Zoology ()The pronunciation of zoology as is usually regarded as nonstandard, though it is not uncommon. is the branch of biology that studies the Animal, animal kingdom, including the anatomy, structure, embryology, evolution, Biological class ...
and
botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek wo ...

botany
,
modern languages A modern language is any human language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language A spoken language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by hum ...

modern languages
,
modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, genetics, and linguistics, and since the History of writing, advent of writing, from primary source, primary an ...
,
American literature American literature is literature Literature broadly is any collection of Writing, written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, drama, and poetry. In ...
,
pharmacy Pharmacy is the clinical health science The following Outline (list), outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to health sciences: Health sciences – are those sciences which focus on health, or health care, as core p ...

pharmacy
,
dentistry Dentistry, also known as dental medicine and oral medicine, is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the mouth, oral cavity (the mouth), commonly in the ...

dentistry
,
speech Speech is human vocal communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''c ...

speech
,
journalism Journalism is the production and distribution of report Image:Hurt Report cover page.png, 220px, Example of a front page of a report A report is a document that presents information in an organized format for a specific audience and purpose. ...

journalism
,
teacher education Teacher education or teacher training refers to the policies, procedures, and provision designed to equip (prospective) teachers with the knowledge, attitude (psychology), attitudes, behaviors, and skills they require to perform their tasks effe ...
,
forestry Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, planting, using, conserving and repairing forest A forest is an area of land dominated by tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, ste ...
,
bacteriology Bacteriology is the branch and specialty of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interact ...
,
naval architecture '' in Tórshavn Tórshavn (; Literal translation, lit. 'Thor's harbour'; da, Thorshavn ) is the capital and largest city of the Faroe Islands. It is in the southern part on the east coast of Streymoy. To the northwest of the city lies the ...
,
aeronautical engineering Aerospace engineering is the primary field of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipli ...
,
computer engineering Computer engineering (CoE or CpE) is a branch of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The di ...
, and
nuclear engineering Nuclear engineering is the branch of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The ...
. In 1856 Michigan built the nation's first
chemical laboratory A laboratory (, ; colloquially lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which science, scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed. Laboratory services are provided in a variety of sett ...

chemical laboratory
. It was the first structure on the North American continent that was designed and equipped solely for instruction in chemistry. In 1869 Michigan opened the first
university hospital A teaching hospital is a hospital or medical centre that provides medical education and training to future and current health professionals. Teaching hospitals are almost always affiliated with one or more universities and are often co-located w ...
in the country.
James Burrill Angell James Burrill Angell (January 7, 1829 – April 1, 1916) was an American educator and diplomat. He is best known for being the longest-serving president of the University of Michigan The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, UMich, o ...

James Burrill Angell
, who served as the university's president from 1871 to 1909, expanded the curriculum to include professional studies in
dentistry Dentistry, also known as dental medicine and oral medicine, is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the mouth, oral cavity (the mouth), commonly in the ...

dentistry
,
architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Architecture (Latin ''archi ...

architecture
,
engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more speciali ...

engineering
,
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...

government
, and
medicine Medicine is the science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts ( descriptive knowledge), skills (proced ...

medicine
. Michigan also became the first American university to use the
seminar A seminar is a form of academic instruction, either at an academic institution Academic institution is an educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education, including preschools, childc ...

seminar
method of study. By 1866, enrollment had increased to 1,205 students. Women were first admitted in 1870, although
Alice Robinson Boise Wood Alice Robinson Boise Wood (May 15, 1846 – March 28, 1919) was a classicist and poet, and the first woman both to attend classes at the University of Michigan and to matriculate and graduate from the Old University of Chicago. Early life Alice ...

Alice Robinson Boise Wood
had become the first woman to attend classes (without matriculating) in 1866–7. Among the early students in the School of Medicine was
Jose Celso Barbosa Jose is the English language, English transliteration of the Hebrew language, Hebrew and Aramaic language, Aramaic name ''Yose'', which is etymologically linked to ''Yosef'' or Joseph. The name was popular during the Mishnaic and Talmudic periods. ...

Jose Celso Barbosa
, who in 1880 graduated as valedictorian and the first to get a university degree in the United States. He returned to Puerto Rico to practice medicine and also served in high-ranking posts in the government. Michigan was involved with the building of the Philippine education, legal, public health systems during the era of the American colonization of the Philippines through the efforts of Michigan alumni that included
Dean Conant Worcester Dean Conant Worcester, D.Sc.(hon.), FRGS The Royal Geographical Society (RGS) is one of the United Kingdom's learned societies A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organiza ...

Dean Conant Worcester
and George A. Malcolm. Throughout its history, Michigan has been one of the nation’s largest universities, vying with the largest private universities such as
Harvard University Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly t ...

Harvard University
in
Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most populous city of the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States and 21st List of Unit ...

Boston
and
Columbia University Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University in the City of New York) is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in New York City. Established in 1754 as King's College on the grounds of ...

Columbia University
(then known as Columbia College) in
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...

New York
during the 19th and early 20th centuries, and then holding this position of national leadership until the emergence of the statewide public university systems in the post-WWII years. By the turn of the century, the university was the second largest in the United States after
Harvard University Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly t ...

Harvard University
. From 1900 to 1920, the growth of
higher education Higher education is tertiary education Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary education, is the education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge ...
led the university to build numerous new facilities. The Martha Cook Building was constructed as an all-female residence in 1915 as the result of a gift from in honor of his mother, Martha Walford Cook. Cook planned to endow a professorship of law of corporations, but eventually made possible the development of the Law Quadrangle. The five buildings comprising the Law Quadrangle were constructed during the decade of 1923–33 on two city blocks purchased by the University: Lawyers Club, Dormitory Wing, John P. Cook Dormitory, William W Cook Legal Research Library, and Hutchins Hall. The buildings, in the Tudor Gothic style, recalled the quadrangles of the two English ancient universities Oxford and Cambridge. In 1920, the university reorganized the
College of Engineering Engineering education is the activity of teaching Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as fac ...
and formed an advisory committee of 100 industrialists to guide academic research initiatives. After World War II, enrollment expanded and by 1950, it reached 21,000. In 1947, the Regents appointed a War Memorial Committee to consider establishing a war memorial in honor of students and alumni who fell in World War II, and in 1948, approved a resolution to “create a war memorial center to explore the ways and means by which the potentialities of atomic energy may become a beneficent influence in the life of man, to be known as the Phoenix Project of the University of Michigan,” leading to the world’s first academic program in nuclear science and engineering. The Memorial Phoenix Project was funded by over 25,000 private contributors by individuals and corporations, such as the
Ford Motor Company Ford Motor Company (commonly known as Ford) is an American multinational corporation, multinational automobile manufacturer headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, Dearborn, Michigan, United States. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated ...
. Because of its high standards, Michigan gained the nickname "Harvard of the West." In the 1960 Presidential campaign, U.S. Senator
John F. Kennedy John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the ...

John F. Kennedy
jocularly referred to himself as "a graduate of the Michigan of the East, Harvard University" in his speech proposing the formation of the Peace Corps speaking to a crowd from the front steps of the
Michigan Union The Michigan Union is a student union at the University of Michigan The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, UMich, or Michigan) is a public university, public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Founded in 1817 in Detroit, as the ...

Michigan Union
.
Lyndon B. Johnson Lyndon Baines Johnson (; August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was the 36th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the ...

Lyndon B. Johnson
gave his speech outlining his
Great Society The Great Society was a set of domestic programs in the United States launched by Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964–65. It was coined during a 1964 speech by President Lyndon B. Johnson at Ohio University Ohio University (often ...
program as the lead speaker during the University of Michigan's 1964 spring commencement ceremony. During the 1960s, the university campus was the site of numerous protests against the Vietnam War and university administration. On March 24, 1965, a group of U-M faculty members and 3,000 students held the nation's first-ever faculty-led "
teach-in A teach-in is similar to a general educational forum on any complicated issue, usually an issue involving current political affairs. The main difference between a teach-in and a seminar A seminar is a form of academic instruction, either at an a ...
" to protest against American policy in Southeast Asia. In response to a series of
sit-in A sit-in or sit-down is a form of direct action that involves one or more people occupying an area for a protest, often to promote political, social, or economic change. The protestors gather conspicuously in a space or building, refusing to mov ...
s in 1966 by ''Voice'', the campus political party of
Students for a Democratic Society Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) was a national student activist File:Shimer College dialogue transparency 2010.jpg, Shimer College students protesting threatened changes to the school's democratic education, democratic governance, 2 ...
, U-M's administration banned sit-ins. In response, 1,500 students participated in a one-hour sit-in inside the Administration Building, now known as the LSA Building. In April 1968, following the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr., a group of several dozen black students occupied the Administration Building to demand that the university make public its three-year-old commitment as a federal contractor to affirmative action and to increase its efforts with respect to recruiting more African American students, faculty and staff. At that time there were no African American coaches, for instance, in the Intercollegiate Athletics Department. The occupation was ended by agreement after seven hours. Michigan alumnus and noted architect Alden B. Dow designed the current Fleming Administration Building, which was completed in 1968. The building's plans were drawn in the early 1960s, before student activism prompted a concern for safety. But the Fleming Building's fortress-like narrow windows, all located above the first floor, and lack of exterior detail at ground level, led to a campus rumor that it was designed to be riot-proof. Dow denied those rumors, claiming the small windows were designed to be energy efficient. The following year, the radical left-wing militant organization
Weather Underground The Weather Underground Organization (WUO), commonly known as the Weather Underground, was a radical left militant organization active in the late 1960s and 1970s, founded on the Ann Arbor campus of the University of Michigan The Univers ...
was founded at the university. It was later designated a domestic terrorist group by the
FBI The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the domestic intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction, logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, cre ...

FBI
. In the 1980s, the university received increased grants for research in the social and physical sciences. During the 1980s and 1990s, the university devoted substantial resources to renovating its massive hospital complex and improving the academic facilities on the North Campus. In its 2011 annual financial report, the university announced that it had dedicated $497 million per year in each of the prior 10 years to renovate buildings and infrastructure around the campus. In 1987, a DJ on WJJX, a student-run radio station, attracted controversy by allowing racist jokes to air on his program. The station was shut down for a month following the incident. It was shut down permanently in the 1990s. In the early 2000s, Michigan faced declining state funding due to state budget shortfalls. In fact, the university did not receive direct state appropriations until 1867, and for most of its history, state support has been limited. James Duderstadt, Michigan president from 1988 to 1996, had argued for years that it was a misnomer to call schools like the University of Michigan "state universities." The state's annual contribution to the school's operating budget was less than 6%. "The state is our smallest minority shareholder," he said. In 2011 less than 5% of its support comes from state appropriations, a number continued to drop still further in the years ahead. Around the time, the university was engaged in a $2.5 billion construction campaign after an eight-year capital campaign raised $3.11 billion, at the time a record for a US public university. In 2003, two lawsuits involving U-M's
affirmative action Affirmative action refers to a set of policies and practices within a government or organization seeking to increase the representation of particular groups based on their gender, race, sexuality, creed or nationality in areas in which they are u ...
admissions policy reached the
U.S. Supreme Court The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States of America The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a coun ...

