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The Code of Laws of the United States of America (variously abbreviated to Code of Laws of the United States, United States Code, U.S. Code, U.S.C., or USC) is the official compilation and
codification Codification may refer to: *Codification (law), the process of preparing and enacting a legal code *Codification (linguistics), the process of selecting, developing and prescribing a model for standard language usage *Accounting Standards Codificati ...
of the general and permanent federal statutes of the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It consists of 50 , a , five major , 326 , and some . At , it is the world's . The United States shares significan ...

United States
. It contains 53 titles (Titles 1–54, excepting Title 53, which is reserved for a proposed title on
small business Small businesses are privately owned corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the State (polity), state to act as a single entity (a legal entity recognized by private and publ ...
). The main edition is published every six years by the
Office of the Law Revision Counsel The Office of the Law Revision Counsel of the United States House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives is the lower house of the United States Congress, with the United States Senate, Senate being the upper house. To ...
of the House of Representatives, and cumulative supplements are published annually.About United States Code
Gpo.gov. Retrieved on 2013-07-19.
The official version of those laws not codified in the United States Code can be found in ''
United States Statutes at Large The ''United States Statutes at Large'', commonly referred to as the ''Statutes at Large'' and abbreviated Stat., are an official record of Acts of Congress An Act of Congress is a statute enacted by United States Congress, Congress. Acts can ...
''.


Codification


Process

The official text of an
Act of Congress An Act of Congress is a statute A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislature, legislative authority that governs the legal entities of a city, State (polity), state, or country by way of consent. Typically, statutes command or prohib ...
is that of the "enrolled bill" (traditionally printed on
parchment Parchment is a writing material made from specially prepared Tanning (leather), untanned skins of animals—primarily sheep, calves, and goats. It has been used as a writing medium for over two millennia. Vellum is a finer quality parchment made ...

parchment
) presented to the
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...

President
for his signature or . Upon enactment of a law, the original bill is delivered to the
Office of the Federal Register The Office of the Federal Register is an office of the United States government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States The United States of America (USA ...
(OFR) within the
National Archives and Records Administration The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an Independent agencies of the United States government, independent agency of the United States government charged with the preservation and documentation of government and historical ...
(NARA). After authorization from the OFR, copies are distributed as "
slip law In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washing ...
s" by the
Government Publishing Office The United States Government Publishing Office (USGPO or GPO; formerly the United States Government Printing Office) is an agency of the Legislature, legislative branch of the United States federal government. The office produces and distribute ...

Government Publishing Office
(GPO). The Archivist assembles annual volumes of the enacted laws and publishes them as the ''
United States Statutes at Large The ''United States Statutes at Large'', commonly referred to as the ''Statutes at Large'' and abbreviated Stat., are an official record of Acts of Congress An Act of Congress is a statute enacted by United States Congress, Congress. Acts can ...
.'' By law, the text of the ''Statutes at Large'' is "legal evidence" of the laws enacted by Congress. Slip laws are also competent evidence. The ''Statutes at Large'', however, is not a convenient tool for legal research. It is arranged strictly in chronological order; statutes addressing related topics may be scattered across many volumes. Statutes often repeal or amend earlier laws, and extensive
cross-referencingThe abbrevation Xref can refer also to External reference, External Reference The term cross-reference (abbreviation: xref) can refer to either: * An instance within a document which refers to related information elsewhere in the same document. In ...
is required to determine what laws are in force at any given time. The United States Code is the result of an effort to make finding relevant and effective statutes simpler by reorganizing them by subject matter, and eliminating expired and amended sections. The Code is maintained by the
Office of the Law Revision Counsel The Office of the Law Revision Counsel of the United States House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives is the lower house of the United States Congress, with the United States Senate, Senate being the upper house. To ...
(LRC) of the U.S. House of Representatives. The LRC determines which statutes in the United States Statutes at Large should be codified, and which existing statutes are affected by amendments or repeals, or have simply expired by their own terms. The LRC updates the Code accordingly. Because of this codification approach, a single named statute (like the
Taft–Hartley Act The Labor Management Relations Act of 1947, better known as the Taft–Hartley Act, is a Law of the United States, United States federal law that restricts the activities and power of trade union, labor unions. It was enacted by the 80th United Sta ...
or the
Embargo Act The Embargo Act of 1807 was a general trade embargo Economic sanctions are commercial and financial Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they operate within the financial system. It is concerned with t ...
) may or may not appear in a single place in the Code. Often, complex legislation bundles a series of provisions together as a means of addressing a social or governmental problem; those provisions often fall in different logical areas of the Code. For example, an Act providing relief for family farms might affect items in Title 7 (Agriculture), Title 26 (Tax), and Title 43 (
Public Lands In all modern Sovereign state, states, a portion of land is held by central or local governments. This is called public land, state land, or Crown land (Australia, New Zealand and Canada). The system of tenure of public land, and the terminology us ...
). When the Act is codified, its various provisions might well be placed in different parts of those various Titles. Traces of this process are generally found in the Notes accompanying the "lead section" associated with the popular name, and in cross-reference tables that identify Code sections corresponding to particular Acts of Congress. Usually, the individual sections of a statute are incorporated into the Code exactly as enacted; however, sometimes editorial changes are made by the LRC (for instance, the phrase "the date of enactment of this Act" is replaced by the actual date). Though authorized by statute, these changes do not constitute
positive law Positive laws ( la, links=no, ius positum) are human-made laws that oblige or specify an action. Positive law also describes the establishment of specific rights for an individual or group. Etymologically, the name derives from the verb ''to posit'' ...
.


