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The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC; french: links=no, Conseil économique et social des Nations unies, ) is one of the six principal organs of the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
, responsible for coordinating the economic and social fields of the organization, specifically in regards to the fifteen specialised agencies, the eight functional commissions, and the five regional commissions under its jurisdiction. ECOSOC serves as the central forum for discussing international economic and social issues, and formulating policy recommendations addressed to member states and the United Nations System. It has 54 members. In addition to a rotating membership of 54 UN member states, over 1,600 nongovernmental organizations have consultative status with the Council to participate in the work of the United Nations. ECOSOC holds one four-week session each year in July, and since 1998 has also held an annual meeting in April with finance ministers heading key committees of the
World Bank The World Bank is an international financial institution An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that has been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence is subject to international law. Its o ...

World Bank
and the
International Monetary Fund The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international financial institution, headquartered in Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The ...

International Monetary Fund
(IMF). Additionally, the High-Level Political Forum (HLPF), which reviews implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, is convened under the auspices of the Council every July.


President

The president of the Council is elected for a one-year term and chosen from the small or medium sized states represented on the Council at the beginning of each new session. The presidency rotates among the
United Nations Regional Groups The United Nations Regional Groups are the geopolitical regional groups of member states A member state is a state that is a member of an international organization An international organization (also known as an international institution or ...
to ensure equal representation. His Excellency
Collen Vixen Kelapile Collen Vixen Kelapile is the Ambassador An ambassador is an official envoy, especially a high-ranking diplomat A diplomat (from grc, δίπλωμα; romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the sci ...
was elected as the seventy-seventh president of the Council on 23 July 2021, succeeding
Munir Akram Munir Akram ( ur, منير اکرم) (born 2 December 1945) is a Pakistani diplomat who is appointed as the Permanent Representative of Pakistan to the United Nations The Permanent Representative of Pakistan to the United Nations ( ur, ) is ...
of Pakistan.


Members

The Council consists of 54 Member States, which are elected yearly by the
General Assembly A general assembly or general meeting is a meeting of all the members of an organization or shareholders of a company. Specific examples of general assembly include: Churches * General Assembly (presbyterian church), the highest court of presbyt ...
for overlapping three-year terms. Seats on the Council are allocated ensuring equitable geographic rotation among the United Nations regional groups, with 14 being allocated to the
African Group The Group of African States, or African Group, is one of the five United Nations regional groupsThe United Nations Regional Groups are the geopolitical regional groups of Member states of the United Nations, member states of the United Nations. Ori ...
, 11 to the
Asia-Pacific Group The Group of Asia and the Pacific Small Island Developing States (often shortened as Asia and the Pacific or Asia-Pacific Group) is one of the five United Nations regional groupsThe United Nations Regional Groups are the geopolitical regional gro ...
, 6 to the
Eastern European Group The Group of Eastern European States (EEG) is one of the five United Nations regional groupsThe United Nations Regional Groups are the geopolitical regional groups of Member states of the United Nations, member states of the United Nations. Origi ...
, 10 to the
Latin American and Caribbean Group The Group of Latin America and Caribbean Countries, or GRULAC, is one of the five United Nations Regional GroupsThe United Nations Regional Groups are the geopolitical regional groups of Member states of the United Nations, member states of the Un ...
and 13 to the
Western European and Others Group The Group of Western European and Other States, also known as the Western European and Other States Group or WEOG, is one of the five United Nations regional groups and is composed of 28 Member States mainly from Western Europe Western Eur ...
.


Current and future members


Observer Inter-Governmental Autonomous Organisations

Participation on a continuing basis:ECOSOC observers, Part V
Participation on an ''ad hoc'' basis:


Commissions


Functional commissions


Active

The following are the active functional commission of the Council: *
Commission on Narcotic Drugs The United Nations Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND) is one of the functional commissions of the United Nations Economic and Social Council The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC; french: links=no, Conseil économique et soc ...
(CND) *
Commission on Population and Development The Commission on Population and Development (CPD) is one of the ten Functional Commissions of the United Nations Economic and Social Council. At its establishment by ECOSOC in October 1946, the Commission's name was "''Population Commission''" an ...
(CPD) * Commission on Science and Technology for Development (CSTD) *
Commission on the Status of Women The Commission on the Status of Women (CSW or UNCSW) is a functional commission of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), one of the main United Nations System, UN organs within the United Nations. CSW has been described as the UN ...
(CSW) * Statistical Commission *
Commission for Social Development The Commission for Social Development (CSocD) is one of the eight functional commissions established by the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and internatio ...
(CSocD) *
Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice The Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (CCPCJ) a functional commission of the United Nations Economic and Social Council The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC; french: links=no, Conseil économique et social ...
(CCPCJ) * Forum on Forests (UNFF)