U.S. Supreme Court
('' Grutter v. Bollinger'' and '' Gratz v. Bollinger''). President
George W. Bush George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the Un ...

George W. Bush
publicly opposed the policy before the court issued a ruling. The court found that race may be considered as a factor in university admissions in all public universities and private universities that accept federal funding, but it ruled that a point system was unconstitutional. In the first case, the court upheld the
Law School A law school (also known as a law centre or college of law) is an institution specializing in legal education Legal education is the education of individuals in the principles, practices, and theory of law Law is a system A syste ...

Law School
admissions policy, while in the second it ruled against the university's undergraduate admissions policy. The debate continued because in November 2006, Michigan voters passed Proposal 2, banning most affirmative action in university admissions. Under that law, race, gender, and national origin can no longer be considered in admissions. U-M and other organizations were granted a stay from implementation of the law soon after that referendum. This allowed time for proponents of affirmative action to decide legal and constitutional options in response to the initiative results. In April 2014, the Supreme Court ruled in '' Schuette v. Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action'' that Proposal 2 did not violate the U.S. Constitution. The admissions office states that it will attempt to achieve a diverse student body by looking at other factors, such as whether the student attended a disadvantaged school, and the level of education of the student's parents. In 2014, the University of Michigan was named one of 55 higher education institutions under investigation by the Office of Civil Rights "for possible violations of federal law over the handling of sexual violence and harassment complaints." President
Barack Obama Barack Hussein Obama II ( ; born August 4, 1961) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 44th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government ...

Barack Obama
's White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault was organized for such investigations. Seven years later, in 2021, the university attracted national attention when a report commissioned by the university was released that detailed an investigation into sexual assault allegations against doctor Robert Anderson who reportedly sexually abused at least 950 university students, many of whom were athletes, from 1966 to 2003. Several football players from that time say legendary football coach
Bo Schembechler Glenn Edward "Bo" Schembechler Jr. ( ; April 1, 1929 – November 17, 2006) was an American football player, coach, and athletics administrator. He served as the head football coach at Miami University from 1963 to 1968 and at the University of M ...

Bo Schembechler
ignored and enabled the abuse and told players to "toughen up" after being molested. Schembechler reportedly punched his then 10-year old son Matthew after he reported abuse by Dr. Anderson. Following the exposure of a similar history of abuse at
Ohio State University The Ohio State University, commonly Ohio State or OSU, is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of deliberately managing the release and spread of information between an individual or an organization ...
, male survivors of both Dr. Anderson at Michigan and Dr. Strauss at Ohio State have spoken out together to shine a light on sexual abuse. Due to concerns over the university's financial situation, restricted
academic freedom Academic freedom is a moral and legal concept expressing the conviction that the freedom of inquiry by faculty members is essential to the mission of the academy as well as the principles of academia An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; ...
succumbing to public pressure, and repercussions of the state's surging partisan hostility, from 2000 and onwards, there has been an ongoing demand for the complete separation of the university and state through
privatization Privatization (or privatisation in British English) can mean several different things, most commonly referring to moving something from the public sector into the private sector. It is also sometimes used as a synonym for deregulation when a heav ...
. In 2021, music professor
Bright Sheng Bright Sheng (Chinese language, Chinese: 盛宗亮 pinyin: ''Shèng Zōngliàng'') is a Chinese-American composer, pianist, music teacher and conductor (music), conductor born on December 6, 1955 in Shanghai, China. Before moving to the United Stat ...
stepped down from teaching an
undergraduate Undergraduate education ieducationconducted after secondary education and prior to postgraduate education. It typically includes all postsecondary programs up to the level of a bachelor's degree. For example, in the United States, an entry-level ...
musical composition Musical composition can refer to an Originality, original piece or work of music, either Human voice, vocal or Musical instrument, instrumental, the musical form, structure of a musical piece or to the process of creating or writing a new pie ...
class, where he says he had intended to show how
Giuseppe Verdi Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi (; 9 or 10 October 1813 – 27 January 1901) was an Italian composer best known for his opera Opera is a form of theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that u ...

Giuseppe Verdi
adapted
William Shakespeare William Shakespeare (bapt. 26 April 1564 – 23 April 1616) was an English playwright, poet and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's greatest dramatist. He is often called England's national p ...

William Shakespeare
's play ''
Othello ''Othello'' (full title: ''The Tragedy of Othello, the Moor of Venice'') is a tragedy Tragedy (from the grc-gre, τραγῳδία, ''tragōidia'', ''tragōidia'') is a genre of drama Drama is the specific Mode (literature), mod ...

Othello
'' into his opera ''
Otello ''Otello'' () is an opera Opera is a form of theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actor, actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event ...
'', after a controversy over his showing the 1965 British movie ''Othello'', allegedly without giving students any warning that it contained
blackface Blackface is a form of theatrical makeup Marcus Stewart wears face make-up in Oresteia by Aeschylus, adapted by Stairwell Theater, 2019 Theatrical makeup is makeup that is used to assist in creating the appearance of the Character (arts), ch ...
.


Historical links

*
University of California The University of California (UC) is a public university, public Land-grant university, land-grant research university, research university system in the U.S. state of California. The system is composed of the campuses at University of Califor ...
: had its early planning based upon the University of Michigan. Page 138 of this source incorrectly states that the date of the final negotiations in which Governor Low participated was October 8, 1869, but it is clear from the context and the endnotes to that page (which cite documents from 1867) that the reference to 1869 is a typo. *
Cornell University Cornell University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...
: had its
Law School A law school (also known as a law centre or college of law) is an institution specializing in legal education Legal education is the education of individuals in the principles, practices, and theory of law Law is a system A syste ...
founded by Michigan alumni
Charles Kendall Adams Charles Kendall Adams (January 24, 1835 – July 26, 1902) was an American educator and historian. He served as the second president of Cornell University from 1885 until 1892, and as president of the University of Wisconsin–Madison, University ...

Charles Kendall Adams
and . *
Harvard University Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly t ...

Harvard University
: Michigan alumnus
Edwin Francis Gay Edwin Francis Gay (October 27, 1867 – February 8, 1946) was an American economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and c ...
was the Founding Dean of the
Harvard Business School Harvard Business School (HBS) is the graduate Graduate refers to someone who has been the subject of a graduation, namely, someone who has completed the requirements of an academic degree. Education * Graduate, an alumnus * Graduate diploma, ...
from 1908-1919, instrumental in the school's planning. *
Johns Hopkins University The Johns Hopkins University (Johns Hopkins, Hopkins, or JHU) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty S ...

Johns Hopkins University
: had its pharmacology department established by
John Jacob Abel John Jacob Abel (19 May 1857 – 26 May 1938) was an American biochemist and pharmacology, pharmacologist. He established the pharmacology department at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in 1893, and th ...

John Jacob Abel
, an alumnus of Michigan. *
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, aft ...
: had its , the world's leading
research laboratory A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for doing research Research is "creativity, creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organ ...
, founded by Michigan alumnus
Jerome Wiesner Jerome Bert Wiesner (May 30, 1915 – October 21, 1994) was a professor of electrical engineering, chosen by President John F. Kennedy as chairman of his Science Advisory Committee (PSAC). Educated at the University of Michigan The Universit ...

Jerome Wiesner
. *
Tufts University Tufts University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two de ...
: had its College of Civic Life founded by John Angelo DiBiaggio, an alumnus of Michigan. *
Wellesley College Wellesley College is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...

Wellesley College
: Michigan alumna
Alice Freeman Palmer Alice Freeman Palmer (February 21, 1855 – December 6, 1902) was an United States, American educator. As Alice Freeman, she was President of Wellesley College from 1881 to 1887, when she left to marry the Harvard professor George Herbert Palmer. F ...

Alice Freeman Palmer
, the President of Wellesley College from 1881 to 1887, "transformed the fledgling school from one devoted to Christian domesticity into one of the nation's premier colleges for women." *
Yale University Yale University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...
: had its residential college system co-organized by
James Rowland Angell James Rowland Angell (; May 8, 1869 – March 4, 1949) was an American psychologist A psychologist is a person who studies normal and abnormal mental states, perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by experimenti ...

James Rowland Angell
, a graduate of Michigan. Michigan alumnus Henry Wade Rogers introduced the "case system" and the college degree requirement into the
Yale Law School Yale Law School (often referred to as Yale Law or YLS) is the law school A law school (also known as a law centre or college of law) is an institution specializing in legal education Legal education is the education of individuals in the ...
.


Campus

The Ann Arbor campus is divided into four main areas: the North, Central, Medical, and South campuses. The physical
infrastructure Infrastructure is the set of fundamental facilities and systems that support the sustainable functionality of households and firms. Serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy An ec ...

infrastructure
includes more than 500 major buildings, with a combined area of more than . The Central and South Campus areas are contiguous, while the North Campus area is separated from them, primarily by the Huron River. There is also leased space in buildings scattered throughout the city, many occupied by organizations affiliated with the University of Michigan Health System. An East Medical Campus was developed on Plymouth Road, with several university-owned buildings for outpatient care, diagnostics, and outpatient surgery. In addition to the U-M Golf Course on South Campus, the university operates a second golf course on Geddes Road called Radrick Farms Golf Course. The golf course is only open to faculty, staff and alumni. Another off-campus facility is the Inglis House, which the university has owned since the 1950s. The Inglis House is a mansion used to hold various social events, including meetings of the Board of Regents, and to host visiting dignitaries. The university also operates a large office building called Wolverine Tower in southern Ann Arbor near
Briarwood Mall Briarwood Mall is a shopping mall in Ann Arbor, Michigan Ann Arbor is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Soci ...
. Another major facility is the Matthaei Botanical Gardens, which is located on the eastern outskirts of Ann Arbor. All four campus areas are connected by bus services, the majority of which connect the North and Central campuses. There is a shuttle service connecting the University Hospital, which lies between North and Central campuses, with other medical facilities throughout northeastern Ann Arbor. The 2021
state budget State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
boosted University of Michigan funding by 5% across all 3 campuses. The University has also seen increases in their sustainability efforts through climate, energy, food systems, water, and construction.


Central Campus

Central Campus was the original location of U-M when it moved to Ann Arbor in 1837. It originally had a school and dormitory building (where Mason Hall now stands) and several houses for professors on of land bounded by North University Avenue, South University Avenue, East University Avenue, and State Street. The President's House, located on South University Avenue, is the oldest building on campus as well as the only surviving building from the original campus. Because Ann Arbor and Central Campus developed simultaneously, there is no distinct boundary between the city and university, and some areas contain a mixture of private and university buildings. Residence halls located on Central Campus are split up into two groups: the Hill Neighborhood and Central Campus. Central Campus is the location of the College of Literature, Science and the Arts, and is immediately adjacent to the medical campus. Most of the graduate and professional schools, including the
Ross School of BusinessThe Stephen M. Ross School of Business (Ross; formerly known as University of Michigan Business School) is a business school operated by the University of Michigan The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, UMich, or Michigan) is a public univ ...
, the Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, the
Law School A law school (also known as a law centre or college of law) is an institution specializing in legal education Legal education is the education of individuals in the principles, practices, and theory of law Law is a system A syste ...

