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The United Nations Secretariat (french: link=no, Secrétariat des Nations unies) is one of the six major organs of the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
, with the others being (a) the
General Assembly A general assembly or general meeting is a meeting of all the members of an organization or shareholders of a company. Specific examples of general assembly include: Churches * General Assembly (presbyterian church), the highest court of presbyt ...
; (b) the
Security Council The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, sec ...

Security Council
; (c) the
Economic and Social Council
Economic and Social Council
; (d) the defunct
Trusteeship Council The United Nations Trusteeship Council (french: Conseil de tutelle des Nations unies) is one of the organs of the United Nations, six principal organs of the United Nations, established to help ensure that United Nations Trust Territories, trust ...
; and (e) the
International Court of Justice The International Court of Justice (ICJ; french: Cour internationale de justice, links=no; ), sometimes known as the World Court, is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmenta ...

International Court of Justice
. The Secretariat is the United Nations' executive arm. The Secretariat has an important role in setting the agenda for the deliberative and decision-making bodies of the UN (the General Assembly, Economic and Social Council, and Security Council), and the implementation of the decision of these bodies. The
Secretary-General Secretary is a title often used in organizations to indicate a person having a certain amount of authority, Power (social and political), power, or importance in the organization. Secretaries announce important events and communicate to the organi ...
, who is appointed by the General Assembly, is the head of the secretariat. The mandate of the secretariat is a wide one.
Dag Hammarskjöld Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld ( , ; 29 July 1905 – 18 September 1961) was a Swedish economist and diplomat who served as the second Secretary-General of the United Nations The secretary-general of the United Nations (UNSG or SG) is t ...

Dag Hammarskjöld
, the United Nations' second Secretary-General, described its power as follows: "The United Nations is what member nations made it, but within the limits set by government action and government cooperation, much depends on what the Secretariat makes it. It has creative capacity. It can introduce new ideas. It can, in proper forms, take initiatives. It can put before member governments findings which will influence their actions". The
United Nations Department of Political Affairs The United Nations Department of Political and Peacebuilding Affairs (DPPA) is a department of the Secretariat Secretariat may refer to: * Secretariat (administrative office) The secretariat of an organization is the department that fulfils its ...
, which has a role analogous to a
ministry of foreign affairs In many countries, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is the government department responsible for the state's diplomacy Diplomacy is the practice of influencing the decisions and conduct of foreign governments or organizations through dialogue, neg ...
, is a part of the secretariat. So is the
Department of Peace Operations The Department of Peace Operations (DPO) (French: ''Département des opérations de maintien de la paix'') is a department of the United Nations charged with the planning, preparation, management and direction of United Nations peacekeeping, UN ...
. The secretariat is the main source of economic and political analysis for the General Assembly and Security Council; it administers operations initiated by UN's deliberative organs, operates political missions, prepares assessments that precede peacekeeping operations, appoints the heads of peacekeeping operations, conducts surveys and research, communicates with non-state actors such as media and non-government organizations, and is responsible for publishing all of the treaties and international agreements.


Secretary-General

The Secretary-General's duties include helping resolve international disputes, administering peacekeeping operations, organizing international conferences, gathering information on the implementation of Security Council decisions, and consulting with member governments regarding various initiatives. Key Secretariat offices in this area include the Office of the Coordinator of Humanitarian Affairs and the Department of Peacekeeping Operations. The Secretary-General may bring to the attention of the Security Council any matter that, in his or her opinion, may threaten international peace and security. The current Secretary-General of the United Nations is António Guterres.


