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The Rhenish Friedrich Wilhelm University of Bonn (german: Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn) is a
public research university A public university or public college is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards acade ...
located in
Bonn The Federal city The term federal city is a title for certain cities in Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official langua ...

Bonn
,
North Rhine-Westphalia North Rhine-Westphalia (german: Nordrhein-Westfalen, ; Low Franconian Low Franconian, Low Frankish, NetherlandicSarah Grey Thomason, Terrence Kaufman: ''Language Contact, Creolization, and Genetic Linguistics'', University of California Pre ...
,
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the and by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the , according to population within city l ...

Germany
. It was founded in its present form as the ( en, Rhine University) on 18 October 1818 by
Frederick William III Frederick William III (german: Friedrich Wilhelm III.; 3 August 1770 – 7 June 1840) was king of Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian: ''Prūsa'' or ''Prūsija'' was a historically prominent Germans, German state that originated in 1525 with Duc ...
, as the linear successor of the ( en, Academy of the Prince-elector of Cologne) which was founded in 1777. The University of Bonn offers many undergraduate and graduate programs in a range of subjects and has 544 professors. Its library holds more than five million volumes. As of October 2020, among its notable alumni, faculty and researchers are 11 Nobel Laureates, 4 Fields Medalists, 12
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize The Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize (german: Förderpreis für deutsche Wissenschaftler im Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz-Programm der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft), in short Leibniz Prize, is awarded by the German Research Foundation to "exceptio ...
winners as well as some of the most gifted minds in Natural science, e.g.
August Kekulé Friedrich August Kekulé, later Friedrich August Kekule von Stradonitz ( , ; 7 September 1829 – 13 July 1896), was a German organic chemist. From the 1850s until his death, Kekulé was one of the most prominent chemists in Europe, especially i ...
,
Heinrich Hertz Heinrich Rudolf Hertz ( ; ; 22 February 1857 – 1 January 1894) was a German physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts scientific research The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empi ...

Heinrich Hertz
and
Justus von Liebig Justus Freiherr (; male, abbreviated as ), (; his wife, abbreviated as , literally "free lord" or "free lady") and (, his unmarried daughters and maiden aunts) are designations used as titles of nobility Traditional rank amongst Euro ...

Justus von Liebig
; Major philosophers, such as
Friedrich Nietzsche Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (; or ; 15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philosophos, me ...

Friedrich Nietzsche
,
Karl Marx Karl Heinrich Marx (; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, M ...

Karl Marx
and
Jürgen Habermas Jürgen Habermas (, ; ; born 18 June 1929) is a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, e ...
; Famous German poets and writers, for example
Heinrich Heine Christian Johann Heinrich Heine (; born Harry Heine; 13 December 1797 – 17 February 1856) was a German poet, writer and literary critic. He is best known outside Germany for his early lyric poetry Modern lyric poetry is a formal type of p ...

Heinrich Heine
,
Paul Heyse Paul Johann Ludwig von Heyse (; 15 March 1830 – 2 April 1914) was a distinguished German writer and translator. A member of two important literary societies, the ''Tunnel über der Spree'' in Berlin and ''Die Krokodile'' in Munich, he wrote nove ...

Paul Heyse
and
Thomas Mann Paul Thomas Mann ( , ; ; 6 June 1875 – 12 August 1955) was a German novelist, short story writer, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and the 1929 Nobel Prize in Literature ) , image = Nobel Prize.png , caption = , awarded_ ...
; Painters, like
Max Ernst Max Ernst (2 April 1891 – 1 April 1976) was a German (naturalised American in 1948 and French in 1958) painter, sculptor, graphic artist A graphic designer is a professional within the graphic design Graphic design is the art, professio ...
; Political theorists, for instance
Carl Schmitt Carl Schmitt (; 11 July 1888 – 7 April 1985) was a German jurist A jurist is a person with expert knowledge of law; someone who analyses and comments on law. This person is usually a specialist legal scholarnot necessarily with a formal ...
and
Otto Kirchheimer Otto Kirchheimer (; 11 November 1905, Heilbronn Heilbronn () is a List of cities and towns in Germany, city in northern Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is surrounded by Heilbronn (district), Heilbronn District and, with over 125,000 residents, t ...
; Statesmen, viz.
Konrad Adenauer Konrad Hermann Joseph Adenauer (; 5 January 1876 – 19 April 1967) was a German statesman who served as the first Chancellor Chancellor ( la, links=no, cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations. ...

Konrad Adenauer
and
Robert Schuman Jean-Baptiste Nicolas Robert Schuman (; 29 June 18864 September 1963) was a Luxembourg Luxembourg ( ; lb, Lëtzebuerg ; french: link=no, Luxembourg; german: link=no, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, ; french: link=n ...
; famous economists, like
Walter Eucken Walter Eucken (; 17 January 1891 – 20 March 1950) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see al ...
,
Ferdinand Tönnies Ferdinand Tönnies (; 26 July 1855 – 9 April 1936) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see ...

Ferdinand Tönnies
and
Joseph Schumpeter Joseph Alois Schumpeter (; February 8, 1883 – January 8, 1950) was an Austrian political economist. He was born in Moravia Moravia ( , also , ; cs, Morava ; german: link=no, Mähren ; pl, Morawy ; szl, Morawijo; la, Moravia) is a h ...
; and furthermore
Prince Albert Prince Albert most commonly refers to: *Albert, Prince Consort german: link=no, Franz Albert August Karl Emanuel , house = , father = Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha , mother = Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenbu ...

Prince Albert
,
Pope Benedict XVI Pope Benedict XVI ( la, Benedictus XVI; it, Benedetto XVI; german: Benedikt XVI.; born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger, , on 16 April 1927) is a retired prelate A prelate () is a high-ranking member of the clergy who is an ordinary or who ran ...

Pope Benedict XVI
and
Wilhelm II en, Frederick William Victor Albert , house = Hohenzollern , father = Frederick III, German Emperor Frederick III (german: Friedrich Wilhelm Nikolaus Karl; 18 October 1831 – 15 June 1888) was German Emperor and King of Prussia betwee ...
. The University of Bonn has been conferred the title of "University of Excellence" under the
German Universities Excellence Initiative 350px, Map showing Germany's eleven elite "Universities of Excellence", in 2012 The Excellence Initiative of the German Council of Science and Humanities and the German Research Foundation aims to promote cutting-edge research and to create out ...
.