Legal status

The authority for the material in the United States Code comes from its enactment through the legislative process and not from its presentation in the Code. For example, the United States Code omitted for decades, apparently because it was thought to have been repealed. In its 1993 ruling in ''U.S. National Bank of Oregon v. Independent Insurance Agents of America'', the Supreme Court ruled that § 92 was still valid law. By law, those titles of the United States Code that have not been enacted into positive law are "''
prima facie ''Prima facie'' (; ) is a Latin expression meaning ''at first sight'' or ''based on first impression''. The literal translation would be 'at first face' or 'at first appearance', from the feminine forms of ''primus'' ('first') and ''facies'' ('f ...
'' evidence" of the law in effect. The ''
United States Statutes at Large The ''United States Statutes at Large'', commonly referred to as the ''Statutes at Large'' and abbreviated Stat., are an official record of Acts of Congress An Act of Congress is a statute enacted by United States Congress, Congress. Acts can ...
'' remains the ultimate authority. If a dispute arises as to the accuracy or completeness of the codification of an unenacted title, the courts will turn to the language in the United States Statutes at Large. In case of a conflict between the text of the Statutes at Large and the text of a provision of the United States Code that has not been enacted as positive law, the text of the Statutes at Large takes precedence. In contrast, if Congress enacts a particular title (or other component) of the Code into positive law, the enactment repeals all of the previous Acts of Congress from which that title of the Code derives; in their place, Congress gives the title of the Code itself the force of law. This process makes that title of the United States Code "legal evidence" of the law in force. Where a title has been enacted into positive law, a court may neither permit nor require proof of the underlying original Acts of Congress. The distinction between enacted and unenacted titles is largely academic because the Code is nearly always accurate. The United States Code is routinely cited by the
Supreme Court A supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administration of just ...

Supreme Court
and other federal courts without mentioning this theoretical caveat. On a day-to-day basis, very few lawyers cross-reference the Code to the ''Statutes at Large''. Attempting to capitalize on the possibility that the text of the United States Code can differ from the ''United States Statutes at Large'', Bancroft-Whitney for many years published a series of volumes known as United States Code Service (USCS), which used the actual text of the ''United States Statutes at Large''; the series is now published by the
Michie CompanyMichie may refer to: People with the surname * Archibald Michie Sir Archibald Michie , (1813 – 21 June 1899) was an English-born Australian lawyer, journalist, Agent-General, Attorney-General of Victoria (Australia), Attorney-General of Victoria ...
after Bancroft-Whitney parent
Thomson Corporation The Thomson Corporation was one of the world's largest information companies. It was established in 1989 following a merger between International Thomson Organisation Ltd (ITOL) and Thomson Newspapers. In 2008, it purchased Reuters Group to form ...
divested the title as a condition of acquiring
West 250px, A compass rose with west highlighted in black West or Occident is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet-based directions are conventionally defined. A co ...
.


