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it, Umbro (man)
it, Umbra (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 = , demographics1_info2 = , demographics1_title3 = , demographics1_info3 = , timezone1 =
CET CET or cet may refer to: Places * Cet, Albania * Cet, standard astronomical abbreviation for the constellation Cetus * Colchester Town railway station (National Rail code CET), in Colchester, England Arts, entertainment, and media * Comcast Enter ...
, utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST = CEST , utc_offset1_DST = +2 , postal_code_type = , postal_code = , area_code_type =
ISO 3166 code ISO 3166 is a standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrology), an object that bears a defined ...
, area_code = IT-55 , blank_name_sec1 =
GDP (nominal) Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all the final goods and services produced in a specific time period. List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita, GDP (nominal) per capita does not, however, reflect di ...
, blank_info_sec1 = €22.5 billion (2018) , blank1_name_sec1 =
GDP per capita Lists of countries by GDP per capita list the countries in the world by their gross domestic product Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money ba ...
, blank1_info_sec1 = €25,400 (2018) , blank2_name_sec1 =
HDI The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of life expectancy Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age, and ot ...
(2018) , blank2_info_sec1 = 0.884
· 12th of 21 , blank_name_sec2 =
NUTS Region
NUTS Region
, blank_info_sec2 = ITE , website = , footnotes = Umbria ( , ) is a
region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental geography). Geographic re ...

region
of central
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Alps and List of islands of Italy, several islands surrounding it, whose ...

Italy
. It includes Lake
Trasimeno Lake Trasimeno ( , also ; it, Lago Trasimeno ; la, Trasumennus; ett, Tarśmina), also referred to as Trasimene ( ) or Thrasimene in English, is a lake in the province of Perugia, in the Umbria region of Italy on the border with Tuscany. The ...

Trasimeno
and
Marmore Falls
Marmore Falls
, and is crossed by the River
Tiber The Tiber (; la, Tiberis; it, Tevere ) is the third-longest and the longest in Central Italy, rising in the in and flowing through , , and , where it is joined by the River , to the , between and . It estimated at . The river has achi ...

Tiber
. It is the only landlocked region on the Apennine Peninsula. The regional capital is
Perugia Perugia (, , ; lat, Perusia) is the capital city of Umbria it, Umbro (man) it, Umbra (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes ...

Perugia
. The region is characterized by hills, mountains, valleys and historical towns such as the university centre of
Perugia Perugia (, , ; lat, Perusia) is the capital city of Umbria it, Umbro (man) it, Umbra (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes ...

Perugia
,
Assisi Assisi (, also , ; from la, Asisium) is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a of , roughly equivalent to a or . Importance and function The provides essential public services: of births and deaths, , and maintenance of local r ...

Assisi
, a
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
associated with
St. Francis of Assisi
St. Francis of Assisi
,
Terni Terni ( , ; lat, Interamna (Nahars)) is a city in the southern portion of the region of Umbria Umbria ( , ) is a of central . It includes Lake and , and is crossed by the River . It is the only landlocked region on the . The regional capita ...

Terni
,
Norcia 250px, The ''Castellina''. Norcia (), traditionally known in English by its Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area ...

Norcia
,
Città di Castello Città di Castello (); "Castle Town") is a city and ''comune'' in the province of Perugia, in the northern part of Umbria. It is situated on a slope of the Apennine Mountains, Apennines, on the flood plain along the upper part of the river Tiber. T ...
,
Gubbio Gubbio () is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a of , roughly equivalent to a or . Importance and function The provides essential public services: of births and deaths, , and maintenance of local roads and public works. It is ...

Gubbio
,
Spoleto Spoleto (, also , , ; la, Spoletum) is an ancient city in the Italy, Italian province of Perugia in east-central Umbria on a foothill of the Apennine Mountains, Apennines. It is S. of Trevi, Umbria, Trevi, N. of Terni, SE of Perugia; SE of Fl ...

Spoleto
,
Orvieto Orvieto () is a city and ''comune'' in the Province of Terni, southwestern Umbria, Italy situated on the flat summit of a large butte of volcanic tuff. The city rises dramatically above the almost-vertical faces of tuff cliffs that are complet ...