History


Foundation

The university's forerunner was the (English: 'Academy of the
Prince-elector The prince-electors (german: Kurfürst pl. , cz, Kurfiřt, la, Princeps Elector), or electors for short, were the members of the that elected the of the . From the 13th century onwards, the prince-electors had the privilege of who would ...
of
Cologne Cologne ( ; german: Köln ; ksh, Kölle ) is the largest city of Germany, Germany's most populous States of Germany, state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) and the List of cities in Germany by population, fourth-most populous city and one of t ...

Cologne
') which was founded in 1777 by Maximilian Frederick of Königsegg-Rothenfels, the prince-elector of Cologne. In the spirit of the
Enlightenment Enlightenment, enlighten or enlightened may refer to: Age of Enlightenment * Age of Enlightenment, period in Western intellectual history from the late 17th to late 18th century, centered in France but also encompassing: ** Midlands Enlightenment ...
the new academy was nonsectarian. The academy had schools for
theology Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the divine Divinity or the divine are things that are either related to, devoted to, or proceeding from a deity A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed ...
,
law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its bounda ...
,
pharmacy Pharmacy is the clinical health science The following Outline (list), outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to health sciences: Health sciences – are those sciences which focus on health, or health care, as core p ...

pharmacy
and general studies. In 1784
Emperor Joseph II Joseph II (German: ''Josef Benedikt Anton Michel Adam''; English: ''Joseph Benedict Anthony Michael Adam''; 13 March 1741 – 20 February 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Roman ...

Emperor Joseph II
granted the academy the right to award academic degrees (''Licentiat'' and Ph.D.), turning the academy into a university. The academy was closed in 1798 after the left bank of the
Rhine ), Surselva Surselva Region is one of the eleven administrative districts Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many s ...

Rhine
was occupied by France during the
French Revolutionary Wars The French Revolutionary Wars (french: Guerres de la Révolution française) were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution. They pitted French First Republic, France against Gr ...
. The
Rhineland The Rhineland (german: Rheinland; french: Rhénanie; nl, Rijnland; ksh, Rhingland; Latinised name: ''Rhenania'') is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly Middle Rhine, its middle section. Term ...

Rhineland
became a part of
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europ ...

Prussia
in 1815 as a result of the
Congress of Vienna The Congress of Vienna (, ) of 1814–1815 was an international diplomatic conference to reconstitute the European political order after the downfall of the French Emperor Napoleon I Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) w ...

Congress of Vienna
. King
Frederick William III of Prussia Frederick William III (german: Friedrich Wilhelm III.; 3 August 1770 – 7 June 1840) was King of Prussia The monarchs of Prussia were members of the House of Hohenzollern who were the monarch, hereditary rulers of the former German state of ...

Frederick William III of Prussia
thereafter decreed the establishment of a new university in the new province (German: ) on 18 October 1818. At this time there was no university in the Rhineland, as all three universities that existed until the end of the 18th century were closed as a result of the French occupation. The Kurkölnische Akademie Bonn was one of these three universities. The other two were the Roman Catholic
University of Cologne The University of Cologne (german: Universität zu Köln) is a university in Cologne, Germany. It was the sixth university to be established in Central Europe and, although it closed in 1798 before being re-established in 1919, it is now one of ...
and the Protestant
University of DuisburgThe old University of Duisburg was a university in Duisburg. History Its origins date back to the 1555 decision to create a university for the unified duchies at the Lower Rhine that were later to be merged into Prussia. After the foundation of an ...
.


Rhine University

The new Rhine University (German: ) was then founded on 18 October 1818 by Frederick William III. It was the sixth Prussian University, founded after the universities in
Greifswald Greifswald (), officially the University and Hanseatic City of Greifswald (german: Universitäts- und Hansestadt Greifswald, Low German: ''Griepswoold'') is a city in northeastern Germany. It is situated in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, at ...
,
Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the List of cities in the European Union by ...
,
Königsberg Königsberg (, , ) was the name for the historic Prussian city that is now Kaliningrad, Russia. Königsberg was founded in 1255 on the site of the ancient Old Prussian settlement ''Twangste'' by the Teutonic Knights during the Northern Crusade ...
,
Halle Halle may refer to: Places Germany * Halle (Saale), also called Halle an der Saale, a city in Saxony-Anhalt ** Halle (region), a former administrative region in Saxony-Anhalt ** Bezirk Halle, a former administrative division of East Germany ** Hall ...
and Breslau. The new university was equally shared between the two Christian denominations. This was one of the reasons why Bonn, with its tradition of a nonsectarian university, was chosen over Cologne and Duisburg. Apart from a school of Roman Catholic theology and a school of Protestant theology, the university had schools for medicine, law and philosophy. Initially 35 professors and eight adjunct professors were teaching in Bonn. The university constitution was adopted in 1827. In the spirit of
Wilhelm von Humboldt Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand von Humboldt (, also , ; ; 22 June 1767 – 8 April 1835) was a philosopher, , , diplomat, and founder of the , which was named after him in 1949 (and also after his younger brother, , a ). He is espe ...

Wilhelm von Humboldt
the constitution emphasized the autonomy of the university and the unity of teaching and research. Similar to the
University of Berlin Humboldt University of Berlin (german: Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, abbreviated HU Berlin) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) ...
, which was founded in 1810, the new constitution made the University of Bonn a modern research university. Only one year after the inception of the Rhein University the
dramatist A playwright or dramatist is a person who writes play Play most commonly refers to: * Play (activity), an activity done for enjoyment * Play (theatre), a work of drama Play may refer also to: Computers and technology * Google Play, a digital c ...
August von Kotzebue August Friedrich Ferdinand von Kotzebue (; – ) was a German dramatist and writer who also worked as a consul Consul (abbrev. ''cos.''; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch o ...

August von Kotzebue
was murdered by
Karl Ludwig Sand Karl Ludwig Sand ( Wunsiedel, Upper Franconia Upper Franconia (german: Oberfranken, Bavarian: ''Obafrankn'') is a '' Regierungsbezirk'' (administrative 'Regierungs''region 'bezirk'' of the state of Bavaria Bavaria (; German language, German ...