Uncodified statutes

Only "general and permanent" laws are codified in the United States Code; the Code does not usually include provisions that apply only to a limited number of people (a
private law Private law is that part of a civil law Civil law may refer to: * Civil law (common law) Civil law is a major branch of the law.Glanville Williams. ''Learning the Law''. Eleventh Edition. Stevens. 1982. p. 2. In common law legal systems such as E ...
) or for a limited time, such as most appropriation acts or
budget A budget is a for a defined , often one year. It may also include planned volumes and s, resource quantities, s and s, s, and s. Companies, governments, families, and other organizations use it to express s of activities or events in measura ...

budget
laws, which apply only for a single
fiscal year A fiscal year (or financial year, or sometimes budget year) is used in government accounting, which varies between countries, and for budget purposes. It is also used for financial report Financial statements (or financial reports) are formal ...
. If these limited provisions are significant, however, they may be printed as "notes" underneath related sections of the Code. The codification is based on the content of the laws, however, not the vehicle by which they are adopted; so, for instance, if an appropriations act contains substantive, permanent provisions (as is sometimes the case), these provisions will be incorporated into the Code even though they were adopted as part of a non-permanent enactment.


Versions and history


Early compilations

Early efforts at codifying the Acts of Congress were undertaken by private publishers; these were useful shortcuts for research purposes, but had no official status. Congress undertook an official codification called the ''
Revised Statutes of the United StatesThe Revised Statutes of the United States (in citations, Rev. Stat.) was the first official codification of the Acts of Congress. It was enacted into law in 1874. The purpose of the ''Revised Statutes'' was to make it easier to research federal law ...
'' approved June 22, 1874, for the laws in effect as of December 1, 1873. Congress re-enacted a corrected version in 1878. The 1874 version of the Revised Statutes were enacted as positive law, but the 1878 version was not and subsequent enactments of Congress were not incorporated into the official code, so that over time researchers once again had to delve through many volumes of the ''
Statutes at Large ''Statutes at Large'' is the name given to published collections or series of primary legislation, legislative Acts in a number of jurisdictions. The expression "statutes at large" was first used in the edition of Barker published in 1587. Englan ...
''. According to the preface to the Code, "From 1897 to 1907 a commission was engaged in an effort to codify the great mass of accumulating legislation. The work of the commission involved an expenditure of over $300,000, but was never carried to completion." Only the
Criminal Code of 1909 In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper) ...
and the
Judicial Code of 1911 The Judicial Code of 1911 () abolished the United States circuit courts and transferred their trial jurisdiction to the U.S. district courts. In 1911, the United States Congress created a single code encompassing all statutes related to the judi ...
were enacted. In the absence of a comprehensive official code, private publishers once again collected the more recent statutes into unofficial codes. The first edition of the ''United States Code'' (published as Statutes at Large Volume 44, Part 1) includes cross-reference tables between the USC and two of these unofficial codes, ''United States Compiled Statutes Annotated'' by West Publishing Co. and ''Federal Statutes Annotated'' by Edward Thompson Co.


Official code

During the 1920s, some members of Congress revived the codification project, resulting in the approval of the United States Code by Congress in 1926. The official version of the Code is published by the LRC (
Office of the Law Revision Counsel The Office of the Law Revision Counsel of the United States House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives is the lower house of the United States Congress, with the United States Senate, Senate being the upper house. To ...
) as a series of paper volumes. The first edition of the Code was contained in a single bound volume; today, it spans several large volumes. Normally, a new edition of the Code is issued every six years, with annual cumulative supplements identifying the changes made by Congress since the last "main edition" was published. The official code was last printed in 2018.