Disbanded

The following commissions were disbanded by the Council and replaced by other bodies: *
Commission on Human Rights A human rights commission, also known as a human relations commission, is a body set up to investigate, promote or protect human rights Human rights are moral A moral (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to th ...
(UNCHR) ** Disbanded in 2006 and replaced by the
United Nations Human Rights Council The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC), CDH is a United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign st ...
(UNHRC), a subsidiary organ of the General Assembly. *
Commission on Sustainable Development The United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) was a body under the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) tasked with overseeing the outcomes of the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development/Earth Summit T ...
(CSD) ** Disbanded in 2013 and replaced by the
High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development The United Nations High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development (HLPF) is a subsidiary body of both the United Nations General Assembly and the United Nations Economic and Social Council responsible for the entire organization's policy on ...
(HLPF), a joint subsidiary body of the General Assembly and ECOSOC.


Regional commissions

The following are the active regional commissions of the Council: *
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE or UNECE) is one of the five regional commissions under the jurisdiction of the United Nations Economic and Social Council The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC; french: ...

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
(ECE) *
United Nations Economic Commission for Africa The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA or ECA; french: link=no, Commission économique pour l'Afrique, CEA) was established in 1958 by the United Nations Economic and Social Council to encourage economic cooperation among its m ...
(ECA) *
United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean The United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, known as ECLAC, UNECLAC or in Spanish and Portuguese CEPAL, is a United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain i ...
(ECLAC) *
United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) is one of the five regional commissions under the jurisdiction of the United Nations Economic and Social Council. It was established in order to increase economic a ...
(ESCAP) * United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA)


Committees and other bodies

The following are some of the other bodies that the Council oversees in some capacity:


Standing committees

* Committee for Programme and Coordination (CPC) * Committee on Non-Governmental Organizations *Committee on Negotiations with Intergovernmental Agencies


Expert bodies

*
Committee for Development Policy The Committee for Development Policy (CDP; Spanish: ''Comité de Políticas de Desarrollo'', CPD) is a subsidiary body of the United Nations Economic and Social Council The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC; french: Conseil é ...
(CDP) *
Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) is a United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly r ...
(CESCR) * Committee of Experts on Global Geospatial Information Management (UN-GGIM) * Committee of Experts on International Cooperation in Tax Matters * Committee of Experts on Public Administration (CEPA) * Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods and the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals * Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN) * Intergovernmental Working Group of Experts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting * Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII)


Other subsidiary bodies

* System Chief Executives Board for Coordination (CEB) * High-Level Committee on Management (HLCM) * High-Level Committee on Programmes (HLCP) *


Specialised agencies

The specialized agencies of the United Nations are autonomous organizations working within the United Nations System, meaning that while they report their activities to the Economic and Social Council, they are mostly free to their own devices. Each agency must negotiate with the Council as to what their relationship will look and work like. This leads to a system where different organizations maintain different types of relationships with the Council. Some were created before the United Nations existed and were integrated into the system, others were created by the League of Nations and were integrated by its successor, while others were created by the United Nations itself to meet emerging needs. The following is a list of the specialized agencies reporting to the Council: *
Food and Agriculture Organization The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture; it, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura is a specialized agency ...
(FAO) *
International Civil Aviation Organization The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is a specialized and funding agency of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international s ...
(ICAO) *
International Fund for Agricultural Development The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD; french: Fonds international de développement agricole (FIDA)) is an international financial institution An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that ...
(IFAD) *
International Labour Organization The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency whose mandate is to advance social and economic justice through setting international labour standards. Founded in October 1919 under the League of Nations, it is the fir ...
(ILO) *
International Monetary Fund The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international financial institution, headquartered in Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The ...

International Monetary Fund
(IMF) *
International Maritime Organization The International Maritime Organization (IMO, French: ''Organisation Maritime Internationale''; known as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization until 1982) is a specialised agency of the United Nations United Nations Spec ...
(IMO) *
International Telecommunication Union The International Telecommunication Union is a list of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for all matters related to information and communications technology, information and co ...