Karl Ludwig Sand
, a student at the
University of Jena The University of Jena, officially the Friedrich Schiller University Jena (german: Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, abbreviated FSU, shortened form ''Uni Jena'') is a public university, public research university located in Jena, Thuringia, ...
. The
Carlsbad DecreesImage:Der-Denkerclub_1819.jpg, 250px, A contemporary lithograph mocking the new restrictions on the press and free expression imposed by the Carlsbad Decrees. The sign on the wall behind the table reads: "Important question to be considered in today' ...
, introduced on 20 September 1819 led to a general crackdown on universities, the dissolution of the
Burschenschaft A Burschenschaft (; sometimes abbreviated in the German ''Burschenschaft'' jargon; plural: ) is one of the traditional (student associations) of Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coord ...
en and the introduction of censorship laws. One victim was the author and poet
Ernst Moritz Arndt Ernst Moritz Arndt (26 December 1769 – 29 January 1860) was a German nationalist historian, writer and poet. Early in his life, he fought for the abolition of serfdom Serfdom was the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically ...

Ernst Moritz Arndt
, who, freshly appointed university professor in Bonn, was banned from teaching. Only after the death of Frederick William III in 1840 was he reinstated in his professorship. Another consequence of the
Carlsbad DecreesImage:Der-Denkerclub_1819.jpg, 250px, A contemporary lithograph mocking the new restrictions on the press and free expression imposed by the Carlsbad Decrees. The sign on the wall behind the table reads: "Important question to be considered in today' ...
was the refusal by Frederick William III to confer the chain of office, the official seal and an official name to the new university. The Rhine University was thus nameless until 1840, when the new King of Prussia,
Frederick William IV Frederick William IV (german: Friedrich Wilhelm IV.; 15 October 17952 January 1861), the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 7 June 1840 to his death. Also referred to as the "romanticis ...
gave it the official name . (This last sentence conflicts with pg. 176 of , which states a cabinet order on 28 June 1828 gave the university the following name: .) Despite these problems, the university grew and attracted famous scholars and students. At the end of the 19th century the university was also known as the (English: 'Princes' university'), as many of the sons of the king of Prussia studied here. In 1900, the university had 68 chairs, 23 adjunct chairs, two honorary professors, 57
Privatdozent ''Privatdozent'' (for men) or ''Privatdozentin'' (for women), abbreviated PD, P.D. or Priv.-Doz., is an academic title conferred at some European universities, especially in German-speaking countries, to someone who holds certain formal qualific ...
en and six lecturers. Since 1896, women were allowed to attend classes as guest auditors at universities in Prussia. In 1908 the University of Bonn became fully coeducational.


World Wars

The growth of the university came to a halt with
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
. Financial and economic problems in Germany in the aftermath of the war resulted in reduced government funding for the university. The University of Bonn responded by trying to find private and industrial sponsors. In 1930 the university adopted a new constitution. For the first time students were allowed to participate in the self-governing university administration. To that effect the
student council A student council (also known as a student union or associated student body) is an administrative organisation of students in different educational institutes ranging from elementary schools to universities and research organisation around th ...
Astag (German: ) was founded the same year. Members of the student council were elected in a secret ballot. After the Nazi takeover of power in 1933, the
Gleichschaltung ' (), or in English, co-ordination, was in Nazi term This is a list of words, terms, concepts and slogans of Nazi Germany used in the historiography covering the Nazi regime. Some words were coined by Adolf Hitler and other Nazi Party members. ...
transformed the university into a Nazi educational institution. According to the
Führerprinzip The (; German for 'leader principle') prescribed the fundamental basis of political authority in the Government of Nazi Germany. This principle can be most succinctly understood to mean that "the 's word is above all written law" and that gov ...
the autonomous and self-governing administration of the university was replaced by a hierarchy of leaders resembling the military, with the university president being subordinate to the ministry of education. Jewish professors and students and political opponents were ostracized and expelled from the university. The theologian
Karl Barth Karl Barth (; ; – ) was a Swiss Swiss may refer to: * the adjectival form of Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy unde ...
was forced to resign and to emigrate to Switzerland for refusing to swear an oath to Hitler. The Jewish mathematician
Felix Hausdorff Felix Hausdorff (November 8, 1868 – January 26, 1942) was a German mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as q ...
was expelled from the university in 1935 and committed suicide after learning about his impending deportation to a concentration camp in 1942. The philosophers Paul Ludwig Landsberg and Johannes Maria Verweyen were deported and died in
concentration camps Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or Indictment, intent to file charges. The term is especially used for the confinement "of enemy citizens in wartime or of terrorism suspects". Thus, while it ...
. In 1937
Thomas Mann Paul Thomas Mann ( , ; ; 6 June 1875 – 12 August 1955) was a German novelist, short story writer, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and the 1929 Nobel Prize in Literature ) , image = Nobel Prize.png , caption = , awarded_ ...
was deprived of his honorary doctorate. His honorary degree was restored in 1946. During the
second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
the university suffered heavy damage. An air raid on 18 October 1944 destroyed the main building.


Post-war to modern day

The university was re-opened on 17 November 1945 as one of the first in the British occupation zone. The first university president was Heinrich Matthias Konen, who had been expelled from the university in 1934 because of his opposition to
Nazism Nazism ( ), officially National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus, ), is the ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about th ...

Nazism
. At the start of the first semester on 17 November 1945 the university had more than 10,000 applicants for only 2,500 places. The university greatly expanded in the postwar period, in particular in the 1960s and 1970s. Significant events of the postwar era were the relocation of the university hospital from the city center to the Venusberg in 1949, the opening of the new university library in 1960 and the opening of a new building, the Juridicum, for the School of Law and Economics in 1967. In 1980 the Pedagogical University Bonn was merged into the University of Bonn, although eventually all the teachers education programs were closed in 2007. In 1983 the new science library was opened. In 1989
Wolfgang Paul Wolfgang Paul (; 10 August 1913 – 7 December 1993) was a Germany, German physicist, who co-developed the non-magnetic quadrupole mass filter which laid the foundation for what is now called an ion trap. He shared one-half of the Nobel Priz ...
was awarded the
Nobel Prize in Physics The Nobel Prize in Physics is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who have made the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will ...
. Three years later
Reinhard Selten Reinhard Justus Reginald Selten (; 5 October 1930 – 23 August 2016) was a German economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply ...