Orvieto
,
Todi Todi () is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a of , roughly equivalent to a or . Importance and function The provides essential public services: of births and deaths, , and maintenance of local roads and public works. It is ...

Todi
,
Castiglione del Lago Castiglione del Lago is a town in the province of Perugia of Umbria (central Italy), on the southwest corner of Lake Trasimeno. Orvieto is south, Chiusi is to the south west, Arezzo is to the north west, Cortona is to the north and Perugia is ...

Castiglione del Lago
,
Narni Narni (in Latin, Narnia) is an ancient hilltown and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a local administrative division of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country c ...
, Amelia,
Spello Spello (in Antiquity: HispellumHispellum (modern Spello Spello (in Antiquity: Hispellum) is an ancient town and ''comune'' (township) of Italy, in the province of Perugia in east central Umbria, on the lower southern flank of Monte Subasio, Mt. ...

Spello
and other small cities.


Geography

Umbria is bordered by
Tuscany it, Toscano (man) it, Toscana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Citizenship , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = Italian , demogra ...
to the west and the north,
Marche Marche ( , ) is one of the Regions of Italy, twenty regions of Italy. In English, the region is referred to as The Marches ( ). The region is located in the Central Italy, central area of the country, bordered by Emilia-Romagna and the republic ...

Marche
to the east and
Lazio it, Laziale , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 ...

Lazio
to the south. Partly hilly and mountainous, and partly flat and fertile owing to the valley of the
Tiber The Tiber (; la, Tiberis; it, Tevere ) is the third-longest and the longest in Central Italy, rising in the in and flowing through , , and , where it is joined by the River , to the , between and . It estimated at . The river has achi ...

Tiber
, its topography includes part of the central
Apennines The Apennines or Apennine Mountains (; grc-gre, links=no, Ἀπέννινα ὄρη or Ἀπέννινον ὄρος; la, Appenninus or  – a singular with plural meaning;''Apenninus'' (Greek or ) has the form of an adjective, which woul ...
, with the highest point in the region at
Monte Vettore Monte Vettore (from Latin ''Vector'', "carrier", "leader") is a mountain of the Apennine Mountains, Apennines. It is the highest peak of the Sibillini mountains, Sibillini massif. Geography The southwestern side of Sibillini massif, Vector, is i ...

Monte Vettore
on the border of the Marche, at ; the lowest point is
Attigliano Attigliano is a ''comune'' (municipality) in the Province of Terni in the Italy, Italian region Umbria, located about 70 km south of Perugia and about 30 km west of Terni. Attigliano has the lowest elevation of any municipality located in ...
, . It is the only Italian region having neither a coastline nor a common border with other countries. The
comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essential public services: Civil registry, registry of births a ...
of Città di Castello has an exclave named Monte Ruperto within Marche. Contained within Umbria is the hamlet of
Cospaia
Cospaia
, which was a tiny republic from 1440 to 1826, created by accident. Umbria is crossed by two valleys: the Umbrian valley ("Valle Umbra"), stretching from Perugia to Spoleto, and the Tiber Valley ("Val Tiberina"), north and west of the first one, from Città di Castello to the border with Lazio. The Tiber River forms the approximate border with Lazio, although its source is just over the Tuscan border. The Tiber's three principal tributaries flow southward through Umbria. The
Chiascio The Chiascio is a river of Umbria, central Italy. It is a left tributary of the Tiber. It is 95 km long, and its drainage basin covers 1962 km2. Its largest tributary is the Topino, which covers 60% of its drainage basin.Agenzia regionale ...

Chiascio
basin is relatively uninhabited as far as Bastia Umbra. About farther on, it joins the Tiber at
Torgiano Torgiano is a ''comune'' (municipality) in the Province of Perugia in the Italy, Italian region Umbria, located about 10 km southeast of Perugia. Torgiano borders the following municipalities: Bastia Umbra, Bettona, Deruta, Perugia. History ...
. The
Topino The Topino is a river in Umbria Umbria ( , ) is a of central . It includes Lake and , and is crossed by the River . It is the only landlocked region on the . The regional capital is . The region is characterized by hills, mountains, valleys an ...
, cleaving the Apennines with passes that the
Via Flaminia The ''Via Flaminia'' or Flaminian Way was an ancient Roman road Roman roads ( la, viae Romanae ; singular: ; meaning "Roman way") were physical infrastructure vital to the maintenance and development of the Roman state, and were built from ab ...

