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The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is responsible for coordinating responses to environmental issues within the United Nations system. It was established by
Maurice Strong Maurice Frederick Strong, (April 29, 1929 – November 27, 2015) was a Canadian oil and mineral businessman and a diplomat who served as Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations. Strong had his start as an entrepreneur in the Alberta oil pat ...

Maurice Strong
, its first director, after the
United Nations Conference on the Human Environment United may refer to: Places * United, Pennsylvania, an unincorporated community * United, West Virginia, an unincorporated community Arts and entertainment Films * United (2003 film), ''United'' (2003 film), a Norwegian film * United (2011 film), ...
in Stockholm in June 1972. Its mandate is to provide leadership, deliver science and develop solutions on a wide range of issues, including climate change, the management of marine and terrestrial
ecosystem An ecosystem (or ecological system) consists of all the organisms and the physical environment with which they interact. These biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. Energy enters the syst ...

ecosystem
s, and green economic development. The organization also develops international environmental agreements; publishes and promotes
environmental science Environmental science is an interdisciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project). It draws knowledge from several other ...
and helps national governments achieve environmental targets. As a member of the
United Nations Development Group The United Nations Sustainable Development Group (UNSDG), previously the United Nations Development Group (UNDG), is a consortium of 36 United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain inte ...
, UNEP aims to help the world meet the 17
Sustainable Development Goals The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) or Global Goals are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a "blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing wa ...

Sustainable Development Goals
. UNEP hosts the secretariats of several multilateral environmental agreements and research bodies, including The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), The
Minamata Convention on Mercury The Minamata Convention on Mercury is an international treaty A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and international organizations, but ca ...
, The Convention on Migratory Species and The
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, also known as the Washington Convention) is a multilateral treatyMultilateral may refer to: * Multilateralism * Multilateration * Flea flicker (Americ ...
of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). In 1988, the
World Meteorological Organization The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is a specialized agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims ...
and UNEP established the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is an intergovernmental body of the United Nations responsible for advancing knowledge on Attribution of recent climate change, human-induced climate change. It was established in 1988 by the ...
(IPCC). UNEP is also one of several Implementing Agencies for the
Global Environment Facility The Global Environment Facility (GEF) was established on the eve of the 1992 Rio Earth Summit to help tackle our planet's most pressing environmental problems. The GEF unites 184 countries in partnership with international institutions, civil socie ...
(GEF) and the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol. UNEP sometimes uses the alternative name UN Environment.


History

In the 1970s, the need for environmental governance at a global level was not universally accepted, particularly by developing nations. Some argued that environmental concerns were not a priority for nations in poverty. The leadership of Canadian diplomat
Maurice Strong Maurice Frederick Strong, (April 29, 1929 – November 27, 2015) was a Canadian oil and mineral businessman and a diplomat who served as Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations. Strong had his start as an entrepreneur in the Alberta oil pat ...

Maurice Strong
convinced many of the developing nations' governments that they needed to prioritize this issue. In the words of
Nigerian Nigerians or the Nigerian people are citizens of Nigeria or people with ancestry from Nigeria. Nigeria is composed of various ethnic groups and Culture, cultures and the term Nigerian refers to a citizenship-based civic nationality. Nigerians d ...
professor Adebayo Adedeji: "Mr. Strong, through the sincerity of his advocacy, soon made it clear that all of us, irrespective of the stage of our development, have a large stake in the matter." After developing organisations such as the
International Labour Organization The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency whose mandate is to advance social and economic justice through setting international labour standards. Founded in October 1919 under the League of Nations, it is the fir ...
, the
Food and Agriculture Organization The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture; it, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura is a list of specialized ...
and the
World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations and each other through the co-ordinating machinery of the Unit ...
, the 1972
United Nations Conference on the Human Environment United may refer to: Places * United, Pennsylvania, an unincorporated community * United, West Virginia, an unincorporated community Arts and entertainment Films * United (2003 film), ''United'' (2003 film), a Norwegian film * United (2011 film), ...
(the Stockholm Conference) was convened. In this conference various topics were discussed such as pollution, marine life, protection of resources, environmental change, and disasters relating to natural and biological change. This conference resulted in a ''Declaration on the Human Environment'' (Stockholm Declaration) and the establishment of an environmental management body, which was later named the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP). UNEP was established by
General Assembly A general assembly or general meeting is a meeting of all the members of an organization or shareholders of a company. Specific examples of general assembly include: Churches * General Assembly (presbyterian church), the highest court of presbyt ...
Resolution 2997. Headquarters were established in
Nairobi Nairobi ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller low ...