Reinhard Selten
was awarded the
Nobel Prize in Economics The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, officially the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel ( sv, Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), is an economics award administered ...
. The decision of the German government to move the capital from Bonn to Berlin after the
reunification A political union is a type of state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily new ...
in 1991 resulted in generous compensation for the city of Bonn. The compensation package included three new research institutes affiliated or closely collaborating with the university, thus significantly enhancing the research profile of the University of Bonn. In the 2000s the university implemented the
Bologna process The Bologna Process is a series of ministerial meetings and agreements between European countries to ensure comparability in the standards and quality of higher-education qualifications. The process has created the European Higher Education Area ...
and replaced the traditional
Diplom A ''Diplom'' (, from grc, δίπλωμα ''diploma'') is an academic degree An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, usually at a college or university. T ...

Diplom
and
Magister Magister is Latin for "master" or "teacher". It may refer to: Positions and titles * Magister degree, an academic degree * Magister equitum, or Master of the Horse * Magister militum, a master of the soldiers * Magister officiorum (''master of off ...
programs with Bachelor and Master programs. This process was completed by 2007.


Campus

The University of Bonn does not have a centralized campus. The main building is the '' Kurfürstliches Schloss'', the former residential palace of the prince-elector of Cologne in the city center. The main building was built by
Enrico Zuccalli Enrico Zuccalli (''Johann Heinrich Zuccalli''; c. 1642 – 8 March 1724) was a Swiss architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in con ...
for the prince-elector of Cologne,
Joseph Clemens of Bavaria Joseph Clemens of Bavaria (german: Joseph Clemens von Bayern) (5 December 1671 – 12 November 1723) was a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty of Bavaria Bavaria (; German language, German and Bavarian language, Bavarian: ''Bayern'' ), officiall ...

Joseph Clemens of Bavaria
from 1697 to 1705. Today it houses the faculty of humanities and theology and the university administration. The , a large park in front of the main building is a popular place for students to meet, study and relax. The Hofgarten was repeatedly the place for political demonstrations as for example the demonstration against the
NATO Double-Track Decision The NATO Double-Track Decision was the decision by NATO from December 12, 1979 to offer the Warsaw Pact a mutual limitation of medium-range ballistic missiles and intermediate-range ballistic missiles. It was combined with a threat by NATO to ...
on 22 October 1981 with about 250,000 participants. The school of law and economics, the main university library and several smaller departments are housed in modern buildings a short distance south of the main building. The department of psychology and the department of computer science are located in a northern suburb of Bonn. The science departments and the main science library are located in Poppelsdorf and Endenich, west of the city center, and housed in a mix of historical and modern buildings. Notable is the Poppelsdorf Palace (German: ), which was built from 1715 to 1753 by
Robert de Cotte Robert de Cotte, 1701, oil on canvas by Joseph Vivien Robert de Cotte (1656 – 15 July 1735) was a French architect-administrator, under whose design control of the royal buildings of France from 1699, the earliest notes presaging the Rococo ...
for
Joseph Clemens of Bavaria Joseph Clemens of Bavaria (german: Joseph Clemens von Bayern) (5 December 1671 – 12 November 1723) was a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty of Bavaria Bavaria (; German language, German and Bavarian language, Bavarian: ''Bayern'' ), officiall ...

Joseph Clemens of Bavaria
and his successor
Clemens August of Bavaria Clemens August of Bavaria (german: Clemens August von Bayern) (17 August 1700 – 6 February 1761) was a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty of Bavaria Bavaria (; German language, German and Bavarian language, Bavarian: ''Bayern'' ), officially t ...
. Today the Poppelsdorf Palace houses the university's mineral collection and several science departments; its grounds are the university's
botanical garden A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms ''botanic'' and ''botanical'' and ''garden'' or ''gardens'' are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word ''botanic'' is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens. is ...

botanical garden
(the Botanische Gärten der Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn). The school of medicine is located on the Venusberg, a hill on the western edge of Bonn. Several residence halls are scattered across the city. In total the University of Bonn owns 371 buildings.


University library

The university library was founded in 1818 and started with 6,000 volumes inherited from the library of the closed
University of DuisburgThe old University of Duisburg was a university in Duisburg. History Its origins date back to the 1555 decision to create a university for the unified duchies at the Lower Rhine that were later to be merged into Prussia. After the foundation of an ...
. In 1824 the library became
legal deposit Legal deposit is a legal requirement that a person or group submit copies of their publications to a repository, usually a library. The number of copies required varies from country to country. Typically, the national library is the primary reposit ...
for all books published in the Prussian Rhine province. The library contained about 200,000 volumes at the end of the 19th century, and about 600,000 volumes at the outbreak of
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. An air raid on 10 October 1944 destroyed about 200,000 volumes and a large part of the
library catalog A library catalog (or library catalogue in British English) is a register of all bibliography, bibliographic items found in a library or group of libraries, such as a network of libraries at several locations. A catalog for a group of libra ...
. After the war the library was housed in several makeshift locations until the completion of the new central library in 1960. The new building was designed by
Pierre Vago Pierre Vago (30 August 1910, in Budapest Budapest (, ) is the capital and the List of cities and towns of Hungary, most populous city of Hungary, and the Largest cities of the European Union by population within city limits, ninth-largest cit ...
and Fritz Bornemann and is located close to the main building. In 1983 a new library building was opened in Poppelsdorf, west of the main building. The new library building houses the science, agriculture and medicine collections. Today, the university library system comprises the central library, the library for science, agriculture and medicine and about 160 smaller libraries. It holds 2.2 million volumes and subscribes to about 14,000 journals.


University hospital

The university hospital (German: ) was founded at the same time as the university and officially opened on 5 May 1819 in the former Electoral Palace (German: ), the main building, in the western wing (internal medicine) and on the second floor (obstetrics). In its first year, the hospital had thirty beds, performed 93 surgeries and treated about 600 outpatients. From 1872 to 1883 the hospital moved to a new complex of buildings in the city center of Bonn, where today the Beethoven Concert Hall stands, and after
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
to the Venusberg on the western edge of Bonn. On 1 January 2001 the university hospital became a public corporation. Although the university hospital is since then independent from the university, the School of Medicine of the University of Bonn and the university hospital closely collaborate. Today the university hospital comprises about thirty individual hospitals, employs more than 990 physicians and more than 1,100 nursing and clinical support staff and treated about 50,000 inpatients.