International Telecommunication Union
(ITU) *
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an ...
(UNESCO) *
United Nations Industrial Development Organization The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) (French/Spanish acronym: ONUDI) is a specialized agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations The United Nation ...
(UNIDO) *
United Nations World Tourism Organization The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among ...
(UNWTO) *
Universal Postal Union The Universal Postal Union (UPU, french: Union postale universelle), established by the Treaty of Bern of 1874, is a specialized agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations ...
(UPU) *
World Bank Group The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organization ''International Organization'' is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the entire field of international relations, international affairs. It was establ ...

World Bank Group
(WBG) **
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) is an international financial institution An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that has been established (or chartered) by more than one country ...
(IBRD) **
International Development Association The International Development Association (IDA) (french: link=no, Association internationale de développement) is an international financial institution which offers concessional loans and grant (money), grants to the world's poorest developing ...

International Development Association
(IDA) **
International Finance Corporation The International Finance Corporation (IFC) is an international financial institution An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that has been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence is subject ...

International Finance Corporation
(IFC) **
Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) is an international financial institution An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that has been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence i ...

Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency
(MIGA) **
International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) is an international arbitration institution established in 1966 for legal dispute resolution Dispute resolution or dispute settlement is the process of resolving disputes b ...

International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes
(ICSID) *
World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations and each other through the co-ordinating machinery of the Unit ...
(WHO) *
World Intellectual Property Organization The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO; french: Organisation mondiale de la propriété intellectuelle (OMPI)) is one of the list of specialized agencies of the United Nations, 15 specialized agencies of the United Nations (UN). Pu ...
(WIPO) *
World Meteorological Organization The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is a specialized agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims ...
(WMO)


"World Economic and Social Survey 2011: The Great Green Technological Transformation"

In a report issued in early July 2011, the UN called for spending nearly US$2  trillion on
green technologies Environmental technology (''envirotech''), green technology (''greentech'') or clean technology (''cleantechClean technology, in short cleantech, is any process, product, or service that reduces negative environmental impacts through significant e ...
to prevent what it termed "a major planetary catastrophe", warning that "It is rapidly expanding energy use, mainly driven by
fossil fuels A fossil fuel is a hydrocarbon In organic chemistry Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and ...
, that explains why humanity is on the verge of breaching planetary
sustainability Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing way across various domains of life. In the 21st century, it refers generally to the capacity for Earth's biosphere and human civilization to co-exist. For many, sustainability is ...

sustainability
boundaries through
global warming Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been previous periods of climate change, but the current changes are more rapid than any known even ...

global warming
,
biodiversity loss Biodiversity loss includes the extinction Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells ...
, and disturbance of the nitrogen-cycle balance and other measures of the sustainability of the
earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The remaining 70.8% is Water distribution on Earth, covered wi ...

earth
's
ecosystem An ecosystem (or ecological system) consists of all the organisms and the physical environment with which they interact. These biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. Energy enters the syst ...

ecosystem
".
UN Secretary-General The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG or SG) is the chief administrative officer of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international ...
added: "Rather than viewing growth and sustainability as competing goals on a collision course, we must see them as complementary and mutually supportive imperatives". The report concluded that "Business as usual is not an option".


Reform of the Economic and Social Council

Governance of the multilateral system has historically been complex and fragmented. This has limited the capacity of ECOSOC to influence international policies in trade, finance, and investment. Reform proposals aim to enhance the relevance and contribution of the council. A major reform was approved by the
2005 World Summit The 2005 World Summit, held between 14 and 16 September 2005, was a follow-up summit meeting A summit meeting (or just summit) is an international meeting of Head of state, heads of state or Head of government, government, usually with considera ...
based on proposals submitted by secretary-general
Kofi Annan Kofi Atta Annan (; 8 April 193818 August 2018) was a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations The secretary-general of the United Nations (UNSG or SG) is the chief administrative officer of the Uni ...

