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The University of London Worldwide (previously called the University of London International Academy) is the central academic body that manages external study programmes within the
federal Federal or foederal (archaic) may refer to: Politics General *Federal monarchy, a federation of monarchies *Federation, or ''Federal state'' (federal system), a type of government characterized by both a central (federal) government and states or ...
University of London The University of London (UoL; abbreviated as Lond or more rarely Londin in post-nominals Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles, designatory letters or simply post-nominals, are letters placed after a p ...
. All courses are branded as simply "University of London", having previously been "University of London International Programmes" and earlier "University of London External Programmes". It claims to be the world's oldest distance and flexible learning body, established under the University of London's
royal charter A royal charter is a formal grant issued by a monarch under royal prerogative The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege and immunity, recognized in common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or ...

royal charter
of 1858, although academics have disputed whether it offered distance learning at that time. Several member institutions of the
University of London The University of London (UoL; abbreviated as Lond or more rarely Londin in post-nominals Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles, designatory letters or simply post-nominals, are letters placed after a p ...
offer degrees through the programme, including
Birkbeck
Birkbeck
, Goldsmiths,
King's College London King's College London (informally King's or KCL) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or ...
,
London School of Economics , mottoeng = To understand the causes of things , established = 1895 , type = Public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization ...
,
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine The London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) is a public university, public research university in Bloomsbury, central London, and a constituent college of the University of London that specialises in public health and tropical medi ...
, Queen Mary,
Royal Holloway Royal Holloway, University of London (RHUL), formally incorporated as Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, is a public university, public research university and a constituent college of the federal University of London. It has six schools, ...

Royal Holloway
,
Royal Veterinary College , mottoeng = Confront disease at onset , established = (became a constituent part of University of London The University of London (UoL; abbreviated as Lond or more rarely Londin in post-nominals Post-nominal letters, also called po ...

Royal Veterinary College
,
School of Oriental and African Studies SOAS University of London (; the School of Oriental and African Studies) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization A ...
and
University College London University College London, which Trade name, operates as UCL, is a major public university , public research university located in London, United Kingdom. UCL is a Member institutions of the University of London, member institution of the Federa ...
. The system offers courses of study for
undergraduate Undergraduate education ieducationconducted after secondary education and prior to postgraduate education. It typically includes all postsecondary programs up to the level of a bachelor's degree. For example, in the United States, an entry-level ...
and
postgraduate Postgraduate education (graduate education in North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, u ...
diplomas and degrees to more than 50,000 students around the world."About Us", University of London International Programmes Website http://www.londoninternational.ac.uk/about_us/index.shtml A designated member institution of the University of London acts as the lead institution for each course and is responsible for creating materials to allow students to study at their own pace. Examinations take place at testing centres around the world on specified dates. Hallmarks of the programme are its low cost in comparison to attendance in London, and the possibility of pursuing either full-time or part-time study. As stated in the University of London Statutes,University of London Statutes, 14 December 2005 http://www.london.ac.uk/fileadmin/documents/about/governance/statutes.pdf International Programmes students are graded on the same standard as internal students to ensure a uniform credentialing process.University of London Parity Standards, Document http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/about_us/related_docs/parity_standards.pdf A student who completes a course of study under the programme is awarded a University of London degree with a notation specifying which lead institution provided the instruction. , there are over 100,000 University of London
distance learning Distance education, also known as distance learning, is the education of students who may not always be physically present at a school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments f ...
alumni across the world, which include 7
Nobel laureates The Nobel Prize The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel Alfred Bernhard Nobel ( , ; 21 October 1833 – 10 December 1896) was a Swedish chemist, engine ...
, numerous presidents or prime ministers, current and former leaders of the
Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations, generally known simply as the Commonwealth, is a political association of 54 member states, almost all of which are former territories A territory is an administrative division, usually an area that is under the ...

Commonwealth of Nations
, government ministers and
Members of Parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their constituency An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, constituency, riding, ward, division, (election) ...
, academicians and notable
judge A judge is a person who presides over court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In th ...

judge
s. Currently, the global community of registered students number over 50,000 students in more than 180 countries including
Antarctica Antarctica ( or ) is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Oc ...

Antarctica
.


History

The institution that later became known as
University College London University College London, which Trade name, operates as UCL, is a major public university , public research university located in London, United Kingdom. UCL is a Member institutions of the University of London, member institution of the Federa ...
was established in 1826 and opened in 1828 under the name "London University", although without official recognition of university status. The institution – following the Scottish model in curriculum and teaching – was
non-denominational A non-denominational person or organization that does not follow or is not restricted to any particular or specific religious denomination A religious denomination is a subgroup within a religion Religion is a social Social organisms, in ...
and, given the intense religious rivalries at the time, there was an outcry against the "godless" university. The issue soon boiled down to which institutions had
degree Degree may refer to: As a unit of measurement * Degree (angle) Image:Degree diagram.svg, One degree (shown in red) andeighty nine degrees (shown in blue) A degree (in full, a degree of arc, arc degree, or arcdegree), usually denoted by ° ( ...
-granting powers and which institutions did not. The compromise solution that emerged in 1836 was that the sole authority to conduct the examinations leading to degrees would be given to a new officially recognised entity called the "University of London", which would act as examining body for the University of London colleges, originally
University College London University College London, which Trade name, operates as UCL, is a major public university , public research university located in London, United Kingdom. UCL is a Member institutions of the University of London, member institution of the Federa ...
and
King's College London King's College London (informally King's or KCL) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or ...
, and award their students University of London degrees. As
Sheldon Rothblatt Sheldon may refer to: * Sheldon (name), a given name and a surname, and a list of people with the name Places Australia *Sheldon, Queensland *Sheldon Forest, New South Wales United Kingdom *Sheldon, Derbyshire, England *Sheldon, Devon, England *S ...
states, "thus arose in nearly archetypal form the famous English distinction between
teaching Education is the process of facilitating learning Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding, knowledge, behaviors, skills, value (personal and cultural), values, attitudes, and preferences. The ability to learn is possessed ...

teaching
and
exam A test or examination (exam or evaluation) is an educational assessment Educational assessment or educational evaluation is the systematic process of documenting and using empirical data on the knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity o ...
ining, here embodied in separate institutions." With the state giving examining powers to a separate entity, the groundwork was laid for the creation of a programme within the new university that would both administer examinations and award qualifications to students taking instruction at another institution or pursuing a course of self-directed study.