University museums

The
Akademisches Kunstmuseum Akademisches Kunstmuseum (English:Academic Art Museum) is an art museum in Bonn The Federal city The term federal city is a title for certain cities in Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berl ...
(English: 'Academic Museum of Antiquities') was founded in 1818 and has one of the largest collections of plaster casts of ancient Greek and Roman sculptures in the world. At this time collections of plaster casts were mainly used in the instruction of students at art academies. They were first used in the instruction of university students in 1763 by
Christian Gottlob Heyne Christian Gottlob Heyne (; 25 September 1729 – 14 July 1812) was a German classical scholar and archaeologist as well as long-time director of the Göttingen State and University Library. He was a member of the Göttingen School of History. B ...

Christian Gottlob Heyne
at
University of Göttingen The University of Göttingen, officially the Georg August University of Göttingen, (german: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, known informally as Georgia Augusta) is a public research university in the city of Göttingen, Germany. Founded i ...
. The Akademisches Kunstmuseum in Bonn was the first of its kind, as at this time collections at other universities were scattered around universities libraries. The first director was
Friedrich Gottlieb Welcker Friedrich Gottlieb Welcker (4 November 1784 – 17 December 1868) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens o ...
, who also held a professorship of archaeology. His tenure was from 1819 until his retirement in 1854. He was succeeded by
Otto Jahn Otto Jahn in 1850s. Otto Jahn (; 16 June 1813 in Kiel Kiel () is the capital and most populous city in the northern Germany, German state of Schleswig-Holstein, with a population of 249,023 (2016). Kiel lies approximately north of Hamburg. D ...
and
Friedrich Wilhelm RitschlImage:Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl - Imagines philologorum.jpg, Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl (6 April 1806 – 9 November 1876) was a German scholar best known for his studies of Plautus. Biography Ritschl was born in Großvargul ...
, who shared the directorship. From 1870 to 1889
Reinhard Kekulé von Stradonitz Reinhard Kekulé von Stradonitz (name at birth Kekulé, called Kekulé von Stradonitz only after 1889; 6 March 1839 – 23 March 1911) was a German archeologist. He has been called the founder of modern iconology (Langlotz). He served as director ...

Reinhard Kekulé von Stradonitz
, nephew of the famous organic chemist
Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz Friedrich may refer to: Names *Friedrich (surname), people with the surname ''Friedrich'' *Friedrich (given name), people with the given name ''Friedrich'' Other *Friedrich (board game), a board game about Frederick the Great and the Seven Years' ...
, was the director. In 1872 the museum moved to a new building that was formerly used by the department of anatomy. The building was constructed from 1823 to 1830 and designed by
Karl Friedrich Schinkel Karl Friedrich Schinkel (13 March 1781 – 9 October 1841) was a Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging t ...
and
Hermann Friedrich Waesemann Hermann Friedrich Waesemann (6 June 1813 – 28 January 1879) was a Germany, German architect. He was born in Danzig (Gdańsk), the son of an architect. He studied mathematics and science in University of Bonn, Bonn from 1830 to 1832, before g ...
. Other directors of the museum were
Georg Loeschcke Georg Loeschcke (28 June 1852 – 26 November 1915) was a German archaeologist Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of soci ...

Georg Loeschcke
(from 1889 to 1912),
Franz Winter Franz Winter (4 February 1861 in Braunschweig – 11 February 1930 in Bonn) was a German archaeologist. He specialized in ancient Greek and Roman art, being particularly known for his analyses of individual statues, such as the Apollo Belvedere. H ...

Franz Winter
(from 1912 to 1929), Richard Delbrück (from 1929 to 1940),
Ernst Langlotz
Ernst Langlotz
(from 1944 to 1966), Nikolaus Himmelmann (from 1969 to 1994) and Harald Mielsch (since 1994). All directors, with the exception of
Friedrich Wilhelm RitschlImage:Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl - Imagines philologorum.jpg, Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl (6 April 1806 – 9 November 1876) was a German scholar best known for his studies of Plautus. Biography Ritschl was born in Großvargul ...
held a professorship of archaeology at the university. The
Egyptian Museum The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum or the Cairo Museum, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to an extensive collection of ancient Egyptian antiquities. It has 120,000 items, with a representative amount on display an ...
(German: ) was founded in 2001. The collection dates back to the 19th century and was formerly part of the Akademisches Kunstmuseum. Large parts of the collection were destroyed in World War II. Today the collection comprises about 3,000 objects. The Arithmeum was opened in 1999. With over 1,200 objects it has the world's largest collection of historical mechanical calculating machines. The museum is affiliated with the Research Institute for Discrete Mathematics. The Teaching Collection of Archaeology and Anthropology (German: ) was opened in 2008. The collection comprises more than 7,500 objects of mostly pre-Columbian art. The
Botanical Garden A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms ''botanic'' and ''botanical'' and ''garden'' or ''gardens'' are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word ''botanic'' is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens. is ...
was officially founded in 1818 and is located around the Poppelsdorf Palace. A garden existed at the same place at least since 1578, and around 1720 a Baroque garden was built for
Clemens August of Bavaria Clemens August of Bavaria (german: Clemens August von Bayern) (17 August 1700 – 6 February 1761) was a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty of Bavaria Bavaria (; German language, German and Bavarian language, Bavarian: ''Bayern'' ), officially t ...
. The first director of the Botanical Garden was Nees von Esenbeck from 1818 to 1830. In May 2003 the world's largest
titan arum ''Amorphophallus titanum'', the titan arum, is a flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may r ...
, some 2.74 meters high, flowered in the Botanical Garden for three days. The natural history museum was opened in 1820 by
Georg August Goldfuss Georg August Goldfuss (Goldfuß, 18 April 1782 – 2 October 1848) was a German palaeontologist, zoologist and botanist. Goldfuss was born at Thurnau near Bayreuth Bayreuth (, ; bar, Bareid) is a medium-sized town#Germany, town in n ...
. It was the first public museum in the Rhineland. In 1882 it was split into the Mineralogical Museum located in the Poppelsdorf Palace and a museum of palaeontology, now named Goldfuß Museum of Palaeontology. The Horst Stoeckel-Museum of the History of Anesthesiology (German: ) was opened in 2000 and is the largest of its kind in Europe. The
Museum Koenig The Alexander Koenig Zoological Research Museum (German: ''Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig'', abbreviated ZFMK) is a natural history museum and Zoology, zoological research institution in Bonn, Germany. The museum is named after Al ...
is one of the largest natural history museums in Germany and is affiliated with the university. The museum was founded in 1912 by Alexander Koenig, who donated his collection of mounted specimens to the public.