Nairobi
, Kenya, with a staff of 300, including 100 professionals in a variety of fields, and with a five-year fund of more than US$100 million. At the time, US$40 million were pledged by the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
and the remainder by 50 other nations. The 'Voluntary Indicative Scale of Contribution' established in 2002 has the role to increase the supporters of the UNEP. The finances related to all programs of UNEP is voluntarily contributed by
Member states of the United Nations Member may refer to: * Military jury A United States military "jury" (or "Members", in military parlance) serves a function similar to an American civilian jury, but with several notable differences. Only a Courts-martial in the United States, Ge ...

Member states of the United Nations
. The Environmental Fund, which all nations of UNEP invest in, is the core source of UNEP's programs. Between 1974 and 1986 UNEP produced more than 200 technical guidelines or manuals on environment including forest and water management,
pest control Pest control is the regulation or management of a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often def ...
, pollution monitoring, the relationship between chemical use and health, and management of industry. The location of the headquarters proved to be a major controversy, with
developed countries A developed country (or industrialized country, high-income country, more economically developed country (MEDC), advanced country) is a sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized governmen ...
preferring
Geneva , neighboring_municipalities= Carouge Carouge () is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland. History Carouge is first mentioned in the Early Middle Ages as ''Quadruvium'' and ''Quatruvio''. In 124 ...

Geneva
, where several other UN offices are based, while
developing countries A developing country is a sovereign state with a less developed Industrial sector, industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries. However, this definition is not universally agreed upon. There is also no ...

developing countries
preferred Nairobi, as that would be the first international organization headquartered in the
Global South The Global South is a term often used to identify lower income countries on one side of the so-called global North–South divide, the other side being the countries of the Global North. As such the term does not inherently refer to a geogra ...
. At first,
Mexico City Mexico City ( es, link=no, Ciudad de México, ; abbreviated as CDMX; nah, Āltepētl Mēxihco) is the capital city, capital and largest city of Mexico, as well as the List of North American cities by population, most populous city in North Americ ...

Mexico City
,
New Delhi New Delhi (, ''Naī Dillī'') is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majusc ...

New Delhi
, and
Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in E ...

Cairo
were also competing to be the headquarters, but they pulled out to support Nairobi in an act of "Third World solidarity". Many of the developing countries were "not particularly supportive of creating a new formal institution for environmental governance", but supported its creation as an act of "Southern solidarity". The location of UNEP in Nairobi was taken as "an explicitly political decision".


Governance


Executive Director

In December 1972, the UN General Assembly unanimously elected Maurice Strong to be the first head of UN Environment. He was also secretary-general of both the 1972 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment and the
Earth Summit The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, the Rio Summit, the Rio Conference, and the Earth Summit (Portuguese: ECO92), was a major United Nations The United Na ...
(1992). The position was then held for 17 years (1975–1992) by
Mostafa Kamal Tolba Mostafa Tolba () (8 December 1922 – 28 March 2016) was an Egyptian scientist who served for seventeen years as the Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Biography Born in the town of Zifta (located in Gharbia ...
, who was instrumental in bringing environmental considerations to the forefront of global thinking and action. Under his leadership, UN Environment's most widely acclaimed success—the historic 1987 agreement to protect the —the
Montreal Protocol The largest Antarctic ozone hole recorded as of September 2006 The Montreal Protocol is an international treaty A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known ...
was negotiated. He was succeeded by
Elizabeth Dowdeswell Violet Elizabeth Dowdeswell (née Patton, born November 9, 1944) is a Canadian bureaucrat currently serving as the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario, the 29th since Canadian Confederation. She is the viceregal representative of the Queen in Ri ...
(1992–1998), Klaus Töpfer (1998–2006),
Achim Steiner Achim Steiner (born 17 May 1961) is an environmentalist, of Brazilian-German ancestry, who currently serves as the Administrator of the United Nations Development Programme. Before joining UNDP, he was Executive Director of the United Nations En ...
(2006–2016), and
Erik Solheim Erik Solheim (born 18 January 1955) is a Norway, Norwegian diplomat and former politician. He served in the Norwegian government from 2005 to 2012 as Minister of International Development (Norway), Minister of International Development and Minist ...