People's University and larger role

The 1858 charter of the University of London allowed students at any college, whether affiliated or not, self-taught students, students with private tutors and students taking correspondence courses to sit University of London exams on payment of the £5 fee. On this basis, the
University of London The University of London (UoL; abbreviated as Lond or more rarely Londin in post-nominals Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles, designatory letters or simply post-nominals, are letters placed after a p ...
has claimed to be the first university to offer distance learning degrees, although its role at that time was limited to that of an examining board. Thanapal (2015) states that "the original degree by external study of the UOL was not a form of distance education". In 1858, British weekly
literary magazine A literary magazine is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of Serial (publishing), serial published, publications that appear in a new edition on a regular schedule. Th ...
named
All the Year Round ''All the Year Round'' was a Victorian literature, Victorian periodical, being a British weekly literary magazine founded and owned by Charles Dickens, published between 1859 and 1895 throughout the United Kingdom. Edited by Dickens, it was the d ...

All the Year Round
, founded and owned by
Charles Dickens Charles John Huffam Dickens (; 7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's best-known fictional characters and is regarded by many as the greatest novelist of the Victorian e ...

Charles Dickens
, coined the term “The People’s University” or “The English People’s University”, to describe the University of London as it provided access to
higher education Higher education is tertiary education Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary education, is the education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge ...
to students from less affluent backgrounds. Several current degree-awarding universities started as colleges presenting candidates for University of London degrees, such as
Owens College Owens may refer to: Places in the United States * Owens Station, Delaware * Owens Township, St. Louis County, Minnesota *Owens, Missouri Owens is an unincorporated community in Wright County, Missouri, Wright County, in the U.S. state of Missouri. ...
which later became part of the Victoria University and eventually the
University of Manchester , mottoeng = Knowledge, Wisdom, Humanity , established = 2004 – University of Manchester Predecessor institutions: 1956 – UMIST , mottoeng = By Knowledge and Work , established = 1824 , closed = 2004 (merge ...

University of Manchester
. The external system continued to expand from its London base with examinations for non-collegiate students held in
Gibraltar ) , anthem = "God Save the Queen" , song = "Gibraltar Anthem" , image_map = Gibraltar location in Europe.svg , map_alt = Location of Gibraltar in Europe , map_caption = United Kingdom shown in pale green , mapsize = 290px , image_map2 = ...

Gibraltar
(1867),
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
(1868), Tasmania and West Indies (1869),
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...
(1880),
Ceylon Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකා, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO; ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island ...

Ceylon
(1882),
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Pe ...

Hong Kong
(1888), with 18 centers worldwide by 1899. With the reform of the University of London from an examining board to a federal university in 1900, the existing examination system became the External System, with the newly-federated colleges in London forming the Internal System (with the university taking responsibility for approving courses and teachers). Both external and internal students continued to be awarded the same University of London degrees. The University of London examination system and the External System were instrumental in the formation of British higher education. Most English and Welsh university colleges founded between 1849 and 1949 (exceptions include Newcastle, linked with Durham from its foundation in 1871, and Swansea, part of the University of Wales from its foundation in 1920) served what was a form of 'apprenticeship' through offering London degrees by external study for a period (which could vary considerably in length), before receiving authorisation to award their own degrees and becoming universities in their own right. The External System also played a significant role in establishing many Commonwealth universities under a unique scheme of ‘special relations’. Enrolment increased steadily in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and during the Second World War there was a further increase in enrolments from soldiers stationed abroad as well as soldiers imprisoned in German
POW POW POW is "prisoner of war", a person, whether civilian or combatant, who is held in custody by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. POW or pow may also refer to: Music * P.O.W (Bullet for My Valentine song), "P.O.W" ( ...
camps. Because the
Geneva Convention (1929)Geneva Convention (1929) may refer to: * Geneva Convention on Prisoners of War (1929) * Geneva Convention on the Wounded and Sick (1929) {{disambiguation ...
stipulated that every
prisoner of war A prisoner of war (POW) is a non-combatant Non-combatant is a term of art Jargon is the specialized terminology associated with a particular field or area of activity. Jargon is normally employed in a particular Context (language use), c ...
, in addition to being entitled to adequate food and medical care, had the right to exchange correspondence and receive parcels, many British POWs took advantage of this opportunity and enrolled in the University of London External Programme. The soldiers were sent study materials by mail, and at specified intervals sat for proctored exams in the camps. Almost 11,000 exams were taken at 88 camps between 1940 and 1945. Though the failure rate was high, substantial numbers of soldiers earned degrees while imprisoned. However, as more universities were established in Britain and the Commonwealth in the decades following the second world war, the demand for the external system dropped. In 1972 it was announced that the external system would stop registering students at public institutions from 1977, and in 1977 overseas registrations were also stopped, although these were reopened in 1982. In 1985–6, there were 24,500 students registered for external degrees in six main subject areas.
Law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its bounda ...
was by far the biggest subject, with 75 percent of all enrollments. In 1985, 358 LLBs were awarded to internal students; in the same year 298 graduated with external LLBs. Reform of the external system in 1987 saw colleges contracted (either individually or, as in the case of Law, as a consortium) by the university to provide academic support for external students. This established the concept of the "lead college" on a course, and led to programme directors in the lead colleges taking on not just examinations but also the delivery of the courses and, in collaboration with academics in the colleges, the development of teaching materials The University of London International Programmes commemorated its 150th anniversary in 2008. A specially commissioned anniversary book was produced to mark the occasion.