Via Flaminia
and successor roads follow, makes a sharp turn at
Foligno Foligno (; Southern Umbrian: ''Fuligno'') is an ancient town of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by ...
to flow NW for a few kilometres before joining the Chiascio below
Bettona Bettona (Latin: ''Vettona'') is an ancient town and comune of Italy, in the province of Perugia in central Umbria at the northern edge of the Colli Martani range. It is 5 km (3 mi) E of Torgiano and 12 km (7 mi) SW of Assisi. Pa ...

Bettona
. The third river is the Nera, flowing into the Tiber further south, at Terni; its valley is called the ''Valnerina''. The upper Nera cuts ravines in the mountains; the lower, in the Tiber basin, has created a wide floodplain. In antiquity, the plain was covered by a pair of shallow, interlocking lakes, the Lacus Clitorius and the Lacus Umber. They were drained by the
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...
over several hundred years. An earthquake in the 4th century and the political collapse of the Roman Empire resulted in the refilling of the basin. It was drained a second time, almost a thousand years later, during a 500-year period:
Benedictine The Benedictines, officially the Order of Saint Benedict ( la, Ordo Sancti Benedicti, abbreviated as OSB), are a Christian monasticism, monastic Religious order (Catholic), religious order of the Catholic Church following the Rule of Saint Be ...
monks started the process in the 13th century, and the draining was completed by an engineer from Foligno in the 18th century. The eastern part of the region, being crossed by many faults, has been often hit by earthquakes: the last ones have been that of 1997 (which hit
Nocera Umbra Nocera Umbra is a town and ''comune'' in the province of Perugia, Italy, 15 kilometers north of Foligno, at an altitude of 520 m above sea-level. The ''comune'', covering an area of 157.19 km², is one of the largest in Umbria. History The t ...

Nocera Umbra
,
Gualdo Tadino Gualdo Tadino (Latin: ''Tadinum'') is an ancient town of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the Alps, ...

Gualdo Tadino
, Assisi and Foligno) and
those of 2016
those of 2016
(which struck
Norcia 250px, The ''Castellina''. Norcia (), traditionally known in English by its Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area ...

Norcia
and the Valnerina). In literature, Umbria is referred to as ''Il cuore verde d'Italia'' or ''The green heart of Italy''. The phrase is taken from a poem by
Giosuè Carducci Giosuè Alessandro Giuseppe Carducci ( ; 27 July 1835 – 16 February 1907) was an Italian poet, writer, literary critic and teacher. He was very noticeably influential, and was regarded as the official national poet File: ...

Giosuè Carducci
, the subject of which is the source of the
Clitunno River Image:Tempietto del Clitunno 2.jpg, Temple of Clitumnus The Clitunno, in Antiquity the Clitumnus, is a river in Umbria, Italy. The name is of uncertain origin, but it was also borne by the river god. The Clitunno rises at from a spring within a ...
in Umbria.


History


Antiquity

The region is named for the
Umbri The Umbri were an Italic people The Italic peoples were an ethnolinguistic group identified by their use of Italic languages a branch of the Indo-European language family. The Italic peoples are descended from the Indo-European speaking peoples ...
people, an
Italic people The Italic peoples were an ethnolinguistic group identified by their use of Italic languages a branch of the Indo-European language family. The Italic peoples are descended from the Indo-European speaking peoples who inhabited Italy from at leas ...
which was absorbed by the expansion of the
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...
. The Umbri, unlike the Etruscans, with few exceptions did not live in an urban society, but occupied small dwellings located in the Apennines.Roncalli (1988), p.397
Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder#REDIRECT Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, includi ...

Pliny the Elder
recounted a fanciful derivation for the tribal name from the Greek ὄμβρος (''ombros'', "a shower"), which led to the idea that they had survived the Deluge familiar from Greek mythology, allowing them to claim to be the most ancient race in Italy. In fact, they belonged to a broader family of neighbouring peoples with similar roots. Their language was
Umbrian Umbrian is an extinct Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Biology, p ...
, one of the
Italic languages The Italic languages form a branch of the Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern Indian sub ...