Digital and Internet versions

Both the LRC and the GPO offer electronic versions of the Code to the public. The LRC electronic version used to be as much as 18 months behind current legislation, but as of 2014 it is one of the most current versions available online. The United States Code is available from the LRC a
uscode.house.gov
in both HTML and XML bulk formats. The "United States Legislative Markup" (USLM) schema of the XML was designed to be consistent with the
Akoma Ntoso Akoma Ntoso (''A''rchitecture for ''K''nowledge-''O''riented ''M''anagement of ''A''frican ''N''ormative ''T''exts using ''O''pen ''S''tandards and ''O''ntologies) is an international technical standard A technical standard is an established norm ( ...
project (from the
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) is part of the United Nations Secretariat The United Nations Secretariat (french: link=no, Secrétariat des Nations unies) is one of the six major organs of the United N ...
) XML schema, and the OASIS ''LegalDocML'' technical committee standard will be based upon Akoma Ntoso. A number of other online versions are freely available, such as
Cornell Cornell University ( ) is a private, statutory, Ivy League The Ivy League (also known as The Ancient Eight) is an American collegiate athletic conference comprising eight private research universities in the Northeastern United Stat ...
's
Legal Information Institute The Legal Information Institute (LII) is a non-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, publ ...
.


Annotated codes

Practicing lawyers who can afford them almost always use an annotated version of the Code from a private company. The two leading annotated versions are the ''United States Code Annotated'', abbreviated as USCA, and the ''United States Code Service'', abbreviated as USCS. The USCA is published by
West 250px, A compass rose with west highlighted in black West or Occident is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet-based directions are conventionally defined. A co ...
(part of
Thomson Reuters Thomson Reuters Corporation () is a Canadian-American . The company was founded in , , Canada, where it is headquartered at the . Thomson Reuters was created by the 's purchase of the British company in April 2008 and is majority owned ...
), and USCS is published by
LexisNexis LexisNexis is a corporation that sells data mining Data mining is a process of extracting and discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems. Data mining is an ...

LexisNexis
(part of
Reed Elsevier RELX (pronounced "Rel-ex", sometimes written RElX) is a British-Dutch multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from mu ...
), which purchased the publication from the Lawyers Co-operative Publishing Co. in 1997 as a result of an antitrust settlement when the parent of Lawyers Co-operative Publishing acquired West. These annotated versions contain notes following each section of the law, which organize and summarize court decisions, law review articles, and other authorities that pertain to the code section, and may also include uncodified provisions that are part of the Public Laws. The publishers of these versions frequently issue supplements (in hard copy format as pocket parts) that contain newly enacted laws, which may not yet have appeared in an official published version of the Code, as well as updated secondary materials such as new court decisions on the subject. When an attorney is viewing an annotated code on an online service, such as
Westlaw Westlaw is an online legal research service and proprietary database A database is an organized collection of data Data are units of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question ...
or LexisNexis, all the citations in the annotations are
hyperlink In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and soft ...

hyperlink
ed to the referenced court opinions and other documents.


Organization


Divisions

The Code is divided into 53 titles (listed below), which deal with broad, logically organized areas of legislation. Titles may optionally be divided into subtitles, parts, subparts, chapters, and subchapters. All titles have sections (represented by a §) as their basic coherent units, and sections are numbered sequentially across the entire title without regard to the previously-mentioned divisions of titles. Sections are often divided into (from largest to smallest) subsections, paragraphs, subparagraphs, clauses, subclauses, items, and subitems. Congress, by convention, names a particular subdivision of a section according to its largest element. For example, "subsection (c)(3)(B)(iv)" is not a subsection but a clause, namely clause (iv) of subparagraph (B) of paragraph (3) of subsection (c); if the identity of the subsection and paragraph were clear from the context, one would refer to the clause as "subparagraph (B)(iv)".Examples of naming "''section'' 148(b)(2)" and "''subparagraphs'' (B)(ii) and (C)" in Not all titles use the same series of subdivisions above the section level, and they may arrange them in different order. For example, in Title 26 (the tax code), the order of subdivision runs: Title – Subtitle – Chapter – Subchapter – Part – Subpart – Section – Subsection – Paragraph – Subparagraph – Clause – Subclause – Item – Subitem. The "Section" division is the core organizational component of the Code, and the "Title" division is always the largest division of the Code. Which intermediate levels between Title and Section appear, if any, varies from Title to Title. For example, in Title 38 (Veteran's Benefits), the order runs Title – Part – Chapter – Subchapter – Section. The word "title" in this context is roughly akin to a printed "volume," although many of the larger titles span multiple volumes. Similarly, no particular size or length is associated with other subdivisions; a section might run several pages in print, or just a sentence or two. Some subdivisions within particular titles acquire meaning of their own; for example, it is common for lawyers to refer to a "
Chapter 11 bankruptcy Chapter 11 of the United States Bankruptcy Code ( Title 11 of the United States Code The Code of Laws of the United States of America (variously abbreviated to Code of Laws of the United States, United States Code, U.S. Code, U.S.C., or USC) is ...
" or a "Subchapter S
corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the State (polity), state to act as a single entity (a legal entity recognized by private and public law "born out of statute"; a legal person in legal ...