Law School
and the , are on Central Campus. Two prominent libraries, the Harlan Hatcher Graduate Library and the Shapiro Undergraduate Library (which are connected by a
skywalk The SkyWalk is an approximately 160 metre enclosed walkway connecting Union Station A union station (also known as a union terminal and, in Europe, a joint station) is a railway station Rail transport (also known as train transport) ...

skywalk
), are also on Central Campus. as well as
museums A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is a building or institution that Preservation (library and archival science), cares for and displays a collection (artwork), collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, culture, c ...
housing collections in
archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis Analysis is the process of breaking a complexity, complex topic or Substance theory, substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better underst ...
,
anthropology Anthropology is the scientific study of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, ...
,
paleontology Paleontology (), also spelled palaeontology or palæontology, is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene epoch (geology), epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present). It includes th ...
,
zoology Zoology ()The pronunciation of zoology as is usually regarded as nonstandard, though it is not uncommon. is the branch of biology that studies the Animal, animal kingdom, including the anatomy, structure, embryology, evolution, Biological class ...
,
dentistry Dentistry, also known as dental medicine and oral medicine, is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the mouth, oral cavity (the mouth), commonly in the ...

dentistry
and art. Ten of the buildings on Central Campus were designed by Detroit-based architect Albert Kahn between 1904 and 1936. The most notable of the Kahn-designed buildings are the
Burton Memorial TowerImage:BurtonTowerUofM.jpg, The Burton Memorial Tower The Burton Memorial Tower is a clock tower located on Central Campus at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan, Ann Arbor at 230 North Ingalls Street. Housing a grand carillon, the towe ...

Burton Memorial Tower
and nearby
Hill Auditorium Hill Auditorium is the largest performance venue on the University of Michigan campus, in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The auditorium was named in honor of Arthur Hill (1847-1909), who served as a regent of the university from 1901 to 1909. He bequeathed ...

Hill Auditorium
.


North Campus

North Campus is the most contiguous campus, built independently from the city on a large plot of farmland—approximately —that the university bought in 1952. It is newer than Central Campus, and thus has more
modernist architecture Modern architecture, or modernist architecture, was an architectural movement or architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable. ...
, whereas most Central Campus buildings are classical or
Collegiate Gothic Collegiate Gothic is an architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable. It is a sub-class of Style (visual arts), style i ...
in style. The architect
Eero Saarinen Eero Saarinen (, ; August 20, 1910 – September 1, 1961) was a Finnish-American architect and industrial designer noted for his wide-ranging array of designs for buildings and monuments. Saarinen is best known for designing the Washington Dul ...
, based in
Birmingham, Michigan Birmingham is a city in Oakland County, Michigan, Oakland County in the U.S. state of Michigan. It is a northern suburb of Detroit located along the Woodward Corridor (M-1 (Michigan highway), M-1). As of the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census ...

Birmingham, Michigan
, created one of the early master plans for North Campus and designed several of its buildings in the 1950s, including the Earl V. Moore School of Music Building. North and Central Campuses each have unique bell towers that reflect the predominant architectural styles of their surroundings. Each of the bell towers houses a grand
carillon A carillon ( or ; ) is a Pitched percussion instrument, pitched percussion idiophone that is played with a keyboard instrument, keyboard and consists of at least 23 bellfounding, cast bell metal, bronze bells in fixed suspension and tuned ...

carillon
. The North Campus tower is called
Lurie TowerImage:UniversityofMichiganLurieTower.jpg, 200px, The Lurie Tower on North Campus, view from the southwest The Ann and Robert H. Lurie Tower, a memorial built in 1996 for Michigan alumnus Ann & Robert H. Lurie, Robert H. Lurie, is located on Universit ...
. The University of Michigan's largest residence hall, Bursley Hall, is located on North Campus. North Campus houses the
College of Engineering Engineering education is the activity of teaching Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as fac ...
, the School of Music, Theatre & Dance, the Stamps School of Art & Design, the
Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning The A. Alfred Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning (also Taubman College) at the University of Michigan offers the following degrees: Bachelor of Science in Architecture, Master of Architecture (ranked #1 in 2010 by ''DesignIntelligen ...
, and an annex of the School of Information. The campus is served by the Duderstadt Center, which houses the Art, Architecture and Engineering Library. The Duderstadt Center also contains multiple
computer lab A computer lab is a space which provides computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of op ...

computer lab
s,
video editing Video editing is the manipulation and arrangement of video Video is an electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and ...
studios, electronic music studios, an audio studio, a video studio, multimedia workspaces, and a 3D
virtual reality Virtual reality (VR) is a simulated experience that can be similar to or completely different from the real world. Applications of virtual reality Virtual reality applications are applications that make use of virtual reality Virtual ...

virtual reality
room. Other libraries located on North Campus include the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and the
Bentley Historical Library Image:bentley historical library.JPG, 250px, Street view of library The Bentley Historical Library is the campus archive for the University of Michigan and is located on the University of Michigan's North Campus in Ann Arbor, Michigan, Ann Arbor. I ...
.


South Campus

South Campus is the site for the athletic programs, including major sports facilities such as
Michigan Stadium Michigan Stadium, nicknamed "The Big House," is the football Football is a family of team sport A team is a roup (disambiguation), group of individuals (human or non-human) working together to achieve their goal. As defined by Profess ...
, Crisler Center, and Yost Ice Arena. South Campus is also the site of the Buhr library storage facility, Revelli Hall, home of the
Michigan Marching BandThe Michigan Marching Band (also known as the University of Michigan Marching Band or simply MMB) is the official marching band of the University of Michigan The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, UMich, or Michigan) is a public university ...
, the Institute for Continuing Legal Education, and the Student Theatre Arts Complex, which provides shop and rehearsal space for student theatre groups. The university's departments of public safety and transportation services offices are located on South Campus. U-M's golf course is located south of Michigan Stadium and Crisler Arena. It was designed in the late 1920s by
Alister MacKenzie Alister MacKenzie (30 August 1870 – 6 January 1934) was a Scotland, Scottish golf course architect whose course designs span four continents. Originally trained as a surgeon, MacKenzie served as a civilian physician with the British Army dur ...
, the designer of
Augusta National Golf Club Augusta National Golf Club, sometimes referred to as Augusta or the National, is a golf club A golf club is a club used to hit a golf ball A golf ball is a special ball designed to be used in the game of golf. Under the rules of golf, a g ...
in
Augusta, Georgia Augusta (), officially Augusta–Richmond County, is a consolidated city-county In local government in the United States, United States local government, a consolidated city-county is formed when one or more city, cities and their surrounding Co ...
, home of the
Masters Tournament The Masters Tournament (usually referred to as simply The Masters, or the U.S. Masters outside North America) is one of the four Men's major golf championships, major championships in Professional golf tours, professional golf. Scheduled for the ...

Masters Tournament
. The course opened to the public in the spring of 1931. The University of Michigan Golf Course was included in a listing of top holes designed by what ''
Sports Illustrated ''Sports Illustrated'' (''SI'') is an American sports magazine owned by Authentic Brands Group, and was first published in August 1954. It was the first magazine with circulation over one million to win the National Magazine Award for General ...
'' calls "golf's greatest course architect". The U-M Golf Course's signature No. 6 hole—a par 4, which plays from an elevated tee to a two-tiered, kidney-shaped green protected by four bunkers—is the second hole on the Alister MacKenzie Dream 18 as selected by a five-person panel that includes three-time Masters champion
Nick Faldo Sir Nicholas Alexander Faldo, (born 18 July 1957) is an English professional golfer A professional golfer is somebody who receives payments or financial rewards in the sport of golf that are directly related to their skill or reputation. A pers ...

Nick Faldo
and golf course architect
Tom Doak Tom Doak is a golf course architect. He has 6 courses ranked among the top 100 in the world according to the "Top 100 Courses in the World" march 2021 list compiled by ''Golf Magazine ''Golf Magazine'' is a monthly golf magazine. It was started ...
. The listing of "the best holes ever designed by Augusta National architect Alister MacKenzie" is featured in SI's Golf Plus special edition previewing the Masters on April 4, 2006.


Organization and administration

The University of Michigan consists of a flagship campus in Ann Arbor, with two regional campuses in Dearborn and
Flint Flint is a sedimentary Sedimentary rocks are types of rock (geology), rock that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of mineral or organic matter, organic particles at Earth#Surface, Earth's surface, followed by cementation (geology ...
. The Board of Regents, which governs the university and was established by the Organic Act of March 18, 1837, consists of eight members elected at large in biennial state elections for overlapping eight-year terms. Between the establishment of the University of Michigan in 1837 and 1850, the Board of Regents ran the university directly; although they were, by law, supposed to appoint a Chancellor to administer the university, they never did. Instead, a rotating roster of professors carried out the day-to-day administration duties. The
President of the University of Michigan The president of the University of Michigan is a State constitutional officer, constitutional officer who serves as the principal executive officer of the University of Michigan. The president is chosen by the Board of Regents of the University o ...
is the principal executive officer of the university. The office was created by the
Michigan Constitution The Constitution of the State of Michigan is the governing document of the U.S. state of Michigan Michigan () is a U.S. state, state in the Great Lakes region, Great Lakes and Upper Midwest regions of the United States. Its name comes ...
of 1850, which also specified that the president was to be appointed by the Regents of the University of Michigan and preside at their meetings, but without a vote.State of Michigan, 1850, Article 13, section 8 Today, the president's office is at the Ann Arbor campus, and the president has the privilege of living in the President's House, the university's oldest building, located on Central Campus in Ann Arbor.
Mark Schlissel Mark Steven Schlissel (born November 24, 1957) is the president of the University of Michigan The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, UMich, or Michigan) is a public university, public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Founded ...
is the 14th and current president of the university and has served since July 2014. There are thirteen undergraduate schools and colleges. By enrollment, the three largest undergraduate units are the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, the
College of Engineering Engineering education is the activity of teaching Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as fac ...
, and the
Ross School of BusinessThe Stephen M. Ross School of Business (Ross; formerly known as University of Michigan Business School) is a business school operated by the University of Michigan The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, UMich, or Michigan) is a public univ ...
. At the graduate level, the Rackham Graduate School serves as the central administrative unit of graduate education at the university. There are 18 graduate schools and colleges, the largest of which are the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, the College of Engineering, the Law School, and the Ross School of Business. Professional degrees are conferred by the Schools of Architecture, Public Health,
Dentistry Dentistry, also known as dental medicine and oral medicine, is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the mouth, oral cavity (the mouth), commonly in the ...