Italic languages
, related to
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
and
Oscan Oscan is an extinct Indo-European language The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern Indian subcontinent and th ...
. The town of
Gubbio Gubbio () is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a of , roughly equivalent to a or . Importance and function The provides essential public services: of births and deaths, , and maintenance of local roads and public works. It is ...

Gubbio
houses today the longest and most important document of any of the
Osco-Umbrian The Osco-Umbrian, Sabellic or Sabellian languages are a group of Italic languages, the Indo-European languages that were spoken in Central and Southern Italy by the Osco-Umbrians before being replaced by Latin, as the power of Ancient Rome expanded. ...
group of languages, the
Iguvine Tablets The Iguvine Tablets, also known as the Eugubian Tablets or Eugubine Tables, are a series of seven bronze tablets from ancient Iguvium (modern Gubbio), Italy. The earliest tablets, written in the native Umbrian language, Umbrian alphabet, were proba ...
, written in Umbrian at the turn of the 2nd and 1st centuries BC.AA. VV. (2004), p. 243 The northern part of the region was occupied by Gallic tribes. The Umbri probably sprang, like neighbouring peoples, from the creators of the
Terramara Terramare, terramara, or terremare is a archaeological culture, technology complex mainly of the central Po valley, in Emilia (region), Emilia, Northern Italy, dating to the Middle and Late Bronze Age c. 1700–1150 BC. It takes its name from the ...
, and
Proto-Villanovan culture The Proto-Villanovan culture was a late Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age ...
in northern and central Italy, who entered north-eastern Italy at the beginning of the
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the Three-age sys ...
. The
Etruscans The Etruscan civilization () of List of ancient peoples of Italy, ancient Italy covered a territory, at its greatest extent, of roughly what is now Tuscany, western Umbria, and northern Lazio, as well as what are now the Po Valley, Emilia-Romagna ...

Etruscans
were the chief enemies of the Umbri. The Etruscan invasion extended from the western seaboard towards the north and east from about 700 to 500 BC. They eventually drove the Umbrians towards the uplands and captured 300 Umbrian towns. Nevertheless, the Umbrian population does not seem to have been eradicated in the conquered districts. The border between Etruria and Umbria was the Tiber river,AA. VV. (2004), p. 44 as testified by the ancient name of Todi, ''Tular'' ("border").AA. VV. (2004), p. 493 After the downfall of the Etruscans, Umbrians aided the
SamniteSamnite is an adjective meaning "having to do with ancient Samnium." Samnite may also refer to: * Samnites, the people of ancient Samnium * Samnite (gladiator type), a gladiator who fought with the equipment and in the manner of a Samnite soldier * ...

Samnite
s in their struggle against
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...
(308 BC). Later communications with
Samnium Samnium ( it, Sannio) is a Latin language, Latin exonym for a region of Southern Italy anciently inhabited by the Samnites. Their own endonyms were ''Safinim'' for the country (attested in one inscription and one coin legend) and ''Safineis'' ...

Samnium
were impeded by the Roman fortress of
Narni Narni (in Latin, Narnia) is an ancient hilltown and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a local administrative division of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country c ...
a (founded 229 BC on the place of the umbrian ''Nequinum'', conquered in 299 BC).AA. VV. (2004), p. 550 Romans defeated the Samnites and their Gallic allies in the
battle of Sentinum The Battle of Sentinum was the decisive battle of the Third Samnite War, fought in 295 BC near Sentinum (next to the modern town of Sassoferrato, in the Marche (man) (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , p ...
(295 BC).AA. VV. (2004), p. 34 Allied Umbrians and Etruscans had to return home and defend each of their territories against simultaneous Roman attacks, leaving the Samnites without their help in the battle of Sentinum. The Roman victory at Sentinum initiated a period of integration under the Roman rulers, who established some colonies, such as
Spoletium Spoleto (, also , , ; la, Spoletum) is an ancient city in the Italy, Italian province of Perugia in east-central Umbria on a foothill of the Apennine Mountains, Apennines. It is S. of Trevi, Umbria, Trevi, N. of Terni, SE of Perugia; SE of Fl ...
, and built the
via Flaminia The ''Via Flaminia'' or Flaminian Way was an ancient Roman road Roman roads ( la, viae Romanae ; singular: ; meaning "Roman way") were physical infrastructure vital to the maintenance and development of the Roman state, and were built from ab ...

via Flaminia
(219 BC). The via Flaminia became a principal vector for Roman development in Umbria. During
Hannibal Hannibal (; xpu, 𐤇𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋, ''Ḥannibaʿl''; 247 – between 183 and 181 BC) was a Carthaginian general and statesman who commanded the forces of Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient , on the eastern ...