Erik Solheim
(2016–2018). UNEP's acting executive director Joyce Msuya took office in November 2018, following the resignation of
Erik Solheim Erik Solheim (born 18 January 1955) is a Norway, Norwegian diplomat and former politician. He served in the Norwegian government from 2005 to 2012 as Minister of International Development (Norway), Minister of International Development and Minist ...

Erik Solheim
. Prior to that appointment, she was UNEP's deputy executive director. Inger Andersen was appointed Executive Director of UNEP by UN secretary-general
António Guterres António Manuel de Oliveira Guterres (; ; born 30 April 1949) is a Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Roma ...

António Guterres
in February 2019.


List of executive directors


Environment Assembly

The United Nations Environment Assembly is UNEP's governing body. Created in 2012 to replace the Governing Council, it currently has 193 members and meets every two years.


Structure

UNEP's structure includes eight divisions: * Science Division: aims to provide scientifically credible environmental assessments and information for sustainable development. It reports on the state of the global environment, assesses policies, and aims to provides an early warning of emerging environmental threats. It is in charge of the monitoring and reporting of the environment regarding the 2030 Agenda and
Sustainable Development Goals The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) or Global Goals are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a "blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing wa ...

Sustainable Development Goals
. *Policy and Programme Division: makes the policy and programme of the UNEP. This division ensures other divisions are coordinated. * Ecosystems Division: supports countries in conserving, restoring and managing their ecosystems. It addresses the environmental causes and consequences of disasters and conflicts. It helps countries to reduce pollution from land-based activities, to increase resilience to climate change, and think about the environment in their development planning. * Economy Division: tries to get large businesses to be more environmentally conscious. It has three main branches: Chemicals and Health, Energy and Climate, and Resources and Markets. * Governance Affairs Office: engages member states and other relevant groups to use UNEP's work. The office serves UNEP's governing body, the United Nations Environment Assembly, and its subsidiary organ, the Committee of Permanent Representatives, and manages their meetings. It helps strengthen the visibility, authority and impact of the Assembly as an authoritative voice on the environment. * Law Division: helps to develop environmental law. Works with countries to combat
environmental crime Environmental crime is an crime, illegal act which directly harms the Natural environment, environment. These illegal activities involve the environment, wildlife, biodiversity and natural resources. International bodies such as, G8, Interpol, Euro ...
and to meet international environmental commitments. The law division aims to improve cooperation between lawmakers around the world who are making environmental laws. * Communication Division: develops and disseminates UNEP's messages. It delivers them to governments to individuals through the digital and traditional media channels. * Corporate Services Division: handles UNEP's corporate interests such as management and exposure to financial risk.