Organization

The Secretariat is divided into offices and departments. The hierarchy within each is as follows: :Office: a minimum of 20 high level professionals under the supervision of a D-2 staff member (Division Head), or in few cases an Assistant Secretary-General or Under Secretary-General :Division: a minimum of 15 high level professionals under the supervision of a D-2 staff member (Division Head) :Service: a minimum of 8 high level professionals under the supervision of a D-1 (General Administrator) staff member :Section: a minimum of 4 professionals under the supervisions of a P-4 (8–12 years experience) or a P-5 (13–17 years experience) staff member :Unit: a minimum of 4 positions under the supervision of a chief


Offices

* Executive Office of the
Secretary-General Secretary is a title often used in organizations to indicate a person having a certain amount of authority, Power (social and political), power, or importance in the organization. Secretaries announce important events and communicate to the organi ...
(EOSG) *
United Nations Office of Internal Oversight Services The United Nations Office of Internal Oversight Services (OIOS) is an independent office in the United Nations Secretariat The United Nations Secretariat (french: link=no, Secrétariat des Nations unies) is one of the six major organs of the ...
(OIOS) *
United Nations Office of Legal Affairs The United Nations Office of Legal Affairs is a United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among n ...
(OLA) *
United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs The UN Office for Disarmament Affairs (UNODA) (french: Le Bureau des affaires du désarmement) is an Office of the United Nations Secretariat The United Nations Secretariat (french: link=no, Secrétariat des Nations unies) is one of the six ...
(ODA) *
United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) is a United Nations (UN) body established in December 1991 by the United Nations General Assembly, General Assembly to strengthen the international response to complex ...
(OCHA) *
United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR) was created in December 1999 to ensure the implementation of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (General Assembly (GA) resolution 54/219).
(UNDRR) *
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, commonly known as the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) or the United Nations Human Rights Office, is a department of the Secretariat Secretariat may ref ...
(OHCHR) *
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is a UN agency mandated to aid and protect refugee A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person Forced displacement (also forced migration) is an involuntary or coerce ...
(UNHCR) *
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC; French: ''Office des Nations unies contre la drogue et le crime'') is a United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organiza ...
(UNODC) * United Nations Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States (OHRLLS) *
United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs The United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) is an office of the U.N. Secretariat that promotes and facilitates peaceful international cooperation in outer space Outer space, commonly shortened to space, is the expanse tha ...
(UNOOSA)


Departments

*
United Nations Department of Political and Peacebuilding Affairs The United Nations Department of Political and Peacebuilding Affairs (DPPA) is a department of the United Nations Secretariat, Secretariat of the United Nations (UN) with responsibility for monitoring and assessing global political developments a ...
(DPPA) *
United Nations Department of Peace Operations The Department of Peace Operations (DPO) (French: ''Département des opérations de maintien de la paix'') is a department of the United Nations charged with the planning, preparation, management and direction of United Nations peacekeeping, UN ...
(DPO) *
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) is part of the United Nations Secretariat The United Nations Secretariat (french: link=no, Secrétariat des Nations unies) is one of the six major organs of the United ...
(DESA) *
United Nations Department of Field Support The Department of Field Support (DFS) was a department of the United Nations dedicated to the support of United Nations peacekeeping, peacekeeping field missions and political field missions. Following the UN Secretary-general's management refo ...
(DFS) * United Nations Department of Management (DM)* *
United Nations Department of General Assembly and Conference Management United may refer to: Places * United, Pennsylvania, an unincorporated community * United, West Virginia, an unincorporated community Arts and entertainment Films * United (2003 film), ''United'' (2003 film), a Norwegian film * United (2011 film) ...
(DGACM) *
United Nations Department of Global Communications The United Nations Department of Global Communications (DGC) (previously named the United Nations Department of Public Information) is a department of the Secretariat Secretariat may refer to: * Secretariat (administrative office) The secretariat ...
(DGC) * United Nations Department of Safety and Security (DSS)


Offices Away from Headquarters

*
United Nations Office at Geneva The United Nations Office at Geneva (UNOG) in Geneva Geneva ( ; french: Genève ; frp, Genèva ; german: link=no, Genf ; it, Ginevra ; rm, Genevra) is the List of cities in Switzerland, second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Z ...
(UNOG) *
United Nations Office at Nairobi United may refer to: Places * United, Pennsylvania United is located in Mount Pleasant Township, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania. It is a community located near Norvelt, Pennsylvania. History In 1881, the United Coal Company, United Coal & ...
(UNON) *
United Nations Office at Vienna The United Nations Office at Vienna (UNOV) is one of the four major office sites of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed p ...
(UNOV)