Hannibal
's invasion during the
second Punic war The Second Punic War, which lasted from 218 to 201BC, was the second of three wars fought between Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient , on the eastern side of the in what is now . Carthage was the most important trading ...

second Punic war
, the
battle of Lake Trasimene The Battle of Lake Trasimene was fought when a Carthaginian Empire, Carthaginian force under Hannibal ambushed a Roman Republic, Roman army commanded by Gaius Flaminius on 21 June 217 BC, during the Second Punic War. It took place on the nort ...

battle of Lake Trasimene
was fought inside the borders of today's Umbria, but the local people did not aid the invader. During the
Roman civil war This is a list of civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. I ...
between
Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony, was a Ancient Rome, Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the Crisis of the Roman Republic, transformation of the Roman Republic f ...
and
Octavian Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor, reigning from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. His status as the founder of the Roman Principate (the first phase of the Roman Empire) has consolidated ...
(40 BC), the city of Perugia supported Antony and was almost completely destroyed by Octavian. In
Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder#REDIRECT Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, includi ...

Pliny the Elder
's time, 49 independent communities still existed in Umbria, and the abundance of inscriptions and the high proportion of recruits in the attest to its population. Under Augustus, Umbria became the Regio VI of Roman Italy. Modern Umbria is different from
Roman Umbria 300px, Ancient Umbria and the Gallic coast. Extracted and adapted from ''The Historical Atlas'' by William R. Shepherd, 1911. Roman Umbria is a modern name for one of the 11 administrative regions into which the emperor Augustus divided Italy (A ...
. Roman Umbria extended through most of what is now the northern Marche to
Ravenna Ravenna ( , , also ; rgn, Ravèna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna The province of Ravenna ( it, provincia di Ravenna; ) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, admin ...

Ravenna
, but excluded the west bank of the Tiber, which belonged to Etruria. Thus
Perugia Perugia (, , ; lat, Perusia) is the capital city of Umbria in central Italy, crossed by the River Tiber, and of the province of Perugia. The city is located about north of Rome and southeast of Florence. It covers a high hilltop and part o ...
was an Etruscan city and the area around Norcia was in the
Sabine The Sabines (; lat, Sabini; it, Sabini, all exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Sou ...

Sabine
territory.AA. VV. (2004), p. 464 After the collapse of the
Roman empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman empire
,
Ostrogoths The Ostrogoths ( la, Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were a Roman-era The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: P ...
and struggled for supremacy in the region, and the
decisive battle A decisive victory is a military victory in battle A battle is an occurrence of combat in warfare between opposing military units of any number or size. A war usually consists of multiple battles. In general, a battle is a military engageme ...

decisive battle
of the war between these two peoples took place near modern
Gualdo Tadino Gualdo Tadino (Latin: ''Tadinum'') is an ancient town of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the Alps, ...

Gualdo Tadino
.AA. VV. (2004), p. 405


Middle Ages

Soon after the end of the
Gothic warGothic War may refer to: *Gothic War (367–369), a war of Thervingi against the Eastern Roman Empire in which the Goths retreated to Montes Serrorum *Gothic War (376–382), Thervingi and Greuthungi against the Roman Empire *Gothic War (401–403), ...
, the
Lombards The Lombards () or Langobards ( la, Langobardi) were a Germanic people The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on ...
invaded Italy and founded the
duchy of Spoleto The Duchy of Spoleto (Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional I ...
, covering much of today's southern Umbria, but the Byzantine were able to keep in the region a corridor along the Via Flaminia linking Rome with the
Exarchate of Ravenna The Exarchate of Ravenna or of Italy ( la, Exarchatus Ravennatis) was a lordship of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the R ...
and the
Pentapolis A pentapolis (from Greek ''penta-'', "five" and ''polis ''Polis'' (; grc-gre, :wikt:πόλις, πόλις ), plural ''poleis'' (, ) literally means "city" in Greek. It defined the administrative and religious city center, as distinct from ...
. The Lombard king controlled also the northern part of the region ruled directly by Pavia. When
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks—Germanic-speaking peoples that invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century—were first led by i ...