Dentistry
, Law,
Medicine Medicine is the science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts ( descriptive knowledge), skills (proced ...
, Urban Planning and Pharmacy. The Medical School is partnered with the
University of Michigan Health System Michigan Medicine, formerly the University of Michigan Health System (UMHS), is the wholly owned academic medical center of the University of Michigan The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, UMich, or Michigan) is a public university, ...
, which comprises the university's three hospitals, dozens of outpatient clinics, and many centers for medical care, research, and education.


Student government

Housed in the Michigan Union, the (CSG) is the central student government of the university. With representatives from each of the university's colleges and schools, including graduate students, CSG represents students and manages student funds on the campus. CSG is a 501(c)(3) organization, independent from the University of Michigan. In recent years CSG has organized Airbus, a transportation service between campus and the
Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport , usually called Detroit Metro Airport, Metro Airport, or just DTW, is a major international airport in the United States covering effective March 25, 2021. in Romulus, Michigan. It is the primary inte ...

Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport
, and has led the university's efforts to register its student population to vote, with its Voice Your Vote Commission (VYV) registering 10,000 students in 2004. VYV also works to improve access to non-partisan voting-related information and increase student voter turnout. CSG was successful at reviving
Homecoming Homecoming is the tradition of welcoming back former students and members and celebrating an organization's existence. It is a tradition in many high school A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondary education Se ...
activities, including a carnival and parade, for students after a roughly eleven-year absence in October 2007, and during the 2013–14 school year, was instrumental in persuading the university to rescind an unpopular change in student football seating policy at Michigan Stadium. In 2017, CSG successfully petitioned the Ann Arbor City Council to create a Student Advisory Council to give student input into Ann Arbor city affairs. There are student governance bodies in each college and school, independent of Central Student Government. Undergraduate students in the LS&A are represented by the LS&A Student Government (LSA SG). Engineering Student Government (ESG) manages undergraduate student government affairs for the College of Engineering. Graduate students enrolled in the Rackham Graduate School are represented by the Rackham Student Government (RSG), and law students are represented by the Law School Student Senate (LSSS) as is each other college with its own respective government. In addition, the students who live in the residence halls are represented by the University of Michigan Residence Halls Association (RHA), which contains the third most constituents after CSG and LSA SG. A longstanding goal of the student government is to create a student-designated seat on the Board of Regents, the university's governing body. Such a designation would achieve parity with other Big Ten schools that have student regents. In 2000, students Nick Waun and Scott Trudeau ran for the board on the statewide ballot as third-party nominees. Waun ran for a second time in 2002, along with Matt Petering and Susan Fawcett. Although none of these campaigns has been successful, a poll conducted by the State of Michigan in 1998 concluded that a majority of Michigan voters would approve of such a position if the measure were put before them. A change to the board's makeup would require amending the
Michigan Constitution The Constitution of the State of Michigan is the governing document of the U.S. state of Michigan Michigan () is a U.S. state, state in the Great Lakes region, Great Lakes and Upper Midwest regions of the United States. Its name comes ...
.


Endowment

, U-M's
financial endowment A financial endowment is a legal structure for managing, and in many cases indefinitely perpetuating, a pool of financial Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they operate within the financial system. It is ...
(the "University Endowment Fund") was valued at $12.4 billion. The endowment is primarily used according to the donors' wishes, which include the support of teaching and research. In mid-2000, U-M embarked on a fund-raising campaign called "The Michigan Difference", which aimed to raise $2.5 billion, with $800 million designated for the permanent endowment. Slated to run through December 2008, the university announced that the campaign had reached its target 19 months early in May 2007. Ultimately, the campaign raised $3.2 billion over 8 years. Over the course of the capital campaign, 191 additional professorships were endowed, bringing the university total to 471 . Like nearly all colleges and universities, U-M suffered significant realized and unrealized losses in its endowment during the second half of 2008. In February 2009, a university spokesperson estimated losses of between 20 and 30 percent. In November 2013, the university launched the "Victors for Michigan" campaign with a $4 billion goal. In 2017, the university announced that the campaign had met the goal 18 months ahead of schedule. In 2018, the university announced that the original $4 billion campaign had exceeded its goal by raising $5 billion from 382,000 donors.


Academics


Rankings and reputation

The University of Michigan is a large, four-year, residential research university accredited by the
Higher Learning Commission The Higher Learning Commission (HLC) is an institutional accreditor in the United States. It has historically accredited post-secondary education institutions in the central United States: Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ...
. The four-year, full-time undergraduate program comprises the majority of enrollments and emphasizes instruction in the arts, sciences, and professions with a high level of coexistence between graduate and undergraduate programs. The university has "very high" research activity and the comprehensive graduate program offers doctoral degrees in the humanities, social sciences, and
STEM fields Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), previously science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SMET), is a broad term used to group together these academic disciplines. This term is typically used to address an education po ...
as well as professional degrees in medicine, law, and dentistry. U-M has been included on
Richard Moll Charles Richard Moll, who is known by his credited stage name Richard Moll (born January 13, 1943) is an American actor. He is perhaps best known for playing the role of Aristotle Nostradamus "Bull" Shannon, the bailiff on the NBC sitcom A si ...
's list of
Public Ivies "Public Ivy" is a term coined by author Richard Moll in his book ''Public Ivies: A Guide to America's Best Public Undergraduate Colleges and Universities'' (1985) to refer to universities in the United States that are said to provide an Ivy League ...
. With over 200 undergraduate majors, and 100 doctoral and 90 master's programs, U-M has conferred 6,490 undergraduate degrees, 4,951 graduate degrees, and 709 first professional degrees in 2011–2012. The 2021 ''U.S. News & World Report'' Best Colleges report ranked Michigan 3rd among public universities in the United States. Michigan was ranked 6th in the 2021 ''U.S. News & World Report'' Best Undergraduate Engineering Programs Rankings. Michigan was ranked 3rd in the 2021 ''U.S. News & World Report'' Best Undergraduate Business Programs Rankings. The 2020 ''Princeton Review'' College Hopes & Worries Survey ranked Michigan as the No. 9 "Dream College" among students and the No. 7 "Dream College" among parents. National honor societies such as
Phi Beta Kappa The Phi Beta Kappa Society () is the oldest academic honor society In the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It consists of 50 , ...
,
Phi Kappa Phi The Honor Society of Phi Kappa Phi (or simply Phi Kappa Phi or ) is an honor society established in 1897 to recognize and encourage superior scholarship without restriction as to area of study, and to promote the "unity and democracy of education". ...
, and
Tau Beta Pi The Tau Beta Pi Association (commonly Tau Beta Pi, , or TBP) is the oldest engineering honor society and the second oldest collegiate honor society in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the ...
have chapters at U-M. Degrees "with Highest Distinction" are recommended to students who rank in the top 3% of their class, "with High Distinction" to the next 7%, and "with Distinction" to the next 15%. Students earning a minimum overall GPA of 3.4 who have demonstrated high academic achievement and capacity for independent work may be recommended for a degree "with Highest Honors," "with High Honors," or "with Honors." Those students who earn all A's for two or more consecutive terms in a calendar year are recognized as James B. Angell Scholars and are invited to attend the annual Honors Convocation, an event which recognizes undergraduate students with distinguished academic achievements. Out-of-state undergraduate students pay between $36,001.38 and $43,063.38 annually for tuition while in-state undergraduate students pay between $11,837.38 and $16,363.38 annually. U-M provides financial aid in the form of need-based loans, grants, scholarships, work study, and non-need based scholarships, with 77% of undergraduates in 2007 receiving financial aid. For undergraduates in 2008, 46% graduated averaging approximately $25,586 of debt. The university is attempting to increase financial aid availability to students by devoting over $1.53 billion in endowment funds to support financial aid.


Research

Michigan is one of the founding members (in the year 1900) of the
Association of American Universities The Association of American Universities (AAU) is an organization of American research universities devoted to maintaining a strong system of academic research Research is "creativity, creative and systematic work undertaken to increase ...
. With over 6,200 faculty members, 73 of whom are members of the
National Academy#REDIRECT National academy A national academy is an organizational body, usually operating with state financial support and approval, that co-ordinates scholarly research Research is "creativity, creative and systematic work undertaken to i ...
and 471 of whom hold an endowed chair in their discipline, the university manages one of the largest annual collegiate research budgets of any university in the United States. According to the
National Science Foundation The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent agency of the United States government Independent or Independents may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Artist groups * Independents (artist group)The Independents were a group of ...

National Science Foundation
, Michigan spent $1.6 billion on research and development in 2018, ranking it 2nd in the nation. This figure totaled over $1 billion in 2009. The
Medical School A medical school is a tertiary education Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary education, is the education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowled ...
spent the most at over $445 million, while the
College of Engineering Engineering education is the activity of teaching Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as fac ...
was second at more than $160 million. U-M also has a
technology transfer Technology transfer (TT), also called transfer of technology (TOT), is the process of transferring (disseminating) technology Technology ("science of craft", from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or relat ...

technology transfer
office, which is the university conduit between laboratory research and corporate commercialization interests. In 2009, the university signed an agreement to purchase a facility formerly owned by
Pfizer Pfizer Inc. ( ) is an American multinational pharmaceutical A medication (also called medicament, medicine, pharmaceutical drug, medicinal drug or simply drug) is a drug used to medical diagnosis, diagnose, cure, therapy, treat, or pr ...

Pfizer
. The acquisition includes over of property, and 30 major buildings comprising roughly of wet laboratory space, and of administrative space. At the time of the agreement, the university's intentions for the space were not set, but the expectation was that the new space would allow the university to ramp up its research and ultimately employ in excess of 2,000 people. The university is also a major contributor to the medical field with the
EKG Electrocardiography is the process of producing an electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG). It is a graph of voltage Voltage, electric potential difference, electromotive force emf, electric pressure or electric tension is the difference in elec ...

EKG
and the . The university's biological station in the Northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan is one of only 47
Biosphere Reserves Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) is an intergovernmental scientific program, launched in 1971 by UNESCO, that aims to establish a scientific basis for the improvement of relationships between people and their environments. MAB's work engage ...

Biosphere Reserves
in the United States. In the mid-1960s U-M researchers worked with
IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York, as the C ...

IBM
to develop a new
virtual memory In computing, virtual memory, or virtual storage is a Memory management (operating systems), memory management technique that provides an "idealized abstraction of the storage resources that are actually available on a given machine" which "cre ...

virtual memory
architectural model that became part of IBM's Model 360/67
mainframe computer A mainframe computer, informally called a mainframe or big iron, is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform gener ...
(the 360/67 was initially dubbed the 360/65M where the "M" stood for Michigan). The
Michigan Terminal System The Michigan Terminal System (MTS) is one of the first time-sharing computer operating system An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware, computer software, software resources, and provides common daemon (comput ...
(MTS), an early
time-sharing In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and sof ...
computer
operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. Examples of system software include operating systems (OS) like macOS, Linux, Android (operating system), Android and Mi ...

operating system
developed at U-M, was the first system outside of IBM to use the 360/67's virtual memory features. U-M is home to the National Election Studies and the
University of Michigan Consumer Sentiment Index The University of Michigan Consumer Sentiment Index is a consumer confidence index published monthly by the University of Michigan. The index is normalized to have a value of 100 in December 1966. Each month at least 500 telephone interviews are co ...