UN Regional Commissions

* Bangkok,
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) is one of the five regional commissions under the jurisdiction of the United Nations Economic and Social Council The United Nations Economic and Social Counc ...
* Beirut,
Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for West Asia (ESCWA; ar, الإسكوا) is one of five regional commissions under the jurisdiction of the United Nations Economic and Social Council. The role of the Commission is to promote e ...
* Addis Ababa,
Economic Commission for Africa The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA or ECA; french: link=no, Commission économique pour l'Afrique, CEA) was established in 1958 by the United Nations Economic and Social Council The United Nations Economic and Social C ...
* Geneva,
Economic Commission for Europe The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE or UNECE) is one of the five regional commissions under the jurisdiction of the United Nations Economic and Social Council The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC; french: ...

Economic Commission for Europe
* Santiago,
Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean The United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, known as ECLAC, UNECLAC or in Spanish and Portuguese CEPAL, is a United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain i ...


Staffing

As at 31 December 2018, there are 37,505 people employed from more than 140 countries within the Secretariat. Eligibility for civil service is based on a UN-administered examination offered worldwide, in addition to a competitive application process. Qualifications for membership include "the highest standards of efficiency, competence, and integrity", according to the UN Charter. Staff-members are appointed by the Secretary-General alone and are assigned to the organs of the United Nations. Staff members are appointed on a temporary or permanent basis, under the discretion of the Secretary-General. During staff recruitment, geographical variety is an especially prominent selection factor in order to accurately reflect the scope of member states present in the UN. The charter states that staff members are responsible "only to the organization" and are prohibited from any action or influence that would suggest affiliation with a government or organization outside the UN. Headquartered in New York, the Secretariat functions through duty stations in Addis Ababa, Bangkok, Beirut, Geneva, Nairobi, Santiago and Vienna, in addition to offices all over the world. One study finds the following factors play a role in the selection of staff for the Secretariat: a desire to achieve a minimum number of officials from each state; population size; and lo assessment of dues. The most overrepresented states in the Secretariat are small, rich democracies. The Nordic states stand out, in particular, when it comes to overrepresentation.


Status of Women in the Secretariat

Representation of women in the United Nations (UN), particularly at managerial and decision-making positions at the D-1 level and above, has been a United Nations General Assembly concern and goal since 1970. Since 1984, the
UN Secretariat The United Nations Secretariat (french: link=no, Secrétariat des Nations unies) is one of the six major organs of the United Nations, with the others being (a) the United Nations General Assembly, General Assembly; (b) the United Nations Secu ...
, in order to achieve early Gender Equality, issued several five-year "Action Plans", including Strategic Plans, to improve the status of women in the Secretariat. These plans, however, did not have the desired impact, and progress in achieving gender parity remained slow. In December 1994, the UN General Assembly's "disappointment" that its Gender Equality target were not met urged the Secretary General to prioritize the recruitment and promotion of women to reach to 50/50 representation in D1 and above posts by 2000. In Feb 2004, gender Parity target for the secretariat was once again revised to 2015. In 2009, despite the plans, and GA resolutions, the representation of women in the UN Secretariat remained well below parity at 29.2 percent.


Representation of Women at Decision making levels

The representation of women in the UN secretariat, at the D1 level, in 2000, was 30.3 percent. Instead of increasing, in the next decade, the representation of women in the secretariat decreased to 26.7 percentIn December 2011, the representation of women in the Secretariat at the D1 level was 27.4 percent, an increase of .6 percent over a two-year period. At the current rate of progress, it is estimated that gender parity at the D-1 to higher levels will be achieved after 102 years. At D2 level The representation of women in 2011 was 24.4 percent