Charlemagne
conquered most of the Lombard kingdoms, some Umbrian territories were given to the Pope, who established temporal power over them.AA. VV. (2004), p. 35 Some cities acquired a form of autonomy named ''
comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essential public services: Civil registry, registry of births a ...
''. These cities were frequently at war with each other, often in a context of more general conflicts, either between the
Papacy The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...
and the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
or between the
Guelphs The Guelphs and Ghibellines (, also ; it, guelfi e ghibellini ) were factions supporting the Pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is ...
and the
Ghibellines The Guelphs and Ghibellines (, also ; it, guelfi e ghibellini ) were factions supporting the Pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is ...
. In the early 14th century, the '' signorie'' arose and the most important of them were those of the in
Città di Castello Città di Castello (); "Castle Town") is a city and ''comune'' in the province of Perugia, in the northern part of Umbria. It is situated on a slope of the Apennine Mountains, Apennines, on the flood plain along the upper part of the river Tiber. T ...
,AA. VV. (2004), p. 218 of the Baglioni in PerugiaAA. VV. (2004), p. 108 and of the
TrinciThe Trinci were a noble family from central Italy, who were lords of Foligno, in Umbria, from 1305 to 1439. History During the War of the Guelphs and Ghibellines which tore apart Italy from the 12th to the 14th century, the Trinci were initially Gue ...
in
Foligno Foligno (; Southern Umbrian: ''Fuligno'') is an ancient town of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by ...
,AA. VV. (2004), p. 380 but the region was subsumed by the middle of the same century into the
Papal States The Papal States ( ; it, Stato Pontificio), officially the State of the Church ( it, Stato della Chiesa, ; la, Status Ecclesiasticus; also '), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Ital ...
by
Cardinal Cardinal or The Cardinal may refer to: Christianity * Cardinal (Catholic Church), a senior official of the Catholic Church * Cardinal (Church of England), two members of the College of Minor Canons of St. Paul's Cathedral Navigation * Cardina ...
Albornoz,AA. VV. (2004), p. 39 who in this way prepared the return of the pope from
Avignon Avignon (, ; ; oc, Avinhon, label= Provençal or , ; la, Avenio) is the prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. L ...

Avignon
to Rome. Città di Castello was subsumed later into the Papal States by
Cesare Borgia Cesare Borgia (; ca-valencia, Cèsar Borja ; es, link=no, César Borja ; 13 September 1475 – 12 March 1507) was an Italian politician and ''condottieri, condottiero'' (mercenary leader) of Valencian (Spanish) origin, whose fight for power w ...

Cesare Borgia
.AA. VV. (2004), p. 218 During the 15th century Renaissance spread in the northern part of the region. It was in this period that humanists started to use again the ancient denomination of "Umbria" to name the area,AA. VV. (2004), p. 37 which until then has been named "Ducato", after the
Duchy of Spoleto The Duchy of Spoleto (Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional I ...
in the southern part of it. The supremacy of the pope on Umbria was reinforced in 16th century through the erection of a fortress in Perugia by Pope
Paul III Pope Paul III ( la, Paulus III; 29 February 1468 – 10 November 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 13 October 1534 to his death in 1549. He came to the papal throne in an era ...
, named after him ''Rocca Paolina''. The Papacy ruled the region uncontested until the end of the 18th century.


Modern history

After the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its ...

French Revolution
and the French conquest of Italy, Umbria became part of the ephemeral
Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run through public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an indiv ...
(1798–1799) and later, part of the
Napoleonic Empire The First French Empire, officially the French Republic (until 1809) then the French Empire (; ), was the empire An empire is a sovereign state consisting of several territories and peoples subject to a single ruling authority, often an e ...
(1809–1814) under the name of department of Trasimène.AA. VV. (2004), p. 39 After Napoleon's defeat, the Pope regained Umbria and ruled it until 1860.AA. VV. (2004), p. 41 In that year, during Italian
Risorgimento Italian unification ( it, Unità d'Italia ), also known as the Risorgimento (, ; meaning "Resurgence"), was the 19th-century political and social movement that resulted in the Merger (politics), consolidation of List of historic states of Ital ...