Activities

UNEP's main activities are related to: *
climate change Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been previous periods of climate change, but the current changes are more rapid than any known even ...
** including the
Territorial Approach to Climate ChangeThe Territorial Approach to Climate Change (TACC) works with local level governments (states, provinces, cities, municipalities) in developing countries and countries in transition to increase resilience to climate change impact and reduce their car ...
(TACC) * disasters and conflicts **UNEP has endeavored to lighten the influence of emergencies or
natural disaster A natural disaster is a major adverse event An adverse event (AE) is any untoward medical occurrence in a patient or clinical investigation subject administered a pharmaceutical product and which does not necessarily have a causal relations ...
s on human health and to prepare for future disasters. It contributes to the reduction of the origin of disasters by controlling the balance of ecosystems and actively support
Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk ReductionThe Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015–2030) is an international document that was adopted by the United Nations member states between 14 and 18 March 2015 at the World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction held in Sendai is the ...
which aims to reduce the risk of disasters (DRR). As well as preventing natural disasters, the UNEP supports countries such as to make laws or policies which protect the countries from getting serious damage by disasters. Since 1999 it has helped 40 countries to recover from the effect of disasters. *
ecosystem management Ecosystem management is an approach to natural resource management Natural resource management (NRM) is the management of natural resources such as land, water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, ...
*
environmental governance Environmental governance is a concept in political ecologyImage:Terrace field yunnan china denoised.jpg, 400px , alt=A picture of rice fields: evidence of the interaction of culture, economics and the environment , Political ecology studies the c ...
* environment under review **UNEP provides information and data on the global environment to stakeholders including governments, non-governmental organizations and the public for them to engage in realizing the
Sustainable Development Goals The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) or Global Goals are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a "blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing wa ...

Sustainable Development Goals
. The information which UNEP shares is based on the latest science and is collected in a proper way. This makes policy makers find reliable information effectively.  Through this The Environment Outlook and the Sustainable Development Goals Indicators stakeholders can have access to information easily. In addition, the UN environment Live Platform and Online Access to Research in Environment (OARE) provide transparent information collected by UNEP. * harmful substances *
resource efficiencyResource efficiency is the maximising of the supply of money, materials, staff, and other assets that can be drawn on by a person or organization in order to function effectively, with minimum waste Waste (or wastes) are unwanted or unusable ...


Awards programs

Several awards programs have been established to recognize outstanding work in the environmental field. The
Global 500 Roll of Honour The United Nations Environment Programme The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is responsible for coordinating responses to environmental issues within the United Nations system. It was established by Maurice Strong, its first director, ...
was initiated in 1987 and ended in 2003. Its 2005 successor,
Champions of the Earth The United Nations Environment Programme The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is responsible for coordinating responses to environmental issues within the United Nations system. It was established by Maurice Strong, its first director, ...
, and a similar award, Young Champions of the Earth, are given annually to entrepreneurs, scientists, policy leaders, upcoming talent, individuals and organizations who make significant positive impacts on resources and the environment in their areas.


Notable achievements

UNEP has registered several successes, such as the 1987
Montreal Protocol The largest Antarctic ozone hole recorded as of September 2006 The Montreal Protocol is an international treaty A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known ...
for limiting emissions of gases blamed for thinning the planet's protective ozone layer, and the 2012
Minamata Convention The Minamata Convention on Mercury is an international treaty A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and international organizations, but ca ...
, a treaty to limit toxic mercury. UNEP has sponsored the development of solar loan programmes, with attractive return rates, to buffer the initial deployment costs and entice consumers to consider and purchase
solar PV systems A photovoltaic system, also PV system or solar power system, is an electric power system designed to supply usable solar power by means of photovoltaics. It consists of an arrangement of several components, including solar panels to absorb and co ...
. The most famous example is the solar loan programme sponsored by UNEP helped 100,000 people finance solar power systems in
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...
. Success in India's solar programme has led to similar projects in other parts of the developing world, including
Tunisia ) , image_map = Tunisia location (orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = Location of Tunisia in northern Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous , after in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11. ...

Tunisia
,
Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Africa.Dark green: Undisputed territory of Morocco.Lighter green: Western Sahara, a United Nations lis ...

Morocco
,
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
and
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organi ...

Mexico
. In 2001, UNEP alerted about the destruction of the Marshlands when it released satellite images showing that 90 percent of the marsh had been lost. The UNEP "support for environmental management of the Marshland" began in 2004, to manage the marshland area in an environmentally sound manner. UNEP has a programme for young people known as Tunza. Within this programme are other projects like the AEO for Youth. International Environmental Education Programme (1975–1995) For two decades,
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
and UNEP led the International Environmental Education Programme (1975-1995), which set out a vision for, and gave practical guidance on how to mobilize
education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal development. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion ...