Research programmes and degrees

With the advent of inexpensive airmail services after the war, the number of external students taking University of London courses increased dramatically. According to relevant Regulations, until 2000 University of London external students could pursue research leading to the award of
Master of Philosophy The Master of Philosophy (MPhil; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the ...
(MPhil) or
Doctor of Philosophy A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Throug ...
(PhD) albeit the completion rate had been rather low.


Current system

The system offers courses of study for
undergraduate Undergraduate education ieducationconducted after secondary education and prior to postgraduate education. It typically includes all postsecondary programs up to the level of a bachelor's degree. For example, in the United States, an entry-level ...
and
postgraduate Postgraduate education (graduate education in North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, u ...
diplomas and degrees to more than 50,000 students around the world. A designated constituent institution of the University of London, called the "lead college", creates materials to allow students to study at their own pace. Examinations take place at testing centres around the world on specified dates. Hallmarks of the programme are its low cost in comparison to attendance in London, and the possibility of pursuing either full-time or part-time study. As stated in the University of London Statutes, International Programmes students are graded on the same standard as internal students to ensure a uniform credentialing process. A student who completes a course of study under the program is awarded a University of London degree with a notation specifying which lead college provided the instruction. Students enrolled in the University of London International Programmes are members of the University of London. International Programmes Students however, have very limited student representation within the University. There are also differences over the status International Programmes Students have with respect to their lead college. Some institutions co-register their International Programmes Students as college members (e.g. SOAS, LSHTM), in addition to their status as University of London member. However, other colleges deny International Programmes Students membership status and privileges when they are present in London (e.g. LSE). Academics at the University of London are responsible for the academic direction of the International Programmes. When the International Programmes was audited in 2005 by the
Quality Assurance Agency Quality may refer to: Concepts *Quality (business) In business, engineering, and manufacturing, quality – or high quality – has a pragmatic interpretation as the non-inferiority or wikt:superiority, superiority of something; it's also defin ...
(QAA), the auditors concluded that 'broad confidence' could be placed in the University's management and the awards made through the External System ('broad confidence' is "the best verdict any institution can be given by the auditors").University of London Press Release, "Vote of confidence in delivering world-wide education for the University of London", 10 April 2006 http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/news_events/archive/docs/ext_prog_press_06.pdf The 'confidence' was once again reiterated in the QAA's 2011 Institutional Audit, attesting to the quality of the program provision.University of London International Programs, Institutional Audit", May 2011 http://www.qaa.ac.uk/en/ReviewsAndReports/Documents/University%20of%20London%20International%20Programmes/University-of-London-International-Programmes-annex-IA-11.pdf Most International Programmes Students are in former territories of the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
. There are more than 9,000 students enrolled in the programme in
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bor ...

Singapore
notably the SIM Global Education,"Study in Singapore for a University of London Degree", Website http://www.londoninternational.ac.uk/sg/ 5,000 in
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Pe ...

Hong Kong
,"Study in Hong Kong for a University of London Degree", Website http://www.londoninternational.ac.uk/hk/ 3,000 in
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago (, ), officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is the southernmost island country in the Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean C ...

Trinidad and Tobago
,"Study in Trinidad and Tobago for a University of London Degree", Website http://www.londoninternational.ac.uk/trinidad/ 2,000 in
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Malaysia
,"Study in Malaysia for a University of London Degree", Website http://www.londoninternational.ac.uk/mly/ 1,900 in Pakistan,"Study in Pakistan for a University of London Degree", Website http://www.londoninternational.ac.uk/pak/ 1,200 in
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...

Bangladesh
,"Study in Bangladesh for a University of London Degree", Website http://www.londoninternational.ac.uk/bn/ 800 in
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකාව, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO (); ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO ()), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is ...

Sri Lanka
,"Study in Sri Lanka for a University of London Degree", Website http://www.londoninternational.ac.uk/sri/ 1,000 in Canada,"Study in Canada for a University of London Degree", Website http://www.londoninternational.ac.uk/canada/ between 1,000 and 1,999 in the United States,"Study in the United States for a University of London Degree", Website http://www.londoninternational.ac.uk/usa/ 300 in
Malta Malta ( , , ), officially known as the Republic of Malta ( mt, Repubblika ta' Malta ) and formerly Melita, is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. It lies south of Italy, east of Tunisi ...

Malta
,"Study in Malta for a University of London Degree", Website http://www.londoninternational.ac.uk/mt/ more than 200 in Australia, more than 200 in
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...

South Africa
, more than 30 in New Zealand and many hundreds in India,"Study in India for a University of London Degree", Website http://www.londoninternational.ac.uk/ind/ among other countries. Furthermore, there are around 1,000 students in
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
participating in this programme.


Name changes

In November 2007, the University of London External Programme became known as the University of London External System. In August 2010, the name was once again changed to University of London International Programmes in response to feedback that the programme needed a clear, simpler and more inclusive name that described what the University of London offered to almost 50,000 students in 180 countries. As from February 2018, University of London International Programmes changed its name to just University of London. The logo has been also changed to University of London, instead having its own logo.