Risorgimento
, Umbria with Marche and part of Emilia Romagna were annexed by
Piedmontese Piedmontese (autonym: or , in it, piemontese) is a language spoken by some 700,000 people mostly in Piedmont it, Piemontese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 ...
King
Victor Emmanuel II en, Victor Emmanuel Mario Albert Eugene Ferdinand Thomas , house = Savoy Savoy (; frp, Savouè ; french: Savoie ; it, Savoia ; pms, Savòja ; ) is a cultural-historical region in the Western Alps. Situated on the cultural boun ...
, and the people of Perugia destroyed in the same year the Rocca Paolina, symbol of the papal oppression. The region of Umbria, with capital Perugia, became part of the
Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia) was a state that existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II en, Victor Emmanuel Mario Albert Eugene Ferdinand Thomas , house = House of Savoy, Savoy , father = Charles Albert o ...
in the following year. The region, whose economy was mainly based on agriculture, experienced a dramatic economic shift at the end of the 19th century with the founding of the ''Acciaierie di Terni'', a major steelwork placed in Terni because of its abundance of electric power due to the waterfall and its secluded position.AA. VV. (2004), p. 522 The region of Umbria at the time was somewhat larger than today, comprising
Rieti Rieti (; lat, Reate, Sabino dialect, Sabino: ) is an ancient town and ''comune'' in Lazio, central Italy, with a population of 47,700. It is the administrative seat of the province of Rieti and see of the diocese of Rieti, as well as the modern ...
to the south, now part of
Lazio it, Laziale , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 ...

Lazio
. Rieti was detached and added to the Province of Rome (Lazio) in 1923. In 1927, the region of Umbria was divided into the provinces of Perugia and Terni. During WWII, the industrial centers of the region like Terni and Foligno were heavily bombed and in 1944 became a battlefield between the allied forces and the Germans retreating towards the
Gothic Line The Gothic Line (german: Gotenstellung; it, Linea Gotica) was a German Defense line, defensive line of the Italian Campaign (World War II), Italian Campaign of World War II. It formed Generalfeldmarschall, Field Marshal Albert Kesselring's la ...
.AA. VV. (2004), p. 43 In 1946, Umbria was incorporated into the
Italian Republic Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest an ...
as a
region In geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar System, planets. The ...

region
, comprising the two provinces of Perugia and Terni.


Festivals

One of the most important festivals in Umbria is "the festival of the Ceri (Candles)", also known as
Saint Ubaldo Day Saint Ubaldo Day or ''Festa dei Ceri'' is an event celebrated on the 15th of May in the Italian town of Gubbio. It honors the life of Ubald, Bishop Ubaldo Baldassini who was canonized as Patron saint, protector of Gubbio. It is also celebrated in t ...
in
Gubbio Gubbio () is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a of , roughly equivalent to a or . Importance and function The provides essential public services: of births and deaths, , and maintenance of local roads and public works. It is ...

Gubbio
. The race has been held every year since 1160, on the 15th day of May. The festival is focused around a race consisting of three teams of ''cerioli'', carrying large symbolic "candles" topped by saints, including St. Ubald (the patron saint of Gubbio), S. Giorgio (St. George), and S. Antonio (Anthony the Great), and run through throngs of cheering supporters. The cerioli are clad in the distinctive colors of yellow, blue or black, according to the saint they support, with white trousers and red belts and neckbands. They travel up much of the mountain from the main square in front of the ''Palazzo dei Consoli'' to the basilica of St. Ubaldo, each team carrying a statue of their saint mounted on a wooden octagonal prism, similar to an hour-glass shape 4 metres tall and weighing about 280 kg (617 lb). The race has strong devotional, civic, and historical overtones and is one of the best-known folklore manifestations in Italy, and therefore the Ceri were chosen as the heraldic emblem on the coat of arms of Umbria as a modern administrative region. Umbria is not only known for its historical recollections such as the festival of the Ceri, ''Calendimaggio'' in Assisi and the ''giostra della Quintana'' in Foligno, but also for one of the biggest jazz music festivals called ''Umbria Jazz''. ''Umbria Jazz'' was born as a festival in 1973 and since 2003 has been held in the Umbrian capital "Perugia" in July; it has become the fixed appointment of all jazz and good music lovers.