University of Michigan Consumer Sentiment Index
. The
Correlates of WarThe Correlates of War project is an academic study of the history of warfare History (from Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring before the invention of writing s ...
project, also located at U-M, is an accumulation of scientific knowledge about war. The university is also home to major research centers in
optics Optics is the branch of physics that studies the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of optical instruments, instruments that use or Photodetector, detect it. Optics usually describes t ...

optics
, reconfigurable manufacturing systems, wireless integrated microsystems, and social sciences. The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute and the Life Sciences Institute are located at the university. The
Institute for Social Research The Institute for Social Research ''Social Research: An International Quarterly'' is a quarterly academic journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which Scholarly method, scholarship relating to a particular list ...
(ISR), the nation's longest-standing laboratory for interdisciplinary research in the social sciences, is home to the Survey Research Center, Research Center for Group Dynamics, Center for Political Studies, Population Studies Center, and Inter-Consortium for Political and Social Research. Undergraduate students are able to participate in various research projects through the Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program (UROP) as well as the UROP/Creative-Programs. The U-M library system comprises nineteen individual libraries with twenty-four separate collections—roughly 13.3 million volumes. U-M was the original home of the
JSTOR JSTOR (; short for ''Journal Storage'') is a digital library founded in 1995 in New York City. Originally containing digitized Digitization
database, which contains about 750,000 digitized pages from the entire pre-1990 backfile of ten journals of history and economics, and has initiated a book digitization program in collaboration with
Google Google LLC is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational stat ...

Google
. The
University of Michigan Press The University of Michigan Press is part of University of Michigan Library#Michigan Publishing, Michigan Publishing at the University of Michigan Library. It publishes 170 new titles each year in the humanities and social sciences. Titles from the ...
is also a part of the U-M library system. In the late 1960s U-M, together with
Michigan State University Michigan State University (MSU) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (Englis ...
and
Wayne State University Wayne State University (WSU) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (English in t ...
, founded the
Merit Network Merit Network, Inc., is a nonprofit member-governed organization providing high-performance computer networking and related services to educational, government, health care, and Non-profit organization, nonprofit organizations, primarily in Michiga ...
, one of the first university computer networks. The Merit Network was then and remains today administratively hosted by U-M. Another major contribution took place in 1987 when a proposal submitted by the Merit Network together with its partners
IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York, as the C ...

IBM
, MCI, and the
State of Michigan Michigan () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...
won a national competition to upgrade and expand the
National Science Foundation Network The National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) was a program of coordinated, evolving projects sponsored by the National Science Foundation The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent agency of the United States government Indepe ...
(NSFNET) backbone from 56,000 to 1.5 million, and later to 45 million bits per second. In 2006, U-M joined with
Michigan State University Michigan State University (MSU) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (Englis ...
and
Wayne State University Wayne State University (WSU) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (English in t ...
to create the
University Research CorridorThe University Research Corridor (URC) is an alliance between Michigan State University, the University of Michigan The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, UMich, or Michigan) is a public university, public research university in Ann Arbor ...
. This effort was undertaken to highlight the capabilities of the state's three leading research institutions and drive the transformation of Michigan's economy. The three universities are electronically interconnected via the Michigan LambdaRail (MiLR, pronounced 'MY-lar'), a high-speed data network providing 10 Gbit/s connections between the three university campuses and other national and international network connection points in Chicago. In May 2021, the university announced plans to cut carbon emissions from its campuses. The plan covers all of its operations and goals include removing emissions from direct, on-campus sources by 2040.


Student body


Undergraduate admissions

''U.S. News & World Report'' rates Michigan "Most Selective" and The Princeton Review rates its admissions selectivity of 96 out of 99. Admissions are characterized as "more selective, lower transfer-in" according to the Carnegie Classification. Michigan received over 83,000 applications for a place in the 2021–22 freshman class, making it one of the most applied-to universities in the United States. In recent years, annual numbers of applications for freshman admission have exceeded 83,000. Around 16,000 students are admitted annually, with a target freshman class of more than 7,000 students. Students come from all 50
U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state ...
s and nearly 100 countries. In academic year 2019–20 full-time undergraduate students made up about 97 percent of the student body, with a first-time student retention rate of almost 97 percent.


Enrollment

In Fall 2016, the university had an enrollment of 44,718 students: 28,983
undergraduate students Undergraduate education is education conducted after secondary education and prior to postgraduate education. It typically includes all postsecondary programs up to the level of a bachelor's degree. For example, in the United States, an entry-lev ...
, 12,565
graduate student Postgraduate education (graduate education in North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, u ...
s and 2,665 first professional students in a total of 600 academic programs. Of all students, 37,954 (84.9%) are U.S. citizens or
permanent residents Permanent residency is a person's legal resident status in a country or territory of which such person is not a citizen Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the law of a country A country is a distinct territory, t ...
and 6,764 (15.1%) are
international student International students, or foreign students, are students who chose to undertake all or part of their tertiary education in a country other than their own and move to that country for the purpose of studying. In 2019, there were over 6 million ...
s. In 2014, undergraduates were enrolled in 12 schools or colleges: About 61 percent in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts; 21 percent in the
College of Engineering Engineering education is the activity of teaching Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as fac ...
; 5.3 percent in the
Ross School of BusinessThe Stephen M. Ross School of Business (Ross; formerly known as University of Michigan Business School) is a business school operated by the University of Michigan The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, UMich, or Michigan) is a public univ ...
; 3.3 percent in the School of Kinesiology; 2.7 percent in the School of Music, Theatre & Dance; and 2 percent in the School of Nursing. Small numbers of undergraduates were enrolled in the colleges or schools of Art & Design, Architecture & Urban Planning, Dentistry, Education, Pharmacy, and Public Policy. In 2014, the School of Information opened to undergraduates, with the new Bachelor of Science in Information degree. Among undergraduates, 70 percent graduate with a bachelor's degree within four years, 86 percent graduate within five years and 88 percent graduating within six years. Of the university's 12,714 non-professional graduate students, 5,367 are seeking and 6,821 are seeking
master's degree A master's degree (from Latin ) is an academic degree awarded by University, universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of Profession, professio ...
s. The largest number of master's degree students are enrolled in the
Ross School of BusinessThe Stephen M. Ross School of Business (Ross; formerly known as University of Michigan Business School) is a business school operated by the University of Michigan The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, UMich, or Michigan) is a public univ ...
(1,812 students seeking
MBA A Master of Business Administration (MBA; also Master's in Business Administration) is a graduate degree Postgraduate education (graduate education in North America) involves learning and studying for Academic degree, academic or profession ...
or
Master of Accounting The Master of Accountancy (MAcc, MAcy, or MAccy), alternatively Master of Science in Accounting (MSA or MSAcy) or Master of Professional Accountancy (MPAcy, MPAcc or MPAc), is a graduate professional degree designed to prepare students for public a ...
degrees) and the
College of Engineering Engineering education is the activity of teaching Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as fac ...
(1,456 students seeking
M.S. A Master of Science ( la, Magisterii Scientiae; abbreviated MS, M.S., MSc, M.Sc., SM, S.M., ScM or Sc.M.) is a master's degree A master's degree (from Latin ) is an academic degree awarded by University, universities or colleges upon completi ...
or M.Eng. degrees). The largest number of doctoral students are enrolled in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts (2,076) and College of Engineering (1,496). While the majority of U-M's graduate degree-granting schools and colleges have both undergraduate and graduate students, a few schools only issue graduate degrees. Presently, the School for Environment and Sustainability,
School of Public Health Public health has been defined as "the science and art of Preventive healthcare, preventing disease”, prolonging life and improving quality of life through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations (public and private), ...
, and School of Social Work only have graduate students. In Fall 2014, 2,709 Michigan students were enrolled in U-M's
professional school Professional development is learning to earn or maintain professional credentials A credential is a piece of any document that details a qualification, competence, or authority issued to an individual by a third party with a relevant or ''de f ...
s: the (628 students),
Law School A law school (also known as a law centre or college of law) is an institution specializing in legal education Legal education is the education of individuals in the principles, practices, and theory of law Law is a system A syste ...

Law School
(1,047 students),
Medical School A medical school is a tertiary education Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary education, is the education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowled ...
(1,300 students), and
College of Pharmacy This article is a list of pharmacy schools by country. A Albania Algeria Argentina Australia Austria B Bangladesh Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Bulgaria C Cambodia Canada China Beijing Hong Kong Jian ...
(436 students).


Student life


Residential life

The University of Michigan's campus housing system can accommodate approximately 10,000 students, or nearly 25 percent of the total student population at the university. The residence halls are located in three distinct geographic areas on campus: Central Campus, Hill Area (between Central Campus and the University of Michigan Medical Center) and North Campus. Family housing is located on North Campus and mainly serves graduate students. The largest residence hall has a capacity of 1,270 students, while the smallest accommodates 25 residents. A majority of upper-division and graduate students live in off-campus apartments, houses, and
cooperatives A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous The federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Российск ...
, with the largest concentrations in the Central and South Campus areas. The residential system has a number of "living-learning communities" where academic activities and residential life are combined. These communities focus on areas such as research through the Michigan Research and Discovery Scholars, medical sciences,
community service Community service is unpaid work performed by a person or group of people for the benefit and betterment of their community without any form of compensation. Community service can be distinct from volunteering, since it is not always performed ...

community service
and the
German language German ( Standard High German: , ) is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common History, historical, Society, social and cultu ...

German language
. The Michigan Research and Discovery Scholars and the Women in Science and Engineering Residence Program are housed in Mosher-Jordan Hall. The Residential College (RC), a living-learning community that is a division of the College of Literature, Science and the Arts, also has its principal instructional space in East Quad. The Michigan Community Scholars Program, dedicated to civic engagement, community service learning and intercultural understanding and dialogue, is located in West Quad. The Lloyd Hall Scholars Program (LHSP) is located in Alice Lloyd Hall. The Health Sciences Scholars Program (HSSP) is located in Couzens Hall. The North Quad complex houses two additional living-learning communities: the Global Scholars Program and the Max Kade German Program. It is "technology-rich," and houses communication-related programs, including the School of Information, the Department of Communication Studies, and the Department of Screen Arts and Cultures. North Quad is also home to services such as the Language Resource Center and the Sweetland Center for Writing. The residential system also has a number of "theme communities" where students have the opportunity to be surrounded by students in a residential hall who share similar interests. These communities focus on global leadership, the college transition experience, and internationalism. The Adelia Cheever Program is housed in the Helen Newberry House. The First Year Experience is housed in the Baits II Houses and Markley Hall along with portions of all other buildings with the exception of North Quad, Northwood, and Stockwell Hall. The Sophomore Experience is housed in Stockwell Hall and the Transfer Year Experience is housed in Northwood III. The newly organized International Impact program is housed in North Quad.