corporation
" (often shortened to "
S corporation An S corporation, for United States federal income tax, is a closely held corporation (or, in some cases, a limited liability company A limited liability company (LLC) is the United States of America, US-specific form of a private limited ...
"). In the context of federal statutes, the word "title" is used in a very confusing fashion with two slightly different meanings. It can refer to the highest subdivision of the Code itself, but it can also refer to the highest subdivision of an Act of Congress which subsequently becomes part of an existing title of the Code. For example, when Americans refer to Title VII, they are usually referring to the seventh title of the
Civil Rights Act of 1964 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 () is a landmark civil rights and United States labor law, labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on Race (human categorization), race, Person of color, color, religion, sex, national or ...
. That Act is actually codified in
Title 42 of the United States Code Title 42 of the United States Code is the United States Code The Code of Laws of the United States of America (variously abbreviated to Code of Laws of the United States, United States Code, U.S. Code, U.S.C., or USC) is the official compilat ...
, not Title 7. The intermediate subdivisions between title and section are helpful for reading the Code (since Congress uses them to group together related sections), but they are not needed to cite a section in the Code. To cite any particular section, it is enough to know its title and section numbers. According to one legal style manual, a sample citation would be "
Privacy Act of 1974 The Privacy Act of 1974 (, ), a United States federal law The law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law, of which the most important is the United States Constitution, which prescribes the foundation of ...
, (2006)", read aloud as "Title five, United States Code, section five fifty-two A" or simply "five USC five fifty-two A". Some section numbers consist of awkward-sounding combinations of letters, hyphens, and numerals. They are especially prevalent in Title 42. A typical example is the
Religious Freedom Restoration Act The Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993, Pub. L. No. 103-141, 107 Stat. 1488 (November 16, 1993), codified at through (also known as RFRA, pronounced "rifra"), is a 1993 United States federal law The law of the United States comprises m ...
of 1993 (RFRA), which is codified in Chapter 21B of Title 42 at through . In the case of RFRA, Congress was trying to squeeze a new act into Title 42 between Chapter 21A (ending at ) and Chapter 22 (beginning at ). The underlying problem is that the original drafters of the Code in 1926 failed to foresee the explosive growth of federal legislation directed to "The Public Health and Welfare" (as Title 42 is literally titled) and did not fashion statutory classifications and section numbering schemes that could readily accommodate such expansion. Title 42 grew in size from 6 chapters and 106 sections in 1926 to over 160 chapters and 7,000 sections as of 1999.


Titles

Titles that have been enacted into
positive law Positive laws ( la, links=no, ius positum) are human-made laws that oblige or specify an action. Positive law also describes the establishment of specific rights for an individual or group. Etymologically, the name derives from the verb ''to posit'' ...
are indicated by blue shading below. Titles whose laws have been repealed are indicated by red shading below.


Proposed titles

The Office of Law Revision Counsel (LRC) has produced draft text for three additional titles of federal law. The subject matters of these proposed titles exists today in one or several existing titles. The LRC announced an "editorial reclassification" of the federal laws governing voting and elections that went into effect on September 1, 2014. This reclassification involved moving various laws previously classified in Titles 2 and 42 into a new Title 52, which has not been enacted into positive law.


Treatment of repealed laws

When sections are repealed, their text is deleted and replaced by a note summarizing what used to be there. This is so that lawyers reading old cases can understand what the cases are talking about. As a result, some portions of the Code consist entirely of empty chapters full of historical notes. For example, Title 8, Chapter 7 is labeled "Exclusion of Chinese". This contains historical notes relating to the
Chinese Exclusion Act The Chinese Exclusion Act was a United States Code, United States federal law signed by President Chester A. Arthur on May 6, 1882, prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers. Building on the earlier Page Act of 1875 which banned Chines ...
, which is no longer in effect.