Participating colleges and institutes of the University of London

* * Goldsmiths *
UCL Institute of Education IOE, UCL's Faculty of Education and Society (IOE) is the education school of University College London (UCL). It specialises in postgraduate study and research in the field of education and is one of UCL's University College London#Faculties a ...
*
King's College London King's College London (informally King's or KCL) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or ...
*
London School of Economics , mottoeng = To understand the causes of things , established = 1895 , type = Public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization ...
*
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine The London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) is a public university, public research university in Bloomsbury, central London, and a constituent college of the University of London that specialises in public health and tropical medi ...
* Queen Mary *
Royal Holloway Royal Holloway, University of London (RHUL), formally incorporated as Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, is a public university, public research university and a constituent college of the federal University of London. It has six schools, ...

Royal Holloway
*
Royal Veterinary College , mottoeng = Confront disease at onset , established = (became a constituent part of University of London The University of London (UoL; abbreviated as Lond or more rarely Londin in post-nominals Post-nominal letters, also called po ...

Royal Veterinary College
*
School of Oriental and African Studies SOAS University of London (; the School of Oriental and African Studies) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization A ...
*
University College London University College London, which Trade name, operates as UCL, is a major public university , public research university located in London, United Kingdom. UCL is a Member institutions of the University of London, member institution of the Federa ...
After
Imperial College London Imperial College London (legally Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine) is a Public university, public research university in London. Imperial grew out of Albert, Prince Consort, Prince Albert's Albertopolis, vision for a cultural ce ...

Imperial College London
left the university in July 2007, the
School of Oriental and African Studies SOAS University of London (; the School of Oriental and African Studies) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization A ...
became the lead college for the external degrees previously led by Imperial.. Following the closure of
Heythrop College Heythrop College, University of London, was a constituent college of the University of London between 1971 and 2018, last located in Kensington Square, London. It comprised the university's specialist faculties of philosophy and theology with soc ...
in January 2019, academic direction on distance learning courses in
divinity Divinity or the divine are things that are either related to, devoted to, or proceeding from a deity A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena that are not subject to the laws of nature.https://ww ...
is provided by the University of London rather than by one of the colleges.


Independent teaching institutions

In Europe, North America, the Middle East, South Asia and East Asia many students participating in University of London International Programmes seek out tuition at one of the more than 150 private or non-profit institutions that prepare students for University of London examinations. Such institutions may be audited and, if found to meet quality standards, may become "recognised" by the University for the support offered. Starting August 2010, the External System programmes were renamed University of London International Programmes. The central academic body of the university, collaborating with the colleges of the University of London, is renamed University of London International Academy, term mainly used internally. In parallel to this change, the teaching institutions are now categorized into Registered and Affiliate centers (collectively known as recognised centres). Students can either decide to study entirely by themselves, or to enjoy the administrative and academic support of the institutions that are recognised by the University of London for the International Programmes. Registered Centres have demonstrated commitment to developing high standards in respect of teaching, support to students and administrative processes. Affiliate Centres have demonstrated a sustained commitment to developing excellence in respect of quality of teaching, support to students and administrative processes. Affiliate Centre status is the highest level of recognition awarded by the University of London. Recognition applies to specific programmes on named campuses.
New College of the Humanities New College of the Humanities (NCH) is a college of higher education in London, England. It was founded as a private college by the philosopher A. C. Grayling, who became its first Master (college), Master. The college, which grants undergradua ...
, a private college founded in London in 2011, though not affiliated with the University of London, also plans to register its students for degrees through the programme.


Academic profile


Programmes and degrees

University of London currently offers 31 undergraduate degrees and 38 postgraduate degrees and also several diplomas. All degrees are created, monitored and examined by the colleges of the University of London. In 2019, the University of London Worldwide and the LSE announced a partnership with 2U to deliver a fully online bachelor's degree in data science and business analytics through 2U's online platform.


Scholarships and financial support

In 2020,
József Váradi József János Váradi (born 21 September 1965) is a Hungarian businessman, who co-founded Wizz Air and has served as its chief executive officer (CEO) since 2003. Early life Váradi was born in Debrecen, Hungary in 1965. Growing up in difficul ...
donated £1 million to the university for support of external scholarship and aid. Organisations such as Commonwealth Scholarships, Sir John Cass's Foundation scholarship and individual scholarship like
Guy Goodwin-Gill Guy Goodwin-Gill is a barrister and a professor of public international law at Oxford University and a Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. His research areas include international organisations, human rights, migrants and refugees, elections and ...
scholarship,
Sadako Ogata , was a Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat ...

Sadako Ogata
scholarships are available for external students.


Influence

The University of London external system has played an important role in the development of higher education institutions in Britain. Many leading
research universities A research university is a university A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several Discipline (academia) ...
in England started out as "
university college In a number of countries, a university college is a college A college (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication ...
s" that prepared students for external degrees of the University of London. Some technical colleges in England and Scotland also awarded University of London degrees and certificates prior to becoming polytechnics and then universities. Examples include the
University of Nottingham , mottoeng = A city is built on wisdom , established = 1798 – teacher training college1881 – University College Nottingham1948 – university status , type = Public In public relations Public relations (PR) ...
, the
University of Leicester , mottoeng = So that they may have life , established = 1921 – Leicestershire and Rutland University College1957 – gained university status A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher ...
and the
University of Exeter , mottoeng = We Follow The Light , established = 1838 - St Luke's College1855 - Exeter School of Art1863 - Exeter School of Science 1955 - University of Exeter (received royal charter A royal charter is a formal grant issued by a monarch ...