Groups and activities

The university lists 1,438 student organizations. With a history of student activism, some of the most visible groups include those dedicated to causes such as
civil rights Civil and political rights are a class of rights Rights are legal Law is a system of rules created and law enforcement, enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior,Robertson, ''Crimes against humanity'', ...
and
labor rights Labor rights or workers' rights are both legal rights Natural rights and legal rights are two types of rights. * Natural rights are those that are not dependent on the laws or customs of any particular culture or government, and so are ''u ...
, such as local chapters of
Students for a Democratic Society Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) was a national student activist File:Shimer College dialogue transparency 2010.jpg, Shimer College students protesting threatened changes to the school's democratic education, democratic governance, 2 ...
and United Students Against Sweatshops (USAS). The latter group seeks to hold accountable multinational companies that exploit their workers in factories around the world where college apparel is produced. Although the student body generally leans toward
left-wing politics Left-wing politics support social equality Social equality is a state of affairs in which all people within a specific society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social in ...
, there are also conservative groups, such as
Young Americans for Freedom Young Americans for Freedom (YAF) is an ideologically conservative youth activism organization that was founded in 1960 as a coalition between traditional conservatives and libertarians Libertarianism (from french: libertaire, "libe ...
, and non-partisan groups, such as the Roosevelt Institute. The university's Spectrum Center is the oldest collegiate LGBT student center in the U.S. There are also several engineering projects teams, including the University of Michigan Solar Car Team, which has placed first in the North American Solar Challenge six times and third in the
World Solar Challenge The World Solar Challenge (WSC), since 2013 named Bridgestone World Solar Challenge, is an international event for solar powered cars driving 3000 kilometres through the Australian outback. With the exception of a four-year gap between th ...
four times. Michigan Interactive Investments, the TAMID Israel Investment Group, and the Michigan Economics Society are also affiliated with the university. The university also showcases many community service organizations and charitable projects, including Foundation for International Medical Relief of Children, Dance Marathon at the University of Michigan,
The Detroit Partnership The Detroit Partnership (DP), known as The Detroit Project until 2008, is a student-run organization at the University of Michigan with the mission of connecting the Ann Arbor, Michigan, Ann Arbor and Detroit communities through active service-lea ...
, Relay For Life, U-M Stars for the Make-A-Wish Foundation, InnoWorks at the University of Michigan, SERVE, Letters to Success, PROVIDES,
Circle K Circle K Stores, Inc. (stylized as Circle Ⓚ) is an international chain of convenience stores, owned by the Canadian multinational Alimentation Couche-Tard. Founded in 1951 in El Paso, Texas, the company filed for bankruptcy protection i ...
,
Habitat for Humanity Habitat for Humanity International (HFHI), generally referred to as Habitat for Humanity or Habitat, is a US non-governmental A non-governmental organization, or simply an NGO, is an organization that is, generally, formed independent from ...

Habitat for Humanity
, and Ann Arbor Reaching Out.
Intramural sportsIntramural sports are recreational sports Sport pertains to any form of competitive Competition arises whenever two or more parties strive for a common goal A goal is an idea of the future or desired result that a person or a group ...
are popular, and there are recreation facilities for each of the three campuses.
Fraternities and sororities Fraternities and sororities, also referred to as Greek-letter organizations (GLOs) or, collectively, as "Greek life" in North America and the Philippines, are social organizations at colleges A college (Latin: ''collegium'') is an education ...
play a role in the university's social life; approximately 17% of undergraduates are involved in Greek life. Membership numbers for the 2009–2010 school year reached the highest in the last two decades. Four different Greek councils—the Interfraternity Council, Multicultural Greek Council,
National Pan-Hellenic Council The National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC) is a collaborative umbrella organization composed of historically African American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total o ...
, and Panhellenic Association—represent most Greek organizations. Each council has a different recruitment process. The
Michigan Union The Michigan Union is a student union at the University of Michigan The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, UMich, or Michigan) is a public university, public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Founded in 1817 in Detroit, as the ...

Michigan Union
and Michigan League are student activity centers located on Central Campus; Pierpont Commons is on North Campus. The Michigan Union houses a majority of student groups, including the student government. The William Monroe Trotter House, located east of Central Campus, is a multicultural student center operated by the university's Office of Multi-Ethnic Student Affairs. The University Activities Center (UAC) is a student-run programming organization and is composed of 14 committees. Each group involves students in the planning and execution of a variety of events both on and off campus. The
Michigan Marching BandThe Michigan Marching Band (also known as the University of Michigan Marching Band or simply MMB) is the official marching band of the University of Michigan The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, UMich, or Michigan) is a public university ...
, composed of more than 350 students from almost all of U-M's schools, is the university's
marching band A marching band is a group of musical instrument, instrumental musicians who perform while marching, often for entertainment or competition. Instrumentation typically includes brass instrument, brass, woodwind instrument, woodwind, and percus ...

marching band
. Over 100 years old, the band performs at every home football game and travels to at least one away game a year. The student-run and led University of Michigan Pops Orchestra is another musical ensemble that attracts students from all academic backgrounds. It performs regularly in the Michigan Theater. The
University of Michigan Men's Glee Club The University of Michigan Men's Glee Club is an all-male glee club (or choir A choir (; also known as a chorale or chorus) is a musical ensemble A musical ensemble, also known as a music group or musical group, is a group of people who ...
, founded in 1859 and the second oldest such group in the country, is a men's chorus with over 100 members. Its eight-member subset
a cappella A cappella (, also , ; ) music is group or solo performance without instrumental An instrumental is a recording normally without any vocals, although it might include some inarticulate vocal The human voice consists of sound Voice produc ...
group, the University of Michigan Friars, which was founded in 1955, is the oldest currently running ''a cappella'' group on campus. The University of Michigan is also home to over twenty other a cappella groups, including Amazin' Blue, The Michigan G-Men, and Compulsive Lyres, all of which have competed at the International Championship of Collegiate A Cappella (ICCA) finals in New York City. Compulsive Lyres are the first and only group from Michigan to claim an ICCA title, having won in 2002. The Michigan G-Men are one of only six groups in the country to compete at ICCA finals four times, one of only two TTBB ensembles to do so, and placed third at the competition in 2015. Amazin' Blue placed fourth at ICCA finals in 2017. In 2020, The A Cappella Archive ranked The Michigan G-Men and Amazin' Blue at #7 and #13, respectively, out of all groups that have ever competed in ICCA. The University of Michigan also encourages many cultural and ethnic student organizations on campus. There are currently over 317 organizations under this category. There are organizations for almost every culture from the Arab Student Association to Persian Student Association to African Students Association to even the Egyptian Student Association. These organizations hope to promote various aspects of their culture along with raising political and social awareness around campus by hosting an assortment of events throughout the school year. These clubs also help students make this large University into a smaller community to help find people with similar interests and backgrounds.


Collegiate secret societies

The University of Michigan hosts three secret societies: Michigauma, Adara, and the Vulcans. Michigauma and Adara were once under the umbrella group "The Tower Society", the name referring to their historical locations in the Michigan Union tower. Michigauma was all-male while Adara was all-female, although both later became co-ed. * Michigauma, more recently known as the Order of Angell, was formed in 1902 by a group of seniors in coordination with University president James Burrill Angell. The group disbanded itself in 2021 due to public concerns about elitism and the society's history. The group was granted a lease for the top floor of the Michigan Union tower in 1932, which they referred to as the "tomb," but the society vacated the space in 2000. Until more recent reforms, the group's rituals were inspired by the culture of
Native Americans Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigenous peoples in Canada, the indigenous p ...
. Some factions on campus identified Michigauma as a
secret society A secret society is a club or an organization whose activities, events, inner functioning, or membership are concealed. The society may or may not attempt to conceal its existence. The term usually excludes covert groups, such as intelligence ...
, but many disputed that characterization, as its member list has been published some years in ''
The Michigan Daily ''The Michigan Daily'' is the daily student newspaper of the University of Michigan. Its first edition was published on September 29, 1890. The newspaper is financially and editorially independent of the University's administration and other stude ...
'' and the ''
Michiganensian The ''Michiganensian'', also known as the ''Ensian'', is the official yearbook A yearbook, also known as an annual, is a type of a book published annually. One use is to record, highlight, and commemorate the past year of a school A ...
'', and online since 2006 reforms. *Adara, known as Phoenix, was formed in the late 1970s by women leaders on campus and disbanded itself in 2021 amid campus criticisms of secret societies. In the early 1980s they joined the tower society and occupied the sixth floor of the tower just below Michigamua. *Vulcans, occupied the fifth floor of the Union tower though were not formally a part of the tower society. They draw their heritage from the Roman god
Vulcan Vulcan may refer to: Mythology * Vulcan (mythology), the god of fire, volcanoes, metalworking, and the forge in Roman mythology Arts, entertainment and media Film and television * Vulcan (Star Trek), Vulcan (''Star Trek''), name of a fictional rac ...
. The group which used to do its tapping publicly is known for its long black robes and for its financial contributions of the
College of Engineering Engineering education is the activity of teaching Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as fac ...
.


Media and publications

Several
academic journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial Serial may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media The presentation of w ...
s are published at the university: * The Law School publishes the well-regarded ''
Michigan Law Review The ''Michigan Law Review'' is an American law review A law review (or law journal) is a scholarly journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is pub ...
'' and six other
law journal A law review (or law journal) is a scholarly journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial Serial may refer t ...
s: The '' Michigan Journal of Environmental and Administrative Law'', ''
University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform The ''University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform'' is a quarterly law review published by an independent student group at the University of Michigan Law School. It publishes articles and student-written notes that propose legal reforms. These refo ...
'', '' Michigan Journal of Race & Law'', ''
Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review The ''Michigan Technology Law Review'' (''MTLR'') is a scholarly technology law journal at the University of Michigan Law School. Overview ''MTLR'' is one of six legal journals published under the auspices of the University of Michigan Law School. ...
'', ''Michigan Journal of International Law'', and '' Michigan Journal of Gender and Law''. * The Ross School of Business publishes the '' Michigan Journal of Business''. * Several undergraduate journals are also published at the university, including the '' Michigan Journal of Political Science'', ''Michigan Journal of History'', ''University of Michigan Undergraduate Research Journal'', the ''Michigan Journal of International Affairs'', and the ''Michigan Journal of Asian Studies''. The
student newspaper A student publication is a media outlet such as a newspaper, magazine, television show, or radio station produced by students at an educational institution. These publications typically cover local and school-related news, but they may also repor ...
is ''
The Michigan Daily ''The Michigan Daily'' is the daily student newspaper of the University of Michigan. Its first edition was published on September 29, 1890. The newspaper is financially and editorially independent of the University's administration and other stude ...
'', founded in 1890 and editorially and financially independent of the university. ''The Daily'' is published five days a week during academic year, and weekly from May to August. The
yearbook A yearbook, also known as an annual, is a type of a book published annually. One use is to record, highlight, and commemorate the past year of a school A school is an designed to provide s and s for the teaching of s under the direc ...
is the ''
Michiganensian The ''Michiganensian'', also known as the ''Ensian'', is the official yearbook A yearbook, also known as an annual, is a type of a book published annually. One use is to record, highlight, and commemorate the past year of a school A ...
'', founded in 1896. Other student publications at the university include the conservative ''
The Michigan Review ''The Michigan Review'' is a news publication in Ann Arbor, Michigan. ''The Review,'' published biweekly, is funded primarily by grants from the conservative/libertarian Collegiate Network, donations, and by advertising revenue. ''The Review'' wa ...
'' and the progressive ''Michigan Independent''. The humor publication '' Gargoyle Humor Magazine'' is also published by Michigan students.
WCBN-FM WCBN-FM is the student-run radio station , Sweden , Norway Radio broadcasting is transmission of audio signal, audio (sound), sometimes with related metadata, by radio waves intended to reach a wide audience. In terrestrial radio broadcasting ...
(88.3 FM) is the student-run
college radio Campus radio (also known as college radio, university radio or student radio) is a type of radio station Radio broadcasting is transmission of audio Audio most commonly refers to sound In physics Physics (from grc, φυσ ...
station which plays in freeform format. WOLV-TV is the student-run television station that is primarily shown on the university's cable television system. WJJX was previously the school's student-run radio station. A
carrier current Carrier current transmission, originally called wired wireless, employs guided low-power radio-frequency signals, which are transmitted along electrical conductors. The transmissions are picked up by receivers that are either connected to the condu ...
station, it was launched in 1953.