Organization

The University of Bonn has 32,500 students, and 4,000 of these are international students. Each year about 3,000 undergraduate students graduate. The university also confers about 800 Ph.D.s and about 60
habilitation Habilitation is the procedure to achieve the highest university degree in many European countries in which the candidate fulfills certain criteria set by the university which require excellence in research, teaching, and further education. Its qu ...
s. More than 90 programs in all fields are offered. Strong fields as identified by the university are
mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ...
,
physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical scie ...

physics
,
law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its bounda ...
,
economics Economics () is a social science that studies the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on the behaviour and interact ...

economics
,
neuroscience Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system In biology, the classical doctrine of the nervous system determines that it is a Complex system, highly complex part of an animal that coordinates its Behavior, actions and Sens ...

neuroscience
,
medical genetics Medical genetics is the branch of medicine Medicine is the science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as ...
,
chemical biology Chemical biology is a scientific discipline spanning the fields of chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composi ...
,
agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in sedentary behaviors su ...

agriculture
,
Asian Asian may refer to: * Items from or related to the continent of Asia: ** Asian people, people in or descending from Asia ** Asian culture, the culture of the people from Asia ** Asian cuisine, food based on the style of food of the people from Asi ...
and
Oriental studies Oriental studies is the academic field that studies Near Eastern and Far Eastern societies and cultures, languages, peoples, history and archaeology; in recent years the subject has often been turned into the newer terms of Middle Eastern studies ...
and
Philosophy and Ethics
Philosophy and Ethics
. The university has more than 550 professors, an additional academic staff of 3,900 and an administrative staff of over 1,700. The annual budget was more than 570 million euros in 2016.


Faculties

From the foundation in 1818 to 1928 the University of Bonn had five faculties, that is, the Faculty of Catholic Theology, the Faculty of Protestant Theology, the Faculty of Law and the Faculty of Arts and Science. In 1928, the Faculty of Law and the Department of Economics, that until then was part of the Faculty of Arts and Science, merged into the new Faculty of Law and Economics. In 1934 the until then independent Agricultural University Bonn-Poppelsdorf (German: ) was merged into the University of Bonn as the Faculty of Agricultural Science. In 1936, the science departments were separated from the Faculty of Arts and Science. Today the university is divided into seven faculties: * Faculty of Catholic Theology (german: Katholisch-Theologische Fakultät) * Faculty of Protestant Theology (german: Evangelisch-Theologische Fakultät) * Faculty of Law, Economics and Social Sciences (german: Rechts- und Staatswissenschaftliche Fakultät) * Faculty of Medicine (german: Medizinische Fakultät) * Faculty of Arts (german: Philosophische Fakultät) * Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences (german: Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät) * Faculty of Agriculture (german: Landwirtschaftliche Fakultät)


Academic profile


Research institutes

The Franz Joseph Dölger-Institute studies the
late antiquity Late antiquity is a periodization Periodization is the process or study of categorizing the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of time.Adam Rabinowitz. It’s about time: historical periodization and Linked Ancient World Data'. Inst ...
and in particular the confrontation and interaction of Christians, Jews and Pagans in the late antiquity. The institute edits the , a
German language German ( Standard High German: , ) is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common History, historical, Society, social and cultu ...

German language
encyclopedia An encyclopedia (American English), encyclopædia (archaic spelling), or encyclopaedia (British English) is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of knowledge either from all branches or from a particular field or discipline. ...
treating the history of early Christians in late antiquity. The institute is named after the church historian Franz Joseph Dölger who was a professor of theology at the university from 1929 to 1940. The Research Institute for Discrete Mathematics focuses on discrete mathematics and its applications, in particular combinatorial optimization and the design of Integrated circuit, computer chips. The institute cooperates with IBM and Deutsche Post. Researchers of the institute optimized the chess computer IBM Deep Blue. The Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics "is a joint enterprise of theoretical physicists and mathematicians at various institutes of or connected with the University of Bonn. In the spirit of Hans Bethe it fosters research activities over a wide range of theoretical and mathematical physics." Activities of the Bethe Center include a short- and long-term visitors' program, workshops on dedicated research topics, regular Bethe Seminar Series, lectures and seminars for graduate students. The German Reference Center for Ethics in the Life Sciences (German: ) was founded in 1999 and is modeled after the ''National Reference Center for Bioethics Literature'' at Georgetown University. The center provides access to scientific information to academics and professionals in the fields of life science and is the only one of its kind in Germany. After the German government's decision in 1991 to move the capital of Germany from Bonn to Berlin, the city of Bonn received generous compensation from the federal government. This led to the foundation of three research institutes in 1995, of which two are affiliated with the university: * The Center for European Integration Studies (German: ) studies the legal, economic and social implications of the European integration process. The institute offers several graduate programs and organizes summer schools for students. * The Center for Development Research (German: ) studies global development from an interdisciplinary perspective and offers a doctoral program in international development. * The Center of Advanced European Studies and Research (CAESAR) is an interdisciplinary applied research institute. Research is conducted in the fields of nanotechnology, biotechnology and medical technology. The institute is a private foundation, but collaborates closely with the university. The Institute for the Study of Labor (German: ) is a private research institute that is funded by Deutsche Post. The institute concentrates on research on labor economics, but is also offering policy advise on labor market issues. The institute also awards the annual ''IZA Prize in Labor Economics''. The department of economics of the University of Bonn and the institute closely cooperate. The Max-Planck-Institut für Mathematik, Max Planck Institute for Mathematics (German: ) is part of the Max Planck Society, a network of scientific research institutes in Germany. The institute was founded in 1980 by Friedrich Hirzebruch. The Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy (German: ) was founded in 1966 as an institute of the Max Planck Society. It operates the radio telescope in Effelsberg. The Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods (German: ) started as a research group in 1997 and was founded as an institute of the Max Planck Society in 2003. The institute studies collective goods from a legal and economic perspective. The Center for Economics and Neuroscience, founded in 2009 by Christian Elger,
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize The Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize (german: Förderpreis für deutsche Wissenschaftler im Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz-Programm der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft), in short Leibniz Prize, is awarded by the German Research Foundation to "exceptio ...
winner Armin Falk, Martin Reuter and Bernd Weber, provides an international platform for interdisciplinary work in neuroeconomics. It includes the Laboratory for Experimental Economics that can carry out computer-based behavioral experiments with up to 24 participants simultaneously, two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners for interactive behavioral experiments and functional imaging, as well as a biomolecular laboratory for genotyping different polymorphisms.