University of Exeter
in England,
Cardiff University , latin_name = , image_name = Shield of the University of Cardiff.svg , image_size = 150px , caption = Coat of arms#REDIRECT coat of arms A coat of arms is a heraldry, heraldic communication design, visual design on an escutcheon (herald ...
and
Bangor University , former_names = University College of North Wales (1884–1996) University of Wales, Bangor (1996–2007) , image_name = File:Bangor University logo.jpg , image_size = 250px , motto = cy, Gorau Dawn Deall , mottoeng = " ...

Bangor University
prior to joining the
University of Wales , latin_name = , image = , motto = cy, Goreu Awen Gwirionedd , mottoeng = The Best Inspiration is Truth , established = , , type = Confederal A confederation (also known as a confede ...

University of Wales
and becoming independent and
Robert Gordon University , mottoeng = Now by all your mastered arts , established = 1992 (origins mid-18th century) , type = Public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or a ...
in Scotland. This was a common way of establishing new universities in Britain and around the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
during the first half of the twentieth century. Many universities in the
Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good Common good Common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about r ...

Commonwealth
began as extension institutions or a provider of the programme. Notable examples include
Ceylon University College Ceylon University College was a public university, public university college in British Ceylon, Ceylon. Established in 1921, it was Ceylon's first attempt at university education. The college didn't award Academic degree, degrees under its own name ...
in
Ceylon Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකා, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO; ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island ...
, University College Ibadan (now the
University of Ibadan The University of Ibadan (UI) is a public research university A public university or public college is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertia ...

University of Ibadan
) in
Nigeria Nigeria (), officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of . The defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and as we ...

Nigeria
, the former
University of East Africa The University of East Africa was established on June 1963, 29 June 1963"Universities: East Africa", ''A Historical Companion To Postcolonial Thought In English'' (Columbia University Press, 2005) Prem Poddar and David Johnson, eds., p489 and serv ...
's three constituent institutions and the
University of the West Indies The University of the West Indies (UWI), originally University College of the West Indies, is a public university system established to serve the higher education Higher education is tertiary education Tertiary education, also referr ...
in the
Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles ...
.


Online MOOCs

In 2012, University of London International Programmes became the first British higher education institution to join
Coursera Coursera Inc. () is a U.S.-based massive open online course A massive open online course (MOOC ) is an online course Educational technology (commonly abbreviated as EduTech, or EdTech) is the combined use of computer hardware, software, an ...

Coursera
and offer mass open online courses through their platform. By 2016, total enrollments had crossed 1 million. In 2018 the University of London, its member institution
Goldsmiths, University of London Goldsmiths, University of London, is a public university, public research university in London, England, specialising in the arts, design, humanities, and social sciences. It is a constituent college of the University of London. It was founded i ...
, and Coursera announced they were collaborating to offer the first undergraduate Computer Science degree on the platform.


Notable alumni

The degree graduates from the International Programmes are member of the University of London International Programmes Alumni Association and formal alumni of the University of London.


Nobel laureates

At least seven
Nobel Prizes The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel's Will and testament, will of 1895, are awarded to "those who, during the preceding year, have conferred the greatest benefit to ...
have been awarded to alumni of the University of London
distance learning Distance education, also known as distance learning, is the education of students who may not always be physically present at a school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments f ...
students in external mode: * Ronald H. Coase (
Economic Sciences Economics () is a social science that studies the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on the behaviour and interact ...
, 1991) *
Frederick Gowland Hopkins Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins (20 June 1861 – 16 May 1947) was an English biochemist Biochemists are scientists who are trained in biochemistry Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical process In a scienti ...
( Physiology or Medicine, 1929) * Charles K. Kao (
Physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical scie ...
, 2009) *
Nelson Mandela Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (born Rolihlahla Mandela ; ; 18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader and philanthropist who served as the first president of South Africa Th ...

Nelson Mandela
(
Peace Peace is a concept of societal friendship and harmony in the absence of hostility Hostility is seen as form of emotionally charged aggressive behavior. In everyday speech it is more commonly used as a synonym A synonym is a word, morph ...
, 1993) *
Rolph Payet Rolph Antoine Payet FRGS (born 4 August 1968) is an international policy expert, researcher and speaker on environment, climate and island issues, and was the first President & Vice-Chancellor of the University of Seychelles. He was Minister of E ...

Rolph Payet
, Lead author of
IPCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is an intergovernmental body of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, ...
(
Peace Peace is a concept of societal friendship and harmony in the absence of hostility Hostility is seen as form of emotionally charged aggressive behavior. In everyday speech it is more commonly used as a synonym A synonym is a word, morph ...
, 2007); HonDSc (2016) *
Wole Soyinka Akinwande Oluwole Babatunde Soyinka (Yoruba Yoruba may refer to: * Yoruba people The Yoruba people () are a Sub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa (commonly called Black Africa) is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa t ...
(
Literature Literature broadly is any collection of written Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy), entitie ...
, 1986) *
Derek Walcott Sir Derek Alton Walcott (23 January 1930 – 17 March 2017) was a Saint Lucia Saint Lucia (, ; french: Sainte-Lucie) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, terr ...