education
for environmental awareness. In 1976 UNESCO launched an environmental education newsletter ''Connect'' as the official organ of the UNESCO-UNEP International Environmental Education Programme (IEEP). Until 2007 it served as a clearinghouse to exchange information on environmental education in general and to promote the aims and activities of the IEEP in particular, as well as being a network for institutions and individuals interested and active in environment education. Climate change UNEP in 1989, years ago, predicted "entire nations could be wiped off the face of the Earth by
sea level rise Tide gauge measurements show that the current global sea level rise began at the start of the 20th century. Between 1900 and 2017, the globally averaged sea level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average In colloqu ...

sea level rise
if the
global warming Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been previous periods of climate change, but the current changes are more rapid than any known even ...

global warming
trend is not reversed by the year 2000". UNEP in 2005, years ago, predicted "50 million people could become environmental refugees by 2010, fleeing the
effects of climate change The effects of climate change span the physical environment A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is ...
".
Glacier A glacier (; ) is a persistent body of dense ice Ice is into a state. Depending on the presence of such as particles of soil or bubbles of air, it can appear transparent or a more or less bluish-white color. In the , ice is abunda ...

Glacier
s are shrinking at record rates and many could disappear within decades, the UNEP said in 2008. The scientists measuring the health of almost 30
glaciers A glacier (; ) is a persistent body of dense ice Ice is into a state. Depending on the presence of such as particles of soil or bubbles of air, it can appear transparent or a more or less bluish-white color. In the , ice is abunda ...

glaciers
around the world found that ice loss reached record levels in 2006. On average, the glaciers shrank by 4.9 feet in 2006.
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language Norwegian (Norwegian: ''norsk'') is a Nort ...

Norway
's Breidalblikkbrea glacier shrank 10.2 feet in 2006. Glaciers lost an average of about a foot of ice a year between 1980 and 1999, but since the turn of the millennium the average loss has increased to about 20 inches. Electric vehicles At the fifth Magdeburg Environmental Forum held in 2008, in
Magdeburg Magdeburg (; nds, label=Low German, Low Saxon, Meideborg ) is the capital and second-largest city of the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony-Anhalt, after Halle (Saale). It is situated on the Elbe River. Otto I, Holy Roman Emp ...

Magdeburg
, Germany, UNEP and car manufacturer
Daimler AG Daimler AG (; previously named Daimler-Benz and DaimlerChrysler; commonly known and referred to as Mercedes-Benz or simply Daimler) is a German multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization op ...

Daimler AG
called for the establishment of infrastructure for
electric vehicle An electric vehicle (EV) is a vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo. Vehicles include wagons, bicycles, motor vehicles (motorcycles, cars, trucks, buses), railed vehicles (trains, trams), wat ...

electric vehicle
s. At this international conference 250 politicians and representatives of non-government organizations discussed future road transportation under the motto of "Sustainable Mobility–the Post-2012 CO2 Agenda". Circular economy UNEP is the co-chair and a founding partner (along with groups such as the
Ellen MacArthur Foundation The Ellen MacArthur Foundation (EMF) is a UK registered charity A charitable organization or charity is an organization whose primary objectives are philanthropy and social well-being (e.g. educational, Religion, religious or other activities ...
) for the
Platform for Accelerating the Circular Economy Platform may refer to: Technology * Computing platform A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions and data (computing) ...
, which is a public-private partnership of over 50 global organizations and governments seeking to support the transition to a global
circular economy A circular economy (also referred to as "circularity" and "CE") is "a model of Production (economics), production and Resource consumption, consumption, which involves sharing, leasing, reusing, repairing, refurbishing and recycling existing mat ...
.


The Regional Seas Program

Established in 1974, this is the world's only legal program for the purpose of protecting the oceans and seas at the regional level. More than 143 countries participate in 18 regional programs including the
Caribbean region The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole, Kawayib; nl, Caraïben; Papiamento: ) is a region of the Americas that comprises the Caribbean Sea, its surrounding coasts, and its islands (some ...
,
East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia, which is defined in both Geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The modern State (polity), states of East Asia include China, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan. ...