Special Measures for the Achievement of Gender Equality

To ensure that the Gender Equality target mandated by the General Assembly is met, the Secretariat, in September 1999, promulgated Administrative Instruction(AI) on "Special Measures for the Achievement of Gender Equality"( ST/AI/1999/9 ) Gender Equality A/I echoes the goals of, and is in conformity with, mandate of Articles 8 and 101 of the
Charter of the United Nations The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) is the foundational treaty A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public internation ...
, and Article 4 paragraph 1 of the ''
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) is an international treaty adopted in 1979 by the United Nations General Assembly. Described as an international bill of rights for women, it was instituted ...
(CEDAW)''. On 4 September 2012, in his Annual Reports to the
General Assembly A general assembly or general meeting is a meeting of all the members of an organization An organization, or organisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a of the , originally spoken by the i ...
, titled "Improvement of the status of women in the United Nations system", Secretary-General stated that the aim of Special Measures was to ensure "gender balance in recruitment and promotion". and that Special measures would remain in effect until the "goal of gender parity is achieved", and sustained for a period of time." The Secretary General in his Recommendations to the GA noted that the " United Nations Secretariat, pursuant to the decision of the Policy Committee chaired by the Secretary-General" is to "ensure the effective implementation of special measures for gender equality. These measures include mandatory selection of equally or better-qualified women candidates…"


Reforms

Since its creation, the Secretariat has undergone extensive reforms. On 21 March 2005, Secretary-General
Kofi Annan Kofi Atta Annan (; 8 April 193818 August 2018) was a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations The secretary-general of the United Nations (UNSG or SG) is the chief administrative officer of the Uni ...

Kofi Annan
proposed several reforms for the Secretariat. He announced his intentions to appoint a Scientific Adviser, create a peacebuilding support office, establish a cabinet-style decision-making mechanism, and strengthen the
mediation Mediation is a structured, interactive process where an impartial third party assists disputing parties in resolving conflict through the use of specialized communication and negotiation techniques. All participants in mediation are encourage ...

mediation
function. He also asked the General Assembly to appropriate funds for a one-time staff buyout; to work with him in revising
budget A budget is a financial plan In general usage, a financial plan is a comprehensive evaluation of an individual's current pay and future financial state by using current known variables to predict future income, asset values and withdrawal p ...

budget
ary and
human resources Human resources is the set of people who make up the workforce The workforce or labour force is the labour Labour or labor may refer to: * Childbirth Childbirth, also known as labour or delivery, is the ending of pregnancy where one ...

human resources
rules; to grant the Secretary-General more managerial authority and flexibility; to strengthen the Office of Internal Oversight Services; and "to review all mandates older than five years to see whether the activities concerned are still genuinely needed or whether the resources assigned to them can be reallocated in response to new and emerging challenges".V. Strengthening the United Nations
In Larger Freedom, United Nations


See also

* Dag Hammarskjöld Library *
International Court of Justice The International Court of Justice (ICJ; french: Cour internationale de justice, links=no; ), sometimes known as the World Court, is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmenta ...

International Court of Justice
* The Four Nations Initiative on reform of governance and management issues in the UN Secretariat *
UN Economic and Social Council The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC; french: links=no, Conseil économique et social des Nations unies, ) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental org ...

UN Economic and Social Council
*
UN General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; french: link=no, Assemblée générale, AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations The United Nations System consists of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) ...

UN General Assembly
*
UN Headquarters zh, 联合国总部大楼french: Siège des Nations uniesrussian: Штаб-квартира Организации Объединённых Наций es, Sede de las Naciones Unidas , image = UN HQ 2724390955 bfc562c6a9 (cropped).jpg , image ...

UN Headquarters
*
UN Security Council The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, secu ...

UN Security Council
*
UN Trusteeship Council The United Nations Trusteeship Council (french: Conseil de tutelle des Nations unies) is one of the organs of the United Nations, six principal organs of the United Nations, established to help ensure that United Nations Trust Territories, trust ...

UN Trusteeship Council
*
United Nations Interpretation Service The United Nations Interpretation Service is a part of the Meetings and Publishing Division (MPD) of the UN's Department for General Assembly and Conference Management (DGACM). Its core function is to provide Language interpretation, interpretation ...


References


External links

* Records o
the United Nations Executive Office of the Secretary-General
at the United Nations of Archives



in larger freedom, 21 March 2005.
United States Department of State – UN Division

The Four Nations Initiative
{{Authority control United Nations organs Secretariats of international organizations