Derek Walcott
(
Literature Literature broadly is any collection of written Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy), entitie ...
, 1992)


Presidents, Prime Ministers, politicians

*
Emeka Anyaoku Chieftain, Chief Emeka Anyaoku, Royal Victorian Order, GCVO, Nigerian National Honours, CFR, Nigerian National Honours, CON (born 18 January 1933)"Anyaoku, Eleazar Chukwuemeka", in ''Africa Who's Who'', London: Africa Journal for Africa Books L ...
, 3rd Secretary-General of the Commonwealth of Nations *
Luisa Diogo Luisa (Italian language, Italian and Spanish language, Spanish), Luísa (Portuguese language, Portuguese) or Louise (given name), Louise (French language, French) is a feminine given name; it is the feminine form of the given name Louis (given name) ...
, 3rd Prime Minister of
Mozambique Mozambique (), officially the Republic of Mozambique ( pt, Moçambique or , ; ny, Mozambiki; sw, Msumbiji; ts, Muzambhiki), is a country located in Southeastern Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-lar ...

Mozambique
*
Sir Oliver Goonetilleke Sir Oliver Ernest Goonetilleke ( si, ශ්‍රිමත් ඔලිවර් ගුණතිලක) (20 October 1892 – 17 December 1978) was a Sri Lankan statesman. Having served as an important figure in the gradual independence of Ceylon ...
, 3rd
Governor-General of Ceylon The Governor-General of Ceylon was the representative of the Ceylonese monarch in the Dominion of Ceylon Between 1948 and 1972, Ceylon The Sri Lanka Independence Act 1947 uses the name "Ceylon" for the new dominion; nowhere does that Act us ...
* Sir Senerat Gunewardene, Cabinet Minister and diplomat *
Varun Gandhi Feroze Varun Gandhi (born 13 March 1980) is an Indian politician, and a third-term member of Parliament for Lok Sabha The Lok Sabha, constitutionally A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a pro ...

Varun Gandhi
,
Member of Parliament, Lok Sabha#REDIRECT Member of Parliament, Lok Sabha#REDIRECT Member of parliament, Lok Sabha {{R from move Shri.Jyothish MS,Section Officer, General Administrative Secretriat, Keral‌a Goverment Secretariat had worked as his Personal Ascistant during the p ...
from
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
*
Alvan Ikoku Alvan Azinna Ikoku (August 1, 1900–November 18, 1971) was a Nigerian Nigerians or the Nigerian people are citizens of Nigeria or people with ancestry from Nigeria. Nigeria is composed of various ethnic groups and Culture, cultures and th ...
, Nigerian politician *
J. R. Jayewardene Junius Richard Jayewardene ( si, ජුනියස් රිචඩ් ජයවර්ධන, ta, ஜூனியஸ் ரிச்சட் ஜயவர்தனா; 17 September 1906 – 1 November 1996), commonly abbreviated in Sri Lanka ...

J. R. Jayewardene
, 2nd
President of Sri Lanka The president of Sri Lanka ( si, ශ්‍රී ලංකා ජනාධිපති ''Śrī Laṃkā Janādhipathi''; ta, இலங்கை சனாதிபதி ''Ilankai janātipati'') is the head of state A head of state (or c ...
and 7th
Prime Minister of Sri Lanka The Prime Minister of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is the deputy head Head Sport GmbH is an American-Austrian manufacturing company Manufacturing is the creation or production Production may be: Economics and busi ...
* Charles Muguta Kajege,
Member of Parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their constituency An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, constituency, riding, ward, division, (election) ...
,
Tanzania Tanzania (; ), officially the United Republic of Tanzania ( sw, Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a country in East Africa East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern subregion of the Africa Africa is the world's second-larges ...

Tanzania
London Connection Alumni Newsletter, Spring 2007 http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/alumni/newsletter/spring_07.pdf * David Knox, former
Member of Parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their constituency An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, constituency, riding, ward, division, (election) ...
for
Leek, Staffordshire Leek is a market town A market town is a European settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, th ...
*
Eleni Mavrou Eleni Mavrou (, ) is the Executive Chairman of Dialogos Media Group. She served as List of Ministers of Interior of Cyprus, Minister of Interior of the Republic of Cyprus until February 2013. Until 2011, she was the mayor of the capital city Nicos ...
,
Minister of Interior An interior ministry (sometimes called ministry of internal affairs or ministry of home affairs) is a ministry (government), government ministry responsible for internal affairs, particularly public security, emergency management, civil registr ...
of the
Republic of Cyprus Cyprus ; tr, Kıbrıs (), officially called the Republic of Cyprus,, , lit: Republic of Cyprus is an island country in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. It is the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean and is loc ...
*
Thabo Mbeki Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (; born 18 June 1942) is a South African politician who served as the second president of post-apartheid Apartheid (South African English South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set o ...

Thabo Mbeki
, 2nd
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a chief executive officer ...
of
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...

South Africa
Biography of Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki, Website http://www.info.gov.za/gol/gcis_profile.jsp?id=509 *
Dipu Moni Dr. Dipu Moni (born 8 December 1965) is a Bangladeshi politician, and since 2019 has been the Ministry of Education (Bangladesh), Minister of Education of Bangladesh since January 2019 and a Jatiya Sangsad, Member of Parliament representing the C ...
, 1st woman to become Foreign Minister of Bangladesh *
Fred Mulley Frederick William Mulley, Baron Mulley, PC (3 July 1918 – 15 March 1995) was a British Labour Labour or labor may refer to: * Childbirth Childbirth, also known as labour or delivery, is the ending of pregnancy where one or more babies l ...

Fred Mulley
, UK
Secretary of State for Defence The secretary of state for defence, also referred to as the defence secretary, is a Secretary of State (United Kingdom), secretary of state in the Government of the United Kingdom, with overall responsibility for the business of the Ministry o ...
*
Robert Mugabe Robert Gabriel Mugabe (; ; 21 February 1924 – 6 September 2019) was a Zimbabwean revolutionary and politician who served as Prime Minister of Zimbabwe The prime minister of Zimbabwe was a political office in the government of Zimbab ...