Kofi Annan
. The Summit aimed to establish ECOSOC as a quality platform for high-level engagement among member states and with international financial institutions, the private sector, and civil society on global trends, policies, and action. It resolved to hold biennial high-level Development Cooperation Forums at the national-leadership level, transforming the high-level segment of the Council to review trends in international development cooperation and promote greater coherence in development activities. At the Summit it was also decided to hold annual ministerial-level substantive reviews to assess progress in achieving internationally agreed on development goals (particularly the
Millennium Development Goals The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were eight international development International development or global development is a broad concept denoting the idea that societies and countries have differing levels of "development" on an inte ...
). These "Annual Ministerial Reviews" will be replaced by the High-Level Political Forum from 2016 onwards after the new post-MDG/post-2015
Sustainable Development Goals The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) or Global Goals are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a "blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing w ...

Sustainable Development Goals
are agreed. Subsequent proposals by the High-Level Panel Report on System-Wide Coherence in November 2006 aimed to establish a forum within the ECOSOC as a counter-model to the exclusive clubs of the and
G20 The G20 or Group of Twenty is an intergovernmental forum comprising 19 countries and the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe ...

G20
. The Forum was to comprise 27 heads of states (L27, corresponding to half of ECOSOC's membership) to meet annually and provide international leadership in the development area. This proposal, however, was not approved by the General Assembly.


Chamber design

The Economic and Social Council Chamber in the
United Nations Conference Building zh, 联合国总部大楼french: Siège des Nations uniesrussian: Штаб-квартира Организации Объединённых Наций es, Sede de las Naciones Unidas , image = UN HQ 2724390955 bfc562c6a9 (cropped).jpg , image_ ...

United Nations Conference Building
was a gift from
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that ...

Sweden
. It was conceived by Swedish architect
Sven Markelius Sven Gottfrid Markelius (25 October 1889 – 24 February 1972) was a Swedish modernist , Solomon Guggenheim Museum 1946–1959 Modernism is both a philosophy, philosophical movement and an art movement that arose from broad transformations in ...

Sven Markelius
, one of the 11 architects in the international team that designed the UN headquarters. Wood from Swedish pine trees was used in the delegates' area for the railings and doors. The pipes and ducts in the ceiling above the public gallery were deliberately left exposed; the architect believed that anything useful could be left uncovered. The "unfinished" ceiling is a symbolic reminder that the economic and social work of the United Nations is never finished; there will always be something more that can be done to improve living conditions for the world's people.UN website.


See also

*
List of organizations with consultative status to the United Nations Economic and Social Council Consultative Status to the United Nations Economic and Social Council The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC; french: links=no, Conseil économique et social des Nations unies, ) is one of the six principal organs of the Uni ...
* Copenhagen Consensus *
French Economic and Social Council The Economic, Social and Environmental Council ( French: ''Conseil économique, social et environnemental''), known as the Economic and Social Council before the constitutional law of 23 July 2008, is a consultative assembly in France F ...
*
European Economic and Social Committee The European Economic and Social Committee (EESC) is a consultative body of the European Union (EU) established in 1958. It is an advisory assembly composed of "social partners", namely: employers ( employers' organisations), employees (trade u ...

European Economic and Social Committee
(EU) * '' Hard Choices: Moral Dilemmas in Humanitarian Intervention'' *
International Court of Justice The International Court of Justice (ICJ; french: Cour internationale de justice, links=no; ), sometimes known as the World Court, is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmenta ...

International Court of Justice
*
International Hydrological Programme The International Hydrological Programme (IHP) is UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agenc ...
*
UN Secretariat The United Nations Secretariat (french: link=no, Secrétariat des Nations unies) is one of the six major organs of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peac ...
*
UN Security Council The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, secu ...

UN Security Council
*
UN Trusteeship Council The United Nations Trusteeship Council (french: Conseil de tutelle des Nations unies) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, established to help ensure that United Nations Trust Territories, trust territories were administered ...

UN Trusteeship Council
* UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs *
Union of International Associations The Union of International Associations (UIA) is a non-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collect ...
*
Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is a broad term used to group together these academic disciplines An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of ...
* Chapter X of the United Nations Charter


Notes


References


Further reading

* Mathews-Schultz, A. (2020).
The Untold History of the United Nations, the US State Department, and Organized Interests in the Postwar Era.
''Social Science History,'' ''44''(2), 197-222.


External links


United Nations Economic and Social Council
*
UN Economic and Social Council – Background

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs

Congo – Conference of UN NGO's



United Nations


{{DEFAULTSORT:United Nations Economic And Social Council Economic development organizations United Nations organs