Research

University of Bonn researchers made fundamental contributions in the sciences and the humanities. In physics researchers developed the quadrupole ion trap and the Geissler tube, discovered radio waves, were instrumental in describing cathode rays and developed the variable star designation. In chemistry researchers made significant contributions to the understanding of alicyclic compounds and Benzene. In material science researchers have been instrumental in describing the lotus effect. In mathematics University of Bonn faculty made fundamental contributions to modern topology and algebraic geometry. The Hirzebruch–Riemann–Roch theorem, Lipschitz continuity, the Petri net, the Schönhage–Strassen algorithm, Faltings's theorem and the Toeplitz matrix are all named after University of Bonn mathematicians. University of Bonn economists made fundamental contributions to game theory and experimental economics. Famous thinkers that were faculty at the University of Bonn include the poet August Wilhelm Schlegel, the historian Barthold Georg Niebuhr, the theologians
Karl Barth Karl Barth (; ; – ) was a Swiss Swiss may refer to: * the adjectival form of Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy unde ...
and Pope Benedict XVI, Joseph Ratzinger and the poet
Ernst Moritz Arndt Ernst Moritz Arndt (26 December 1769 – 29 January 1860) was a German nationalist historian, writer and poet. Early in his life, he fought for the abolition of serfdom Serfdom was the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically ...

Ernst Moritz Arndt
. The university has nine collaborative research centres and five research units funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, German Science Foundation and attracts more than 75 million Euros in external research funding annually. The Excellence Initiative of the German government in 2006 resulted in the foundation of the Hausdorff Center for Mathematics as one of the seventeen national ''Clusters of Excellence'' that were part of the initiative and the expansion of the already existing Bonn Graduate School of Economics (BGSE). The ''Excellence Initiative'' also resulted in the founding of the Bonn-Cologne Graduate School of Physics and Astronomy (an honors Masters and PhD program, jointly with the
University of Cologne The University of Cologne (german: Universität zu Köln) is a university in Cologne, Germany. It was the sixth university to be established in Central Europe and, although it closed in 1798 before being re-established in 1919, it is now one of ...
)
Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics
was founded in the November 2008, to foster closer interaction between mathematicians and theoretical physicists at Bonn. The center also arranges for regular visitors and seminars (on topics including String theory, Nuclear physics, Condensed matter etc.).


Rankings

The Times Higher Education Ranking 2020 ranked the University of Bonn 105th in the world. According to the 2019 Academic Ranking of World Universities compiled by researchers from the Shanghai Jiao Tong University, the University of Bonn was ranked 70th internationally. In the 2015–2016 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, the university placed 94th.


Notable people

To date, eleven Nobel prizes and four Fields Medals have been awarded to faculty and alumni of the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn: * Nobel prize: ** Emil Fischer, alumni: chemistry, 1902 ** Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff, alumni: chemistry, 1901 ** Harald zur Hausen, alumni: physiology and medicine, 2008 ** Walter Rudolf Hess, faculty member: physiology and medicine, 1949 **
Reinhard Selten Reinhard Justus Reginald Selten (; 5 October 1930 – 23 August 2016) was a German economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply ...

Reinhard Selten
, faculty member: economics, 1994 **
Wolfgang Paul Wolfgang Paul (; 10 August 1913 – 7 December 1993) was a Germany, German physicist, who co-developed the non-magnetic quadrupole mass filter which laid the foundation for what is now called an ion trap. He shared one-half of the Nobel Priz ...
, faculty member: physics, 1989 ** Luigi Pirandello, alumni: literature, 1934 ** Otto Wallach, faculty member: chemistry, 1910 ** Paul Johann Ludwig von Heyse, alumni: literature, 1910 ** Philipp Lenard, faculty member: physics, 1905 ** Reinhard Genzel, alumni: physics, 2020 * Fields Medal: ** Gerd Faltings, 1986 ** Maxim Kontsevich, 1998 ** Gregori Margulis, 1978 ** Peter Scholze, 2018 Some of the numerous well-known faculty members and alumni of the University of Bonn:
* In Humanities: Image:Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F078072-0004, Konrad Adenauer.jpg,
Konrad Adenauer Konrad Hermann Joseph Adenauer (; 5 January 1876 – 19 April 1967) was a German statesman who served as the first Chancellor Chancellor ( la, links=no, cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations. ...

Konrad Adenauer
was Chancellor of Germany (1949–present), Chancellor of Germany from 1949 to 1963 Image:Ernst_Moritz_Arndt_(cropped).gif,
Ernst Moritz Arndt Ernst Moritz Arndt (26 December 1769 – 29 January 1860) was a German nationalist historian, writer and poet. Early in his life, he fought for the abolition of serfdom Serfdom was the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically ...

Ernst Moritz Arndt

Historian, writer, poet and one of the founders of 19th century movement for German unification Image:Pope Benedict XVI 2.jpg,
Pope Benedict XVI Pope Benedict XVI ( la, Benedictus XVI; it, Benedetto XVI; german: Benedikt XVI.; born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger, , on 16 April 1927) is a retired prelate A prelate () is a high-ranking member of the clergy who is an ordinary or who ran ...

Pope Benedict XVI

Head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State Image:Beethoven.jpg, Beethoven
Composer and pianist Image:FranzBoas.jpg, Franz Boas
Anthropologist and a pioneer of modern anthropology File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-1989-0630-504, Heinrich Brüning.jpg, Heinrich Brüning
Chancellor of Germany during the Weimar Republic from 1930 to 1932 Image:Einde bezoek bondskanselier dr Ludwig Erhard en gaf persconferentie in het Haag, Bestanddeelnr 916-1330.jpg, Ludwig Erhard
The second Chancellor of (West) Germany from 1963 to 1966 Image:Konrad Duden 1829-1911.jpg, Konrad Duden
Philologist and founder of the German language dictionary Duden Image:Walter_Eucken2.jpg,
Walter Eucken Walter Eucken (; 17 January 1891 – 20 March 1950) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see al ...

Economist of the Freiburg school, father of ordoliberalism and developer of the concept of social market economy File:Emperor Friedrich III.png, Frederick III, German Emperor, Frederick III
German Emperor File:Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1968-101-20A, Joseph Goebbels.jpg, Joseph Goebbels
Nazi politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda of Nazi Germany File:Habermas10 (14298469242).jpg,
Jürgen Habermas Jürgen Habermas (, ; ; born 18 June 1929) is a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, e ...