Robert Mugabe
, 2nd
President of Zimbabwe The president of Zimbabwe is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, o ...
and 1st
Prime Minister of Zimbabwe The prime minister of Zimbabwe was a political office in the government of Zimbabwe that existed on two occasions. The first person to hold the position was Robert Mugabe from 1980 to 1987 following independence from the United Kingdom. He to ...
* Paul Pearce,
Member of Parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their constituency An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, constituency, riding, ward, division, (election) ...
, AustraliaLondon Connection Alumni Newsletter, Autumn 2005 http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/alumni/newsletter/autumn_05.pdf *, 3rd President of Trinidad and Tobago and 3rd Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago *
Patricia Scotland Patricia Janet Scotland, Baroness Scotland of Asthal (born 19 August 1955), is a British diplomat, barrister and politician, serving as the sixth Commonwealth Secretary-General, secretary-general of the Commonwealth of Nations. She was electe ...
, 6th Secretary-General of the Commonwealth of Nations *
Gisela Stuart Gisela Stuart, Baroness Stuart of Edgbaston (''née __NOTOC__ A birth name is the name of the person given upon their birth. The term may be applied to the surname In some cultures, a surname, family name, or last name is the portion of one ...
,
Member of Parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their constituency An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, constituency, riding, ward, division, (election) ...
for Birmingham Edgbaston *
Maria Tam Maria Tam Wai-chu (; born 2 November 1945) is a senior Hong Kong politician and lawyer. She is a member of the Committee for the Basic Law of the National People's Congress Standing Committee (NPCSC) since 1997 and the chairman of the Operatio ...
, Deputy of Hong Kong to
National People's Congress The National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China (), often referred to as the National People's Congress (NPC) (), is the highest organ of state power and the national legislature of the People's Republic of China ...


Military, Civil servants and diplomats

* Hamilton Amerasinghe, 31st
President of the United Nations General Assembly The president of the United Nations General Assembly is a position voted for by representatives in the United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; french: link=no, Assemblée générale, AG) is one of the ...
(1976) *Patricia Varela Benzo, Human Rights Officer at
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, commonly known as the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) or the United Nations Human Rights Office, is a department of the Secretariat Secretariat may ref ...
*
Teresa Cheng Teresa Cheng is an animation producer specifically skilled in computer graphics and most famously known for her work on ''Shrek Forever After'', ''Madagascar (2005 film), Madagascar'', ''Batman & Robin (film), Batman & Robin'', and ''True Lies''. ...
, 4th Secretary for Justice of Hong Kong *
Leung Chin-man Leung Chin-man JP (, born 22 November 1945) is a retired senior civil servant in the Government of Hong Kong the former Permanent Secretary for Housing, Planning and Lands. Government career Leung first joined the Immigration Department in Oct ...
, in the
Government of Hong Kong The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, commonly known as the Hong Kong Government or HKSAR Government, refers to the executive authorities of Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), offici ...
*
Thomas Kelly-Kenny General (United Kingdom), General Sir Thomas Kelly-Kenny, (27 February 1840 – 26 December 1914) was a British Army general who served in the Second Boer War. Military and political career Thomas Kelly was born on 27 February 1840 in Kilrush, ...
,
General A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines Marines or naval infantry, are typically a military force trained to operate on Littoral Zone, littoral zone in suppo ...
of the
British Army The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' us ...
*
Stephen Lam Stephen Lam Sui-lung (Cantonese pronunciation: ; born 24 November 1955) was the Chief Secretary for Administration The Chief Secretary for Administration, commonly known as the Chief Secretary of Hong Kong, is the most senior princip ...
,
Chief Secretary for Administration The Chief Secretary for Administration, commonly known as the Chief Secretary of Hong Kong, is the most senior principal official of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region The Government of the Hong Kong Special Ad ...
of Hong Kong * Gunapala Malalasekera,
Permanent Representative of Sri Lanka to the United Nations The Permanent Representative of Sri Lanka to the United Nations is Sri Lanka's foremost diplomat, diplomatic representative to the United Nations, and in charge of the country's mission to the UN. The position of Permanent Representative is equival ...
and
Ambassador An ambassador is an official envoy, especially a high-ranking diplomat A diplomat (from grc, δίπλωμα; romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A langua ...

Ambassador
*
Bernard Peiris Bernard Percival Peiris, OBE, Justice of the Peace#Sri Lanka, JP (29 March 1908 – 18 January 1977) was a Sri Lankan lawyer. He was the former Cabinet Secretary and the Legal Draftsmen who drafted the ''Ceylon Order in Council'', the first cons ...
, Cabinet Secretary of
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකාව, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO (); ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO ()), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is ...

Sri Lanka
*Ediriweera Sarachchandra,
Ambassador An ambassador is an official envoy, especially a high-ranking diplomat A diplomat (from grc, δίπλωμα; romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A langua ...

Ambassador
of
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකාව, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO (); ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO ()), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is ...

Sri Lanka
to France *Kazunari Suzuki, Diplomat with Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Japan) *Li Tieh-tseng,
Ambassador An ambassador is an official envoy, especially a high-ranking diplomat A diplomat (from grc, δίπλωμα; romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A langua ...