Athletics

The University of Michigan's sports teams are called the
Wolverines The wolverine () (also spelled wolverene), ''Gulo gulo'' (''Gulo'' is Latin for "gluttony, glutton"), also referred to as the glutton, carcajou, or quickhatch (from East Cree, ''kwiihkwahaacheew''), is the largest land-dwelling species of the f ...
. They participate in the NCAA's Football Bowl Subdivision (formerly
Division I-A The NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), formerly known as Division I-A, is the highest level of college football College football (french: football universitaire) is gridiron football Gridiron football,
) and in the
Big Ten Conference The Big Ten Conference (stylized B1G, formerly the Western Conference and the Big Nine Conference) is the oldest Division I collegiate athletic conference An athletic conference is a collection of sports team A sports team is a group of i ...
in all sports except women's water polo, which is a member of the Collegiate Water Polo Association. U-M boasts 27 varsity sports, including 13 men's teams and 14 women's teams. In 10 of the past 14 years concluding in 2009, U-M has finished in the top five of the NACDA Director's Cup, a ranking compiled by the National Association of Collegiate Directors of Athletics to tabulate the success of universities in competitive sports. U-M has finished in the top 10 of the Directors' Cup standings in 14 of the award's 16 seasons and has placed in the top six in nine of the last 10 seasons. Michigan's athletic teams compete in NCAA Division I, Division I of the National Collegiate Athletic Association, NCAA and are known as the
Wolverines The wolverine () (also spelled wolverene), ''Gulo gulo'' (''Gulo'' is Latin for "gluttony, glutton"), also referred to as the glutton, carcajou, or quickhatch (from East Cree, ''kwiihkwahaacheew''), is the largest land-dwelling species of the f ...
. More than 250 Michigan athletes or coaches have participated in Olympics, Olympic events, and as of 2021 its students and alumni have won List of American universities with Olympic medals, 155 Olympic medals.
Michigan Stadium Michigan Stadium, nicknamed "The Big House," is the football Football is a family of team sport A team is a [group (disambiguation), group of individuals (human or non-human) working together to achieve their goal. As defined by Profess ...
is the largest college football stadium in the nation and one of the largest football-only stadiums in the world, with an official capacity of 107,601 (the extra seat is said to be "reserved" for Fritz Crisler) though attendance—frequently over 111,000 spectators—regularly exceeds the official capacity. The NCAA's record-breaking attendance has become commonplace at Michigan Stadium. U-M is also home to 29 men's and women's club sports teams, such as rugby, hockey, volleyball, boxing, soccer, and tennis.


National championships

The Michigan Wolverines football, Michigan football program ranks first in NCAA history in total wins (925 through the end of the 2015 season) and first among FBS schools in winning percentage (.731). The team won the first Rose Bowl Game, Rose Bowl game in 1902 Rose Bowl, 1902. U-M had 40 consecutive winning seasons from 1968 to 2007, including consecutive bowl game appearances from 1975 to 2007. The Wolverines have won a record 42 Big Ten championships. The program has 11 College football national championships in NCAA Division I FBS, national championships, most recently in 1997, and has produced three Heisman Trophy winners: Tom Harmon, Desmond Howard and Charles Woodson. The Michigan Wolverines men's ice hockey, men's ice hockey team, which plays at Yost Ice Arena, has won nine NCAA Men's Ice Hockey Championship, national championships. The Michigan Wolverines men's basketball, men's basketball team, which plays at the Crisler Center, has appeared in five NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship, Final Fours and won the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship, national championship in 1989. The program also voluntarily vacated victories from its 1992–1993 and 1995–1999 seasons in which the payments took place, as well as its 1992 and 1993 Final Four appearances. The Michigan Wolverines men's basketball, men's basketball team has most recently won back-to-back Big Ten Tournament Championships.


In the Olympics

Through the 2012 Summer Olympics, 275 U-M students and coaches had participated in the Olympics, winning medals in each Summer Olympic Games except 1896, and winning gold medals in all but four Olympiads. U-M students/student-coaches (e.g., notably, Michael Phelps) have won a total of Michigan Wolverines#Olympians, 185 Olympic medals: 85 golds, 48 silvers, and 52 bronzes.


Fight songs and chants

The University of Michigan's fight song, "The Victors," was written by student Louis Elbel in 1898 following the last-minute football victory over the University of Chicago that won a league championship. The song was declared by John Philip Sousa as "the greatest college fight song ever written." The song refers to the university as being "the Champions of the West." At the time, U-M was part of the Western Conference, which would later become the
Big Ten Conference The Big Ten Conference (stylized B1G, formerly the Western Conference and the Big Nine Conference) is the oldest Division I collegiate athletic conference An athletic conference is a collection of sports team A sports team is a group of i ...
. Michigan was considered to be on the Western Frontier when it was founded in the old Northwest Territory. Although mainly used at sporting events, the Michigan fight song is often heard at other events as well. President Gerald Ford had it played by the United States Marine Band as his entrance anthem during his term as president from 1974 to 1977, in preference over the more traditional "Hail to the Chief", and the
Michigan Marching BandThe Michigan Marching Band (also known as the University of Michigan Marching Band or simply MMB) is the official marching band of the University of Michigan The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, UMich, or Michigan) is a public university ...
performed a slow-tempo variation of the fight song at his funeral. The fight song is also sung during graduation commencement ceremonies. The university's alma mater song is "The Yellow and Blue." A common rally cry is "Let's Go Blue, Let's Go Blue!" which has a complementary short musical arrangement written by former students Joseph Carl, a sousaphonist, and Albert Ahronheim, a Drum major (marching band), drum major. Before "The Victors" was officially the university's fight song, the song "There'll Be a Hot Time in the Old Town Tonight" was considered to be the school song. After Michigan temporarily withdrew from the Western Conference in 1907, a new Michigan fight song "Varsity (fight song), Varsity" was written in 1911 because the line "champions of the West" was no longer appropriate.


Museums

The university is also home to several public and research museums including but not limited to the University of Michigan Museum of Art, University Museum of Art, University of Michigan Museum of Natural History,
Detroit Observatory The Detroit Observatory is located on the corner of Observatory and Ann streets in Ann Arbor, Michigan. It was built in 1854, and was the first scientific research facility at the University of Michigan and one of the oldest observatories of its typ ...

Detroit Observatory
, Sindecuse Museum of Dentistry, and the LSA Museum of Anthropological Archaeology. Kelsey Museum of Archeology has a collection of Roman, Greek, Egyptian, and Middle Eastern artifacts. Between 1972 and 1974, the museum was involved in the excavation of the archaeological site of Dibsi Faraj in northern Syria. The Kelsey Museum re-opened November 1, 2009 after a renovation and expansion. The collection of the University of Michigan Museum of Art include nearly 19,000 objects that span cultures, eras, and media and include European, American, Middle Eastern, Asian, and African art, as well as changing exhibits. The Museum of Art re-opened in 2009 after a three-year renovation and expansion. UMMA presents special exhibitions and diverse educational programs featuring the visual, performing, film and literary arts that contextualize the gallery experience. The University of Michigan Museum of Natural History began in the mid-19th century and expanded greatly with the donation of 60,000 specimens by Joseph Beal Steere in the 1870s. The building also houses three research museums: the Museum of Anthropology, Museum of Paleontology. Today, the collections are primarily housed and displayed in the Ruthven Museums Building which was completed in 1928.


Notable alumni

In addition to the late President of the United States, U.S. president Gerald Ford, the university has, produced thirty-four List of University of Michigan alumni#Pulitzer Prize winners, Pulitzer Prize winners, twenty-seven Rhodes Scholarship, Rhodes Scholars, one Mitchell Scholarship, Mitchell Scholar and nine List of University of Michigan alumni#Nobel laureates, Nobel laureates. , the university has almost 500,000 living alumni. More than 250 Michigan graduates have served as List of University of Michigan legislator alumni, legislators as either a United States Senator (47 graduates) or as a Congressional representative (over 215 graduates), including former House Majority Leader Dick Gephardt and U.S. Representative Justin Amash, who represented Michigan's 3rd congressional district, Michigan's Third Congressional District. Mike Duggan, List of mayors of Detroit, Mayor of Detroit, earned his bachelor's degree and J.D. degree at Michigan, while the former Michigan Governor Rick Snyder earned his bachelor, M.B.A., and J.D. degrees from Michigan. Former United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Ben Carson received his medical degree from the U-M medical school. Thomas E. Dewey, another Michigan alumnus, was the Governor of New York from 1943 to 1954 and was the Republican Party's presidential nominee in the 1944 and 1948 presidential elections. The 13th President of Pakistan, Arif Alvi, completed his master's degree in prosthodontics in 1975. William Rufus Day cph.3b31004.jpg, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States William R. Day, William Rufus Day (B.S.) Justice George Sutherland 5.jpg, Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court George Alexander Sutherland Justice Frank Murphy.jpg, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States Frank Murphy, William Francis Murphy (J.D. 1914) JSMorton.jpg, United States Secretary of Agriculture Julius Sterling Morton (B.A.) David Mills (Canada).jpg, Puisne justice of the Supreme Court of Canada David Mills (Canadian politician), David Mills (LAW: LLB 1867) Chief Justice Maria Lourdes Sereno.jpg, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines Maria Lourdes Sereno (LLM) Gerald Ford (croped).jpg, 38th President of the United States Gerald Ford, Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. (B. A. 1935, HLLD 1974) Mark Malloch Brown 080701-F-1644L-048.jpg, British politician George Mark Malloch Brown, Baron Malloch-Brown (MA) Official portrait of Lord Flight crop 2.jpg, British politician Howard Flight, Howard Emerson Flight, Baron Flight (BUS: MBA) William A. Comstock (Michigan Governor).jpg, 33rd Governor of Michigan William Comstock, William Alfred Comstock U-M's contributions to aeronautics include aircraft designer Clarence "Kelly" Johnson of Lockheed Corporation, Lockheed Skunk Works fame, Lockheed president Willis Hawkins, and several astronauts including the all-U-M crews of both Gemini 4 and Apollo 15. List of University of Michigan alumni#Computers, engineering, and technology, Numerous U-M graduates contributed greatly to the field of computer science, including Claude Shannon (who made major contributions to the mathematics of information theory), and Turing Award winners Edgar Codd, Stephen Cook, Frances E. Allen and Michael Stonebraker. U-M also counts among its alumni List of University of Michigan business alumni#Billionaires, nearly two dozen billionaires, including prominent tech-company founders and co-founders such as John Robert Beyster, Dr. J. Robert Beyster, who founded Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) in 1969 and
Google Google LLC is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational stat ...