Philosopher and sociologist File:Heinrich Heine-Oppenheim.jpg,
Heinrich Heine Christian Johann Heinrich Heine (; born Harry Heine; 13 December 1797 – 17 February 1856) was a German poet, writer and literary critic. He is best known outside Germany for his early lyric poetry Modern lyric poetry is a formal type of p ...

Heinrich Heine

Poet, writer and literary critic File:Moses-Hess.jpg, Moses Hess
Philosopher and a founder of Labor Zionism File:AxelHonneth2.JPG, Axel Honneth
Philosopher and director of the ''Institut für Sozialforschung'' File:2017-03-26 Oskar Lafontaine by Sandro Halank–3.jpg, Oskar Lafontaine
Served as Minister-President of Saarland, as Germanys Minister of Finance, as party leader of the German Social-Democratic Party, SPD and later of The Left (Germany), The Left File:Grundsteinlegung MiQua-7004 (cropped).jpg, Armin Laschet
Leader of the Christian Democratic Union, Leader of the Christian Democratic Union of Germany, CDU and the Minister-president of North Rhine-Westphalia File:2020-02-14 Christian Lindner (Bundestagsprojekt 2020) by Sandro Halank–2.jpg, Christian Lindner
Party leader of the Free Democratic Party of Germany, FDP File:Bernd Lucke (2014).jpg, Bernd Lucke
Economist and a founder of the ''Alternative for Germany, Alternative für Deutschland '' File:Thomas Mann in 1926.jpg, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Prize-winning novelist
Thomas Mann Paul Thomas Mann ( , ; ; 6 June 1875 – 12 August 1955) was a German novelist, short story writer, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and the 1929 Nobel Prize in Literature ) , image = Nobel Prize.png , caption = , awarded_ ...
File:Karl Marx 001.jpg,
Karl Marx Karl Heinrich Marx (; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, M ...

Karl Marx

Philosopher, economist, historian, sociologist, political theorist, journalist and socialist revolutionary File:Josef Mengele, Auschwitz. Album Höcker (cropped).jpg, Josef Mengele
Schutzstaffel (SS) officer, physician, anthropologist and Nazi war criminal File:2019-02-05 Andrea Nahles-4936.jpg, Andrea Nahles
Party leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany, SPD who served as Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, Federal Minister of Labour and Social Affairs File:Nietzsche187a.jpg,
Friedrich Nietzsche Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (; or ; 15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philosophos, me ...

Friedrich Nietzsche

Philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, and philologist File:Thilo Sarrazin Leipziger Buchmesse 2014.JPG, Thilo Sarrazin
Politician and writer of controversial books about Muslim immigrants in Germany File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-19000-2453, Robert Schuman.jpg,
Robert Schuman Jean-Baptiste Nicolas Robert Schuman (; 29 June 18864 September 1963) was a Luxembourg Luxembourg ( ; lb, Lëtzebuerg ; french: link=no, Luxembourg; german: link=no, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, ; french: link=n ...

Statesman and one of the founding fathers of the European Union File:Joseph Schumpeter ekonomialaria.jpg,
Joseph Schumpeter Joseph Alois Schumpeter (; February 8, 1883 – January 8, 1950) was an Austrian political economist. He was born in Moravia Moravia ( , also , ; cs, Morava ; german: link=no, Mähren ; pl, Morawy ; szl, Morawijo; la, Moravia) is a h ...

Political economist File:Carl-Schurz.jpg, Carl Schurz
German revolutionary and an American statesman, journalist, reformer and 13th United States Secretary of the Interior File:Ferdinand Tönnies.jpg,
Ferdinand Tönnies Ferdinand Tönnies (; 26 July 1855 – 9 April 1936) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see ...

Ferdinand Tönnies

Sociologist, economist and philosopher File:Ministru prezidents Valdis Dombrovskis tiekas ar Vācijas ārlietu ministru Gvido Vestervelli (7849819858) (cropped).jpg, Guido Westerwelle
Foreign Minister of Germany, Vice Chancellor of Germany from 2009 to 2011 and first openly gay person to hold any of these positions File:Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany - 1902.jpg, Wilhelm II of Germany
German Emperor

* In Natural Sciences: File:Friedrich Wilhelm August Argelander 1852.jpg, Friedrich Wilhelm August Argelander
Astronomer File:Caratheodory Constantin Greek.JPG, Constantin Carathéodory
Mathematician File:Hausdorff 1913-1921.jpg,
Felix Hausdorff Felix Hausdorff (November 8, 1868 – January 26, 1942) was a German mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as q ...

Mathematician File:Heinrich Rudolf Hertz.jpg,
Heinrich Hertz Heinrich Rudolf Hertz ( ; ; 22 February 1857 – 1 January 1894) was a German physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts scientific research The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empi ...

Heinrich Hertz

Physicist File:Friedrich Hirzebruch.jpeg, Friedrich Hirzebruch
Mathematician File:Frkekulé.jpg,
August Kekulé Friedrich August Kekulé, later Friedrich August Kekule von Stradonitz ( , ; 7 September 1829 – 13 July 1896), was a German organic chemist. From the 1850s until his death, Kekulé was one of the most prominent chemists in Europe, especially i ...

Organic chemist File:MJK 20229 Harald Lesch (Republica 2018).jpg, Harald Lesch
Physicist, astronomer, natural philosopher, author, television presenter and professor of physics File:Justus von Liebig NIH.jpg,
Justus von Liebig Justus Freiherr (; male, abbreviated as ), (; his wife, abbreviated as , literally "free lord" or "free lady") and (, his unmarried daughters and maiden aunts) are designations used as titles of nobility Traditional rank amongst Euro ...

Justus von Liebig

Founder of organic chemistry File:Maria von Linden in 1894.PNG, Maria von Linden
Bacteriologist and zoologist File:Peter_Scholze_(cropped).jpg, Peter Scholze
Mathematician File:Karl_Weierstrass.jpg, Karl Weierstrass
Mathematician


See also

* List of early modern universities in Europe


Notes and references


External links

*
University Library
{{DEFAULTSORT:Bonn, University Of University of Bonn, Educational institutions established in 1818 Universities and colleges in North Rhine-Westphalia Tourist attractions in Bonn Deposit libraries Libraries in Bonn 1818 establishments in Prussia Holocaust locations in Germany Agricultural universities and colleges in Germany