Ambassador
of Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China to Iran and Thailand


Judges and lawyers

*Helena Normanton, First female barrister in the United Kingdom. * Christopher Weeramantry, Judge and Vice-President of the International Court of Justice * Bola Ajibola, Judge of the International Court of Justice * Meir Shamgar, former President/Chief Justice of the Israeli Supreme Court *Victor Tennekoon, 35th Chief Justice of Sri Lanka *Edward Williams (judge), Edward Williams, Judge of the Supreme Court of Queensland , AustraliaWebsite Commemorating the Life of Edward Williams http://www.courts.qld.gov.au/library/exhibition/williams/uni_london.htm *Frederic N. Smalkin, former Chief Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Maryland, * Choor Singh, Judicial officers of the Republic of Singapore#List of judges of the Supreme Court, Judge of the Supreme Court of Singapore *Babatunji Olowofoyeku, Attorney General of Western Region, Nigeria *Oswald Leslie De Kretser III, List of Justices of the Supreme Court of Sri Lanka, Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon *Henry Thambiah, List of Justices of the Supreme Court of Sri Lanka, Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon * Andrew Chan Hing-wai, Judge of Court of First Instance (Hong Kong)


Business

* Joseph Hotung, 1st Chairman of Hong Kong Arts Development Council and Recipient of Knight Bachelor * Khadija Mushtaq, Executive Director of Roots School System, Pakistan * Sherin Naiken, chief executive officer, CEO of Seychelles Tourism Board * Nicola Vogel, Global Senior HR Director at Danfoss


Scientists and academics

*Chinua Achebe, David and Marianna Fisher University Professor at Brown University. *Grace Alele-Williams, Chancellor (education), Chancellor of University of Benin (Nigeria), University of Benin *Asa Briggs, Chancellor (education), Chancellor of Open University (1978 to 1994) *Brian Laurence Burtt, English botanist *Bob Coats - Former Professor at University of York *Glyn Davies (economist), Glyn Davies, economist *Patrick du Val, Inventor of the concept of Du Val singularity in algebraic surface *Geoffrey Elton, Regius Professor of Modern History (Cambridge), Regius Professor of History at University of Cambridge *Sir Roy Goode, Founder of Centre for Commercial Law Studies at Queen Mary, University of London. *A.C. Grayling, Master of the
New College of the Humanities New College of the Humanities (NCH) is a college of higher education in London, England. It was founded as a private college by the philosopher A. C. Grayling, who became its first Master (college), Master. The college, which grants undergradua ...
*Alec Issigonis, engineer and designer of the British Motor Corporation (BMC) Mini *Harold Jeffreys, mathematician, statistician, geophysicist and astronomer *Israel Kirzner, Former Professor of Economics at New York UniversityIsrael Kirzner's Curriculum Vitae http://www.econ.nyu.edu/dept/vitae/kirzner.htm *Kelvin Lancaster, Former Professor of Economics at Columbia UniversityKelvin Lancaster Obituary, Columbia University, 1999 http://www.columbia.edu/cu/economics/faculty/memoriam/memoriam_klancaster.html *D H Lawrence, British author and critic *Ronald Piper, Professor and Vice-Principal at the University of St Andrews *Charlotte Scott, former Professor of Mathematics at Bryn Mawr College *C. P. Snow, Charles P. Snow, Rector of the University of St Andrews (1961 to 1964), accessdate=29 March 2018 *Laurence Dudley Stamp, L. Dudley Stamp, Professor at the London School of Economics and Political Science *Barnes Wallis, Inventor of the Bouncing Bomb *Alan Walters, former Chief Economic Adviser to Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher


Acting

*Ramita Mahapreukpong, Thailand, Thai actress


Religion

*Louis Charles Casartelli, fourth Bishop of Salford *Thomas Cooray, Cardinal (Catholicism), Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church


Others

*Adewale Akinnuoye-Agbaje, actor *Ulli Beier, writerWole Ogundele, "Rereading Beier", ''African Quarterly on the Arts'', vol. 2, no. 3, (date?) http://archive.lib.msu.edu/DMC/African%20Journals/pdfs/glendora%20review/vol2no4/graa002004012.pdf *Malcolm Bradbury, British author and academic *Jim Crace, English novelist *Louise Creighton, British author and activist *Segun Toyin Dawodu, Physician and Attorney. *Nigel de Gruchy, former trade union officialNigel de Gruchy: The teachers' leader who spoke in sound bites
, ''The Independent'', 28 March 2002
*Jack Higgins, English novelist *David Forbes Martyn, physicistBiography of David Forbes Martyn, Website http://www.adb.online.anu.edu.au/biogs/A150379b.htm *C. P. Snow, English physicist and novelist *Josiah Stamp, 1st Baron Stamp, economist and former Director of the Bank of EnglandBiography of Josiah Stamp, Website http://economia.unipv.it/harrod/edition/editionstuff/rfh.528.htm *Gordon Taylor (footballer), Gordon Taylor, former professional footballer and current chief executive of the Professional Footballers' AssociationA unique network – former students and alumni, University of London External System http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/150/history/students_alumni.shtml *Barbara Thiering, Australian writer and historian *H. G. Wells, writerBiography of H. G. Wells, Website http://www.slais.ubc.ca/courses/libr500/03-04-wt1/assignments/www/D_Berry/Wellsbio.htm *Kwasi Wiredu, philosopher * Frances Yates, historian


Notable faculty

* T. S. Eliot


See also

* List of first women lawyers and judges by nationality


References

''Notes''


Further reading

* * * * * * * *


External links


Official website
University of London
150 Years - Anniversary Celebrations
''University of London, Archived''
Imperial echoes
''Times Higher Education, Archived'' {{DEFAULTSORT:London External System, University Of University of London Worldwide, University of London, External System 1858 establishments in the United Kingdom 1858 establishments in England 1858 establishments in the British Empire 1858 in London Distance education institutions based in the United Kingdom