Google
co-founder Larry Page. Thomas Huckle Weller.jpg, Virologist and Nobel laureate in Physiology or Medicine Thomas Huckle Weller (A.B. 1936, M.S. 1937) ClaudeShannon MFO3807.jpg, Mathematician, electrical engineer, and cryptographer Claude Shannon (A.B., B.S.E.E.) Alice Hamilton.jpg, Physician, research scientist, and author Alice Hamilton (MED: MD 1893) Detlev Wulf Bronk.jpg, President of the National Academy of Sciences Detlev Bronk Stanley Cohen-Biochemist.jpg, Biochemist and Nobel laureate in Physiology or Medicine Stanley Cohen (biochemist), Stanley Cohen (Ph.D. 1949) Robert Shiller - World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2012 (cropped).jpg, Economist and Nobel laureate in economics Robert Shiller (BA 1967) RobertCailliau-2019-09-04 (cropped).jpg, Co-developer of the World Wide Web Robert Cailliau (COE: MSc Computer, Information and Control Engineering 1971) Several prominent and/or groundbreaking women have studied at Michigan—by 1900, nearly 150 women had received advanced degrees from U-M. Sarah Dix Hamlin was the first female student accepted to the University of Michigan. She graduated in 1874. Marjorie Lee Browne received her M.S. in 1939 and her doctoral degree in 1950, becoming the third African American woman to earn a PhD in mathematics. Many, however, were forced to leave the university to continue their studies or to become faculty in their own right elsewhere, like Katharine Coman—when U-M President James Angell offered her a "Dean of Women" position, she told him that ″′if the regents...wish to propose a chaperone for students, and propose to dignify that office by allowing the woman who holds it to do a little University teaching,′ she was not interested. If, however, the regents accepted women as equal partners and as faculty, and if she were one of several women given proper rank and authority, she would consider it.″ Michigan's Regents did not accept, so instead Coman became dean, founder of the Economics Department, and the first female Statistics education, statistics professor in the US at
Wellesley College Wellesley College is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...

Wellesley College
. Edgar N Gott ca 1930.jpg, Co-founder and first president of The Boeing Company Edgar Gott (COE: 1909) Frederick Latta Smith.png, Co-founder of General Motors Frederic L. Smith Charlie Munger (cropped).jpg, Vice Chairman of Berkshire Hathaway Charlie Munger (MDNG) Larry_Page_in_the_European_Parliament,_17.06.2009_(cropped).jpg, Co-founder of Alphabet Inc., Alphabet Larry Page (COE: BSE 1995) David Barger.JPG, Co-founder and former president of JetBlue Airways David J. Barger Notable writers who attended U-M include playwright Arthur Miller, essayists Susan Orlean, Jia Tolentino, Sven Birkerts, journalists and editors Mike Wallace, Jonathan Chait of ''The New Republic'', Indian author and columnist Anees Jung, Daniel Okrent, and Sandra Steingraber, food critics Ruth Reichl and Gael Greene, novelists Brett Ellen Block, Elizabeth Kostova, Marge Piercy, Brad Meltzer, Betty Smith, and Charles Major (writer), Charles Major, screenwriter Judith Guest, Pulitzer Prize-winning poet Theodore Roethke, National Book Award winners Keith Waldrop and Jesmyn Ward, composer/author/puppeteer Forman Brown, and Alireza Jafarzadeh (a Middle East analyst, author, and TV commentator). In Cinema of the United States, Hollywood, famous alumni include actors Michael Dunn (actor), Michael Dunn, Darren Criss, James Earl Jones, David Alan Grier, actresses Lucy Liu, Gilda Radner, and Selma Blair, television director Mark Cendrowski, and filmmaker Lawrence Kasdan. Many Broadway and musical theatre actors, including Gavin Creel, Andrew Keenan-Bolger, his sister Celia Keenan-Bolger, and Taylor Louderman attended U-M for musical theatre. The musical theatre group StarKid Productions had their start at the university, and staged multiple productions there. Musical graduates include operatic soprano Jessye Norman, singer Joe Dassin, jazz guitarist Randy Napoleon, and Mannheim Steamroller founder Chip Davis. Well-known composers who are alumni include Frank Ticheli, Andrew Lippa, and the Oscar and Tony Award-winning duo Pasek and Paul, Benj Pasek and Justin Paul. Pop Superstar Madonna (entertainer), Madonna and rock legend Iggy Pop, attended but did not graduate. Other U-M graduates include the Unambomber Ted Kaczynski, former Dean of Harvard Law School Martha Minow, Dean of the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania Erika H. James, current Dean of
Yale Law School Yale Law School (often referred to as Yale Law or YLS) is the law school A law school (also known as a law centre or college of law) is an institution specializing in legal education Legal education is the education of individuals in the ...
, Heather K. Gerken, Heather Gerken, assisted-suicide advocate Dr. Jack Kevorkian,
Weather Underground The Weather Underground Organization (WUO), commonly known as the Weather Underground, was a radical left militant organization active in the late 1960s and 1970s, founded on the Ann Arbor campus of the University of Michigan The Univers ...
radical activist Bill Ayers, activist Tom Hayden, architect Charles Willard Moore, Charles Moore, the Swedish Holocaust hero Raoul Wallenberg, and Civil War General Benjamin D. Pritchard. Neurosurgeon and CNN chief medical correspondent Sanjay Gupta attended both college and medical school at the university. Clarence Darrow attended law school at U-M at a time when many lawyers did not receive any formal education. Frank Murphy, who was mayor of Detroit, governor of Michigan, United States Attorney General, attorney general of the United States, and Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, Supreme Court justice was also a graduate of the Law School. Conservative pundit Ann Coulter is another U-M law school graduate (J.D. 1988). Vaughn R. Walker, a United States district court, federal district judge in California who overturned the controversial California Proposition 8 (2008), California Proposition 8 in 2010 and ruled it unconstitutional, received his undergraduate degree from U-M in 1966. Kenneth Marin, who became a professor of economics after he graduated from the University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, was appointed by President
Lyndon B. Johnson Lyndon Baines Johnson (; August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was the 36th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the ...

Lyndon B. Johnson
as a member of the White House Consumer Advisory Council where he served on Wage and Price Control in the mid-1960s. He went to Tanzania in the late sixties and worked as an economic advisor to the government of President Julius Nyerere until the early 1970s. U-M athletes have starred in Major League Baseball, the National Football League and National Basketball Association as well as other professional sports. Notable among recent players is Tom Brady of the New England Patriots and the Tampa Bay Buccaneers. Three players have won college football's Heisman Trophy, awarded to the player considered the best in the nation: Tom Harmon (1940), Desmond Howard (1991) and Charles Woodson (1997). Professional golfer John Schroeder (golfer), John Schroeder and Olympic swimmer Michael Phelps also attended the University of Michigan, with the latter studying Sports Marketing and Management. Phelps also swam competitively for Michigan Wolverines swimming and diving#Club Wolverine, Club Wolverine, a swimming club associated with the university. National Hockey League players Marty Turco, Chris Summers (ice hockey), Chris Summers, Max Pacioretty, Carl Hagelin, Dylan Larkin, Zach Hyman, Brendan Morrison, Jack Johnson (ice hockey), Jack Johnson, and Michael Cammalleri all played for U-M's ice hockey team. Baseball Hall of Famers George Sisler and Barry Larkin also played baseball at the university. Several team owners have also been alumni, including multiple-team owner Bill Davidson (businessman), Bill Davidson (NBA Detroit Pistons, NHL Tampa Bay Lightning, WNBA Detroit Shock, among others) and NFL owners Stephen M. Ross (Miami Dolphins), Preston Robert Tisch (New York Giants), and Ralph Wilson (Buffalo Bills). The university claims the only alumni association with a chapter on the moon, established in 1971 when the crew of Apollo 15 (two of whom had engineering degrees from U-M; the third had attended for a year before transferring) placed a charter plaque for a new U-M Alumni Association on the lunar surface. The plaque states: "The Alumni Association of The University of Michigan. Charter Number 1. This is to certify that The University of Michigan Club of The Moon is a duly constituted unit of the Alumni Association and entitled to all the rights and privileges under the Association's Constitution." Several small U-M flags were also brought on the mission; a persistent campus legend claims at least one flag was left on the moon.


Honorary alumni

File:1st Earl of Halifax 1947.jpg, Edward Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax, Edward Wood (HLLD 1944), 1st Earl of Halifax File:Haile Selassie 1963.jpg, Haile Selassie I (HDCL 1954), Emperor of Ethiopia File:Soekarno 1959.jpg, Sukarno (HDCL 1956), First President of Indonesia File:Koningin Juliana heeft op paleis Soestdijk B.M. Leito beëdigd als gouverneur van, Bestanddeelnr 923-6352 (crop).jpg, Queen Juliana (HDCL 1965), Queen of the Netherlands File:Nelson Mandela.jpg, Nelson Mandela (HLLD 1987), Father of the Nation for South Africa File:Elie Wiesel 2012 Shankbone.JPG, Elie Wiesel (HDHL 1992), Recipient of Nobel Peace Prize in 1986


References


External links

*
University of Michigan Athletics website
* * {{DEFAULTSORT:Michigan, University Of Michigan University of Michigan, Public universities and colleges in Michigan, University of Michigan Universities and colleges in Washtenaw County, Michigan, University of Michigan Education in Ann Arbor, Michigan, University of Michigan Flagship universities in the United States Public university systems in the United States Schools of public health in the United States Educational institutions established in 1817, University of Michigan 1817 establishments in Michigan Territory, University of Michigan Tourist attractions in Ann Arbor, Michigan, University of Michigan Big Ten Conference schools