East Asia
n seas,
East Africa East Africa, Eastern Africa, or East of Africa is the eastern sub-region A subregion is a part of a larger region or continent and is usually based on location. Cardinal directions, such as south or southern, are commonly used to define a subr ...
n region,
Mediterranean Basin In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by ...
,
Pacific Northwest The Pacific Northwest (PNW) is a geographic region in western North America bounded by its coastal waters of the Pacific Ocean to the west and, loosely, by the Rocky Mountains to the east. Though no official boundary exists, the most common co ...
region,
West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of Africa. The United Nations defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania ...

West Africa
n region,
Caspian Sea The Caspian Sea (also known as Mazandaran Sea, Hyrcanian Ocean, or Khazar Sea), tk, Hazar deňzi, az, Xəzər Dənizi, russian: Каспийское море, script=Latn, fa, دریای مازندران، دریای خزر, script=Latn, tly, ...

Caspian Sea
,
Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locat ...

Black Sea
region, Northeast Pacific region,
Red Sea The Red Sea ( ar, البحر الأحمر, translit=al-Baḥr al-ʾAḥmar; or ; Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a North ...

Red Sea
and
Gulf of Aden The Gulf of Aden ( ar, خليج عدن, so, Gacanka Cadmeed 𐒅𐒖𐒐𐒕𐒌 𐒋𐒖𐒆𐒗𐒒) also known as the ''Gulf of Berbera Berbera (; so, Barbara, ar, بربرة) is the capital of the Sahil, Somaliland, Sahil region of Soma ...

Gulf of Aden
, ROPME Sea Area,
South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia cov ...

South Asia
n seas, Southeast Pacific region, Pacific region,
Arctic The Arctic ( or ) is a polar regions of Earth, polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, and parts of Alaska (United States), Canada, Finland, Greenland (Danish Realm, ...

Arctic
region,
Antarctic The Antarctic (US English or , UK English or and or ) is a around 's , opposite the region around the . The Antarctic comprises the continent of , the and other located on the or south of the . The Antarctic region includes the , wa ...

Antarctic
region,
Baltic Sea The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that a ...

Baltic Sea
, and Northeast Atlantic region. Each program consists of countries which share the same sea and manages this sea at the regional level. The programs are controlled by secretariats or Regional Coordinating Units and Regional Activity Centers. UNEP protects seas by promoting international conventions through education and training. * The Mediterranean Action Plan of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP/MAP) was established in 1975 as the first regional action plan under the Regional Seas Programme.


International years

* 2007 – International Year of the Dolphin International Patron of the Year of the Dolphin was H.S.H.
Prince Albert II Albert II – Website of the Palace of Monaco (Albert Alexandre Louis Pierre Grimaldi; born 14 March 1958) is the Sovereign Prince of Monaco The Sovereign Prince (french: Prince de Monaco) or Princess of Monaco (french: princesse de Monaco) is t ...

Prince Albert II
of
Monaco Monaco (; ), officially the Principality of Monaco (french: Principauté de Monaco; Monégasque Ligurian: ''Prinçipatu de Mu̍negu''), is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The ...

Monaco
, with Special Ambassador to the cause being Nick Carter of the
Backstreet Boys Backstreet Boys (often abbreviated as BSB) are an American vocal group, formed in Orlando, Florida in 1993. The group consists of Nick Carter (musician), Nick Carter, Howie Dorough, AJ McLean, and cousins Brian Littrell and Kevin Richardson (musi ...

Backstreet Boys
musical group. * 2010 –
International Year of Biodiversity The International Year of Biodiversity (IYB) was a year-long celebration of biological diversity and its importance, taking place internationally in 2010. Coinciding with the date of the 2010 Biodiversity Target, the year was declared by the 61s ...
* 2011 –
International Year of Forests The year 2011 was declared the International Year of Forests by the United Nations to raise awareness and strengthen the sustainable forest management, sustainable management, conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests for t ...
* 2012 – International Year for Sustainable Energy for All * 2013 – International Year of Water Cooperation * 2014 – International Year of Family Farming * 2015 – International Year of Light and Light-based Technologies * 2016 – International Year of Pulses * 2017 –
International Year of Sustainable Tourism for Development2017 was declared as the International Year of Sustainable Tourism for Development by the United Nations General Assembly on 4 December 2015 relating to sustainable tourism toward Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). References External links ...
See
international observance A national or international awareness day or observance is a date usually set by a major organisation or government to commemorate a public health Public health has been defined as "the science and art of Preventive healthcare, preventing d ...
and
list of environmental dates This is a list of environmental dates. These dates are designated for creating awareness of environmental issues. Species awareness days highlight biodiversity with the aim of increasing awareness about them. Some of these have been shown to lea ...
.