Number and growth of federal crimes

There are conflicting opinions on the number of federal crimes, but many have argued that there has been explosive growth and it has become overwhelming. In 1982, the U.S. Department of Justice could not come up with a number, but estimated 3,000 crimes in the United States Code. In 1998, the
American Bar Association The American Bar Association (ABA), founded August 21, 1878, is a voluntary Voluntary may refer to: * Voluntary (music)In music a voluntary is a piece of music, usually for an organ, that is played as part of a church service. In English-speak ...

American Bar Association
said that it was likely much higher than 3,000, but did not give a specific estimate. In 2008, the
Heritage Foundation The Heritage Foundation (abbreviated to Heritage) is an American conservative Conservatism is a Political philosophy, political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions. The central tenets of conservatism may vary in ...
published a report that put the number at a minimum of 4,450. When staff for a task force of the U.S. House Judiciary Committee asked the
Congressional Research Service The Congressional Research Service (CRS) is a public policy Public policy is an institutionalized proposal to solve relevant and real-world problems, guided by a conception and implemented by programs as a course of action created and/or enact ...

Congressional Research Service
(CRS) to update its 2008 calculation of criminal offenses in the USC in 2013, the CRS responded that they lack the manpower and resources to accomplish the task.


Related codifications

The Code generally contains only those Acts of Congress, or statutes, designated as public laws. The Code itself does not include
Executive Order In the United States, an executive order is a directive Directive may refer to: * Directive (European Union), a legislative act of the European Union * Directive (programming), a computer language construct that specifies how a compiler shou ...
s or other executive-branch documents related to the statutes, or rules promulgated by the courts. However, such related material is sometimes contained in notes to relevant statutory sections or in appendices. The Code does not include statutes designated at enactment as private laws, nor statutes that are considered temporary in nature, such as appropriations. These laws are included in the ''
Statutes at Large ''Statutes at Large'' is the name given to published collections or series of primary legislation, legislative Acts in a number of jurisdictions. The expression "statutes at large" was first used in the edition of Barker published in 1587. Englan ...
'' for the year of enactment. Regulations promulgated by executive agencies through the rulemaking process set out in the Administrative Procedure Act are published chronologically in the ''
Federal Register The ''Federal Register'' (FR or sometimes Fed. Reg.) is the official journal A government gazette (also known as official gazette, official journal, official newspaper, official monitor or official bulletin) is a periodical publication that h ...
'' and then codified in the
Code of Federal Regulations The ''Code of Federal Regulations'' (''CFR'') is the codification of the general and permanent regulations published in the ''Federal Register The ''Federal Register'' (FR or sometimes Fed. Reg.) is the official journal A government gazett ...

Code of Federal Regulations
(CFR). Similarly, state statutes and regulations are often codified into state-specific codes.


See also

* List of U.S. state statutory codes * ''
United States Reports The ''United States Reports'' () are the official record (law report en-GB, Law reports, label=none or en-US, reporters, label=none are series of books that contain judicial opinions from a selection of case law Case law, also used intercha ...
''


Notes


External links


United States Code
from the
Government Publishing Office The United States Government Publishing Office (USGPO or GPO; formerly the United States Government Printing Office) is an agency of the Legislature, legislative branch of the United States federal government. The office produces and distribute ...

Government Publishing Office

United States Code
from the Office of Law Revision Counsel
United States Code
from
Cornell Cornell University ( ) is a private, statutory, Ivy League The Ivy League (also known as The Ancient Eight) is an American collegiate athletic conference comprising eight private research universities in the Northeastern United Stat ...

Cornell
's
Legal Information Institute The Legal Information Institute (LII) is a non-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, publ ...

United States Code
from OpenJurist
Popular names of Acts in the United States Code
from Cornell's Legal Information Institute
Positive Law Codification in the United States Code
from the Office of the Law Revision Counsel
United States Statutes and the United States Code: Historical Outlines, Notes, Lists, Tables, and Sources
from the Law Librarians' Society of Washington, DC
How to count Citations in U.S. Law using XML files from Congress

Unraveling the Mysteries of the U.S. Code
from the Law Librarians' Society of Washington, DC
United States Code
from
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Wikisource
{{Law of the United States *Code Titles of the United States Code Publications of the United States government Legal codes