Economy

The present economic structure emerged from a series of transformations which took place mainly in the 1970s and 1980s. During this period, there was rapid expansion among small and medium-sized firms and a gradual retrenchment among the large firms which had hitherto characterised the region's industrial base. This process of structural adjustment is still going on. Economically the most important region is the upper Tiber valley with
Città di Castello Città di Castello (); "Castle Town") is a city and ''comune'' in the province of Perugia, in the northern part of Umbria. It is situated on a slope of the Apennine Mountains, Apennines, on the flood plain along the upper part of the river Tiber. T ...
.
Terni Terni ( , ; lat, Interamna (Nahars)) is a city in the southern portion of the region of Umbria Umbria ( , ) is a of central . It includes Lake and , and is crossed by the River . It is the only landlocked region on the . The regional capita ...

Terni
steelworks (stainless steel, titanium, alloy steel) and processing companies (automotive, stainless steel tubes, industrial food facility) account for 20 to 25% of Umbria's GDP. In Terni there are also many multinational companies in the fields of chemistry, hydroelectric power, renewable sources of energy, and textiles (Alcantara (material), Alcantara, Cashmere wool, Cashmere). In the rest of the region the ornamental ceramics industry is much esteemed. Umbrian agriculture is noted for its tobacco, olive oil and vineyards, which produce excellent wines. Regional varietals include the white
Orvieto Orvieto () is a city and ''comune'' in the Province of Terni, southwestern Umbria, Italy situated on the flat summit of a large butte of volcanic tuff. The city rises dramatically above the almost-vertical faces of tuff cliffs that are complet ...

Orvieto
, which draws agri-tourists to the vineyards in the area surrounding the medieval town of the same name. A notable wine is the Grechetto of
Todi Todi () is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a of , roughly equivalent to a or . Importance and function The provides essential public services: of births and deaths, , and maintenance of local roads and public works. It is ...

Todi
. Other noted wines produced in Umbria are Torgiano#Torgiano DOC, Torgiano and Rosso di Montefalco. The Umbrian wineries are at the center of the "Cantine Aperte" or "Open Cellars" event, when local wine makers open their wineries to the public. Another typical Umbrian product is the black truffle found in Valnerina, an area that produces 45% of this product in Italy. The food industry in Umbria produces processed pork-meats, confectionery, pasta and the traditional products of Valnerina in preserved form (truffles, lentils, cheese). The unemployment rate stood at 8.2% in 2020.


Umber

Umbria is the region where the Umber (disambiguation), Umber pigment was originally extracted. The name comes from ''terra d'ombra'', or earth of Umbria, the Italian name of the pigment. The word also may be related to the Latin word ''ombra'', meaning "shadow". Umber is a natural brown or reddish-brown earth pigment that contains iron oxide and manganese oxide. In the 20th century, natural umber pigments began to be replaced by pigments made with synthetic iron oxide and manganese oxide. Natural umber pigments are still being made, with Cyprus as a prominent source.


Government and politics

Umbria was a former stronghold of the Italian Communist Party, forming with Tuscany, Emilia-Romagna and Marche what was then known as Italy's "Red belt (Italy), Red Regions". Umbria was considered a stronghold of the Democratic Party (Italy), Democratic Party and left-leaning parties for over 50 years, however in 2019 the candidate of the centre-right coalition Donatella Tesei won the 2019 Umbrian regional election, region's presidential election against her centre-left rival Vincenzo Bianconi, garnering 57.5% of the vote.


Demographics

, the Italian national institute of statistics ISTAT estimated that 75,631 foreign-born immigrants live in Umbria, equal to 8.5% of the total population of the region.


Administrative divisions

Umbria is divided into two Provinces of Italy, provinces:


References


Bibliography

* *


External links

* * {{Coord, 43, 06, 43.56, N, 12, 23, 19.68, E, display=title Umbria,