Reform

Following the 2007 publication of the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is an intergovernmental body of the United Nations responsible for advancing knowledge on Attribution of recent climate change, human-induced climate change. It was established in 1988 by the ...
IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, Fourth Assessment Report, the ''Paris Call for Action'', presented by French president Jacques Chirac and supported by 46 countries, called for the UNEP to be replaced by a new and more powerful "United Nations Environment Organization", to be modeled on the
World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations and each other through the co-ordinating machinery of the Unit ...
. The 46 countries included the European Union nations, but notably did not include the United States, Saudi Arabia, Russia, and China, the top four emitters of greenhouse gases. In December 2012, following the Rio+20 Summit, a decision by the General Assembly of the United Nations to "strengthen and upgrade" the UNEP and establish universal membership of its governing body was confirmed.


Funding

The European Investment Bank and the United Nations Environment Programme created the Renewable Energy Performance Platform (REPP) in 2015 to assist a United Nations project dubbed Sustainable Energy for All. Renewable Energy Performance Platform was established with $67 million from the United Kingdom's International Climate Finance initiative, administered by the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy, in 2015, and $128 million in 2018. REPP was established with a five-year goal of improving energy access for at least two million people in Sub-Saharan Africa. It has so far invested around $45 million to renewable energy projects in 13 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Solar power and hydropower are among the energy methods used in the projects.


2018 funds withholding

In September 2018, the Netherlands, Dutch government announced it would withhold $8 million in funding to UNEP until nepotism issues with regard to the head of the U.N. Environment Programme. Sweden and Denmark stopped funding as well. A spokesman for the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs said the freezing of funds was probably unprecedented.


See also

*2010 Biodiversity Indicators Partnership *Citizen science#Plastics and pollution, Citizen Science, cleanup projects that people can take part in. *Global Climate Observing System *Global warming *International Renewable Energy Agency *Melbourne Principles *Miss Earth Foundation *Northwest Pacific Action Plan *Timeline of environmental events *UNEP GEO Data Portal *UNEP/GRID-Arendal *United Nations Billion Tree Campaign *United Nations Centre for Urgent Environmental Assistance *United Nations Environment Programme Finance Initiative *United Nations REDD Programme *World Conservation Monitoring Centre *World Refrigeration Day


Sources


References


Further reading

* Borowy, Iris. "Before UNEP: who was in charge of the global environment? The struggle for institutional responsibility 1968–72." ''Journal of Global History'' 14.1 (2019): 87-106. * United Nations Environment Programme. "Natural Allies: UNEP and Civil Society." Nairobi: United Nations Foundation, 2004. * Paul Berthoud
A Professional Life Narrative
2008, worked with UNEP and offers testimony from the inside of the early years of the organization. *Dodds, F., Strauss, M., with Strong, M., 2012, ''Only One Earth: The Long Road via Rio to Sustainable Development''. London Earthscan


External links


United Nations Environment Programme

UNEP Finance Initiative

Frankfurt School – UNEP Collaborating Centre for Climate & Sustainable Energy Finance

United Nations Environment Programme – World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC)

UNEP-Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development

UNEP/GRID-Europe

UNEP GEO Data Portal



Netherlands Commission for Environmental Assessment

UNEP Regional Seas Programme

Resources on United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
{{Portal bar, Politics, Environment United Nations Environment Programme, International environmental organizations United Nations Development Group Environmental organizations established in 1972 1972 in the environment 1972 establishments in Kenya United Nations organizations based in Nairobi